Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Alessandri, S. M., Sullivan, M. W., Imaizumi, S., & Lewis, M. (1993). Learning and emotional responsivity in cocaine-exposed infants. Developmental Psychology, 29(6), 989–997.
Alessandri, S. M., Sullivan, M. W., & Lewis, M. (1990). Violation of expectancy and frustration in early infancy. Developmental Psychology, 26(5), 738–744.
Allen, J. B. (2005). Cardiac vagal tone, defensiveness, and motivational style. Biological Psychology, 68(2), 147–162.
Ballespi, S., Jane, M. C., Riba, M. D., & Domenech-Liaberia, E. (2002). Analysis of anxious and depressive symptoms of a sample of inhibited preschoolers. Revista de Psiquiatria Infanto-Juvenil, 19(4), 184–191.
Bauer, A. M., Quas, J. A., & Boyce, W. T. (2002). Associations between physiological reactivity and children’s behavior: Advantages of a multisystem approach. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 23(2), 102–113.
Bazhenova, O., Plonskaia, O., & Porges, S. W. (2001). Vagal reactivity and affective adjustment in infants during interaction challenges. Child Development, 72, 1314–1326.
Belsky, J. (1997). Theory, testing, effect-size evaluation, and differential susceptibility to rearing influence: The case of mothering and attachment. Child Development, 64, 598–600.
Berston, G. G., Cacioppo, J. T., & Quigley, K. S. (1993). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: Autonomic origins, physiological mechanisms and psychological implications. Psychophysiology, 30, 183–196.
Blair, C., Peters, R., & Granger, D. (2004). Physiological and neuropsychological correlates of approach/withdrawal tendencies in preschool: Further examination of the behavioral inhibition system/behavioral activation system scales for young children. Developmental Psychobiology, 45(3), 113–124.
Braungart-Reiker, J. M., & Stifter, C. (1996). Infant responses to frustrating situations. Continuity and change in reactivity and regulation. Child Development, 67, 1767–1779.
Bridges, K. L. (1932). Emotional development in early infancy. Child Development, 3, 324–341.
Brinker, R., & Lewis, M. (1982). Making the world work: A learning prosthesis for handicapped infants. Exceptional Children, 49, 163–170.
Brown, M. S., & Tanner, C. (1988). Type A behavior and cardiovascular responsivity in preschoolers. Nursing Research, 37(3), 152–155.
Buss, K. A., Davidson, R. J., Kalin, N. H., & Goldsmith, H. H. (2004). Context-specific freezing and associated physiological reactivity as a dysregulated fear response. Developmental Psychology, 40(4), 583–594.
Buss, K. A., & Goldsmith, H. H. (1998). Fear and anger regulation in infancy: Effects on the temporal dynamics of affective expression. Child Development, 69, 359–374.
Buss, K. A., & Kiel, E. J. (2004). Comparison of sadness, anger, and fear facial expressions when toddlers look at their mothers. Child Development, 75(6), 1761–1773.
Buss, K. A., Schumacher, J. W., Dolski, I., Kalin, N. H., & Davidson, R. J. (2003). Right frontal brain activity, cortisol, and withdrawal behavior in 6-month-old infants. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117(1), 11–20.
Cacioppo, J. T., Klein, D. J., Berntson, G. G., & Hatfield, E. (1993). The psychophysiology of emotion. In M. Lewis & J. M. Haviland (Eds.), Handbook of emotion (pp. 119–142). New York: Guilford Press.
Calkins, S. D. (2009). Regulatory competence and early disruptive behavior problems: The role of physiological regulation. In S. Olson, & A. Sameroff (Eds.), Biopyschosocial regulatory processes in the development of childhood behavioral problems (pp. 86–115) NY, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Calkins, S. D., & Fox, N. (1992). The relations among infant temperament, security of attachment, and behavioral inhibition at twenty-four months. Child Development, 63, 1456–1472.
Calkins, S. D., Graziano, P. A., & Keane, S. P. (2007). Cardiac vagal regulation differentiates among children at risk for behavior problems. Biological Psychology, 74(2), 144–153.
Calkins, S. D., & Johnson, M. C. (1998). Toddler regulation of distress to frustrating events:Temperamental and maternal correlates. Infant Behavior and Development, 21(3), 379–395.
Calkins, S. D., & Keane, S. P. (2004). Cardiac vagal regulation across the preschool period: Stability, continuity, and implications for childhood adjustment. Developmental Psychobiology, 45, 101–112.
Calkins, S. D., Smith, C. L., Gill, K. L., & Johnson, M. C. (1998). Maternal interactive style across contexts: Relations to emotional behavioral, and physiological regulation during toddlerhood. Social Development, 7(3), 350–369.
Camras, L. (2004). An event-emotion or event-expression hypothesis? A comment on the commentaries on Bennett, Bendersky, and Lewis (2002). Infancy, 6(3), 431–433.
Camras, L., Oster, H., Campos, J. J., Miyake, K., & Bradshaw, D. (1992). Japanese and American infants’ responses to arm restraint. Developmental Psychology, 28(4), 578–583.
Carver, C. S. (2004). Negative affects deriving from the behavioral approach system. Emotion, 4(1), 3–22.
Carver, C. S., Sutton, S. K., & Scheier, M. F. (2000). Action, emotion, and personality: Emerging conceptual integration. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 26(6), 741–751.
Coan, J. A., Allen, J. J. B., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2001). Voluntary facial expression and hemispheric asymmetry over the frontal cortex. Psychophysiology, 38(6), 912–925.
Darwin, C. (1872). The expression of the emotions in man and animals. Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Darwin, C. (1965). The expression of emotion in man and animals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Davidson, R. (1998). Affective style and affective disorders: Perspectives from neuroscience. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 307–330.
DeCapser, A. J., & Carstens, A. A. (1981). Contingencies of stimulation: Effects of learning and motivation. Infant Behavior and Development, 4, 19–35.
Dichter-Blancher, T. B., Busch-Rossnagel, N. A., & Knauf-Jensen, D. E. (1997). Mastery motivation: Appropriate tasks for toddlers. Infant Behavior and Development, 20, 545–548.
Doussard-Roosevelt, J. A. (2003). Short-term stability of physiological measures in kindergarten children: Respiratory sinus arrhythmia, heart period, and cortisol. Developmental Psychobiology, 43(3), 231–242.
Dweck, C., Chiu, C., & Hong, Y. (1995). Implicit theories: Implicit theories and their role in judgments and reactions: A world from two perspectives. Psychological Inquiry, 6, 267–285.
Eisenberg, N., Qing, A., Spinrad, T. L., Valiente, C., Fabes, R. A., & Liew, J. (2005). Relations among positive parenting, children’s effortful control and externalizing problems: A three wave longitudinal study. Child Development, 76(5), 1055–1071.
Field, T. (1994). The effects of mother’s physical and emotional unavailability on emotion regulation. In N. A. Fox (Ed.), Monographs of the society for research on child development (Vol. 59, Serial No. 240, pp. 208–227). Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Fox, N., & Calkins, S. D. (1993). Pathways to aggression and social withdrawal: Interactions among temperament, attachment, and regulation. In K. H. Rubin & J. Asendorf (Eds.), Social withdrawal, shyness and inhibition in childhood (pp. 81–100). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Fox, N., & Davidson, R. (1988). Patterns of brain electrical activity during facial signs of emotion in 10-month-old infants. Developmental Psychology, 24(2), 230–236.
Fox, N., Henderson, H. A., Rubin, K. H., Calkins, S. D., & Schmidt, L. A. (2001). Continuity and discontinuity of behavioral inhibition and exuberance: Psychophysiological and behavioral influences across the first four years of life. Child Development, 72, 1–21.
Fox, N., Kimmerly, N. L., & Schafer, W. D. (1991). Attachment to mother, attachment to father: A meta-analysis. Child Development, 62, 210–225.
Frances, D., Diorio, J., LaPlante, P., Weaver, S., Secki, J. R., & Meaney, M. J. (1996). The role of early environmental events in regulating neuroendocrine development: Moms, pups, stress, and glucocorticoid receptors. Annals of the New York Academey of Sciences, 794, 136–152.
Freud, S. (1957). On narcissism: An Introduction (Standard Ed., Vol. 14, pp. 67–102). London: Hogarth Press.
Goldsmith, H. H., & Alansky, J. A. (1987). Maternal and infant temperamental predictors of attachment: A meta-analytic view. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 55, 805–816.
Gotlib, I. H., Joormann, J., Minor, K. L., & Cooney, R. E. (2006). Cognitive and biological functioning in children at risk for depression. In T. Canli (Ed.), Biology of personality and individual differences. New York: Guilford Press.
Gunnar, M. R., Morison, S. J., Chisholm, K., & Schuder, M. (2001). Salivary cortisol levels in children adopted from Romanian orphanages. Development and Psychopathology, 13, 611–628.
Harmon-Jones, E. (2003). Clarifying the emotive functions of asymmetrical frontal cortical activity. Psychophysiology, 40(6), 838–848.
Harmon-Jones, E. (2004). Contributions from research on anger and cognitive dissonance to understanding the motivational functions of asymmetrical frontal brain activity. Biological Psychology, 67(1–2), 51–76.
Hart, J., Gunnar, M. R., & Cicchetti, D. (1995). Salivary cortisol in maltreated children: Evidence of relations between neuroendocrine activity and social competence. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 11–26.
Hennessy, M. B., Deak, T., & Schiml-Webb, P. A. (2001). Stress-induced sickness behaviors: An alternative hypothesis for responses during maternal separation. Developmental Psychobiology, 39(2), 76–83.
Hennessy, M. B., O’Leary, S. K., Hawke, J. L., & Wilson, S. E. (2002). Social influences on cortisol and behavioral responses of preweaning, periadolescent, and adult guinea pigs. Physiology & Behavior, 76, 305–314.
Henry, J. P. (1992). Biological basis of the stress response. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 27, 66–83.
Hewig, J., Hagemann, D., Seifert, J., Naumann, E., & Bartussek, D. (2004). On the selective relation of frontal cortical asymmetry and anger-out versus anger-control. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 87(6), 926–939.
Hofheimer, J. A., Wood, B. R., Porges, S W, Pearson, E., & Lawson, E. E. (1995). Respiratory sinus arrhythmia and social interaction patterns in preterm newborns. Infant Behavior and Development, 18, 233–245.
Huot, R. L., Brennan, P. A., Stowe, Z. N., Plotsky, P. M., & Walker, E. F. (2004). Negative affect in offspring of depressed mothers is predicted by infant cortisol levels at 6 months and maternal depression during pregnancy but not postpartum. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1. Biobehavioral Stress Response: Protective and Damaging Effects, 1032, 234–236.
Izard, C. E. (1977). Human emotions. New York: Plenum Press.
Izard, C. E., Hembree, E. A., & Heubner, R. R. (1987). Infants’ emotional expressions to acute pain: Developmental change and stability of individual differences. Developmental Psychology, 23, 105–113.
Jennings, K. D. (2004). Development of goal-directed behaviour and related self-processes in toddlers. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(4), 319–327.
Kagan, J. (1994). Galen’s prophecy. New York: Basic Books.
Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., & Snidman, N. (1987). The physiology and psychology of behavioral inhibition in children. Child Development, 58, 1459–1473.
Kerr, M., Tremblay, R., Pagani, L., & Vitaro, F. (1997). Boys’ behavioral inhibition and the risk of later delinquency. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54(9), 809–816.
Kohut, H. (1972). Thoughts on narcissism and narcissistic rage. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 27, 360–400.
Lerner, J. S., Gonzalez, R. M., Dahl, R. E., Hariri, A. R., & Taylor, S. E. (2005). Facial expressions of emotion reveal neuroendocrine and cardiovascular stress responses. Biological Psychiatry, 58, 743–750.
Levine, S., Coe, C., & Weiner, S. G. (1989). Psychoneuroendocrinology of stress: A psychobiological perspective. In F. R. Bush & S. Levine (Eds.), Psychoendocrinology (pp. 341–377). New York: Academic Press.
Lewis, M. (1990). The development of intentionality and the role of consciousness. Psychological Inquiry, 1(3), 231–247.
Lewis, M. (1992). Shame: The exposed self. New York: Free Press.
Lewis, M. (1993). The development of anger and rage. In R. A. Glick & S. P. Roose (Eds.), Rage, power, and aggression: The role of affect in motivation, development and adaptation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Lewis, M. (1995). Shame: The exposed self (Paperback edition). New York: The Free Press.
Lewis, M., Alessandri, S. M., & Sullivan, M. W. (1990). Violation of expectancy, loss of control, and anger expressions in young infants. Developmental Psychology, 26(5), 745–751.
Lewis, M., & Goldberg, S. (1969). Perceptual-cognitive development in infancy: A generalized expectancy model as a function of mother-infant interaction. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 15, 81–100.
Lewis, M., Hitchcock, D. F. A., & Sullivan, M. W. (2004). Physiological and emotional reactivity to learning and frustration. Infancy, 6(1), 121–143.
Lewis, M., & Michalson, L. (1983). Children’s emotions and moods: Developmental theory and measurement. New York: Plenum Press.
Lewis, M., & Ramsay, D. (2005). Infant emotional and cortisol responses to goal blockage. Child Development, 76, 518–530.
Lewis, M., Ramsay, D., & Sullivan, M. W. (2006). The relation of ans and hpa activation to infant anger and sadness response to goal blockage. Developmental Psychobiology, 48, 397–405.
Lewis, M., Sullivan, M. W., & Michalson, L. (1984). The cognitive-emotional fugue. In J. Kagan, C. E. Izard, & R. B. Zajonc (Eds.), Emotions, cognitions, and behavior (pp. 264–288). London: Cambridge University Press.
Lewis, M., Sullivan, M. W., Ramsay, D., & Alessandri, S. M. (1992). Individual differences in anger and sad expressions during extinction: Antecedents and consequences. Infant Behavior & Development, 15(4), 443–452.
Liu, D., Diorio, J., Tannenbaum, B., Caldji, C., Freedman, F. D., Sharma, S., et al. (1997). Maternal care, hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress. Science, 277, 1659–1662.
Lundberg, U., Rasch, B., & Westermark, O. (1990). Familial similarity in Type A behavior and physiological measurements. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 31(1), 34–41.
Lutkenhaus, P. (1984). Pleasure derived from mastery in 3-year-olds: Its function for persistence and the influence of maternal behavior. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 7, 343–358.
MacTurk, R. B., & Morgan, G. A. (Eds.). (1995). Mastery motivation: Origins, conceptulatizations, and applications. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
Malatesta, C. Z., & Haviland, J. (1982). Learning display rules: The socialization of emotional expression in infancy. Child Development, 53, 991–1003.
Marquis, D. (1943). A study of frustration in newborn infants. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 23, 123–138.
Matthews, K. A., Woodall, K. L., Engebretson, T. O., & McCann, B. S. (1992). Influence of age, sex and family on type-A and hostile attitudes and behaviors. Health Psychology, 11(5), 317–323.
Messer, D. (Ed.). (1993). Mastery motivation in early childhood: Development, measurement, and social processes. London: Routledge.
Moore, G. A., & Calkins, S. D. (2004). Infants’ vagal regulation in the still-face paradigm is related to dyadic coordination of mother-infant interaction. Developmental Psychology, 40(6), 1068–1080.
Morrison, A. P. (Ed.). (1986). Essential papers on narcissism. New York: New York University Press.
Nachimas, M., Gunnar, M. R., Mangelsdorf, S., Parritz, R. H., & Buss, K. (1996). Behavioral inhibition and stress reactivity: The moderating role of attachment security. Child Development, 67, 508–522.
Nietzsche, F. (1964). Will to power. New York: Russell & Russell.
Oginska-Bulik, N., & Juczynski, Z. (1998). Psychological correlates of the type A behavior pattern in children. Polish Psychological Bulletin, 29(4), 313–319.
Panksepp, J. (1998). Affective neuroscience. New York: Oxford Press.
Piaget, J. (1952). The origins of intelligence in children. New York: International Universities Press.
Plutchik, R. (1980). A general psychoevolutionary theory of emotion. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, research, and experience (Vol. 1, pp. 3–33). New York: Academic Press.
Porges, S. W. (1998). Love and the evolution of the autonomic nervous system: The polyvagal theory of intimacy. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 23, 837–861.
Porges, S. W. (2001). The polyvagal theory: Phylogenetic substrates of a social nervous system. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 42(2), 123–126.
Porges, S. W., Doussard-Roosevelt, F. A., Portales, L., & Greenspan, S. (1996). Infant regulation of the vagal “brake” predicts child behavioral problems: A psychobiological model of social behavior. Developmental Psychology, 29, 697–712
Potegal, M., Robison, S., Anderson, F., Jordan, C., & Shapiro, E. (2007) Sequence and priming in 15 month olds’ reactions to brief arm restraint: Evidence for a hierarchy of anger responses. Aggressive Behavior, 33, 1–11.
Putnam, S. P., & Stifter, C. (2005). Behavioral approach-inhibition in toddlers: Prediction from infancy, positive and negative affective components, and relations with behavior problems. Child Development, 76(1), 212–226.
Ramsay, D., King, S., & Lewis, M. (2005). The role of infant emotional response to goal blockage on toddler persistence. Poster presented at the SRCD Biennial International Conference, Atlanta, GA, April 7–10.
Rank, O. (1945). Will therapy and truth and reality. New York: Knopf.
Richards, J. E. (1995). Reliability of respiratory sinus arrhythmia in r-r intervals in 14-, 20-, and 26-week-old infants. Infant Behavior and Development, 18, 155–161.
Rothbaum, F., Wolfer, J., & Visintainer, M. (1980). Coping behavior and locus of control in children. Journal of Personality, 47, 118–135.
Rubin, K. H., Hastings, P. D., Stewart, S. L., Henderson, H. A., & Chen, X. (1997). The consistency and concomitants of inhibition: Some of the children, all of the time. Child Development, 68, 467–483.
Sahar, T., Shalev, A. Y., & Porges, S. W. (2001). Vagal modulation of responses to mental challenge in post-traumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 47(7), 637–643.
Sallis, J. F., Dimsdale, J. E., & Chipman, C. (1988). Invited review: Blood pressure reactivity in children. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 32(1), 1–12.
Schmidt, L. A., Fox, N., Rubin, K. H., Sternberg, E. M., Gold, P. W., Smith, C. C., et al. (1997). Behavioral and neuroendocrine responses of shy children. Developmental Psychobiology, 30, 127–140.
Schneirla, T. C. (1959). An evolutionary and developmental theory of biphasic processes underlying approach and withdrawal. In M. R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol. 7, pp. 1–42). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Sears, R., & Sears, P. (1940). Minor studies of aggression, V: Strength of frustration-reaction as a function of strength of drive. Journal of Psychology, 9, 297–300.
Seligman, M. E. P. (1975a). Helplessness: On depression, development and death. San Francisco: Freeman.
Seligman, M. E. P. (1975b). On depression, development, and death. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.
Seligman, M. E. P. (1991). Learned optimism. New York: Knopf.
Sherman, M., & Sherman, I. C. (1925). Sensorimotor responses in infants. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 5, 53–68.
Sherman, M., Sherman, I. C., & Flory, C. D. (1936). Infant behavior. Comparative Psychology Monographs, 12, 1–107.
Solomon, R. L. (1977). An opponent process theory of acquired motivation: The affective dynamics of addiction. In J. D. Maser & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Psychopathology: Experimental models (pp. 66–103). San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.
Spangler, G., & Grossman, K. E. (1993). Behavioral organization in securely and insecurely attached infants. Child Development, 64, 1439–1450.
Spangler, G., Schieche, M., Lllg, U., Maier, U., & Ackerman, C. (1994). Maternal sensitivity as an external organizer for biobehavioral regulation in infancy. Developmental Psychobiology, 27, 425–437.
Sroufe, L. A. (1996). Emotional development: The organization of emotional life in the early years. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Stein, N. L., & Jewett, J. L. (1986). A conceptual analysis of the meaning of negative emotions: Implications for a theory of development. In C. E. Izard & P. B. Read (Eds.), Measuring emotions in infants and children (Vol. 2, pp. 238–267). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Stenberg, C. R. (1982). The development of anger facial expressions in infancy. Doctoral dissertation, University of Denver, Colorado.
Stenberg, C. R., & Campos, J. J. (1990). The development of anger expressions in infancy. In N. L. Stein, B. Levanthal, & T. Trabasso (Eds.), Psychological and psychobiological approaches to emotion (pp. 247–267). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Stenberg, C. R., Campos, J. J., & Emde, R. N. (1983). The facial expression of anger in seven-month-old infants. Child Development, 54, 178–184.
Suarez, E. C., Williams, R. B., Kuhn, C. M., Zimmerman, E., & Schanberg, S. M. (1991). Biobehavioral basis of coronary-prone behavior in middle-aged men, part ii: Serum cholesterol, type-a behavior pattern, and hostility as interactive modulators of physiological reactivity. Psychosomatic Medicine, 53, 528–537.
Sullivan, M. W. (2007). Individual differences in how babies become frustrated toddlers. Paper presented at the Institute for the Study of Child Development Brown Bag Series, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ, October 25, 2007.
Sullivan, M. W., & Lewis, M. (2003). Contextual determinants of anger and other negative expressions in young infants. Developmental Psychology, 39(4), 693–705.
Sullivan, M. W., Lewis, M., & Alessandri, S. M. (1992). Cross-age stability in emotional expressions during learning and extinction. Developmental Psychology, 28(1), 58–63.
Suomi, S. J., Mineka, S., & Harlow, H. H. (1983). Social separation in monkeys as viewed from several motivational perspectives. In E. Satinoff & P. Titelbaum (Eds.), Handbook of neurobiology: Motivation (Vol. 6). New York: Plenum.
Tronick, E. (1989). Emotions and emotional communication in infants. American Psychologist, 44, 112–119.
Turner, L. A., & Johnson, M. C. (2003). A model of mastery motivation for at-risk preschoolers. Educational Psychology, 95, 495–505.
Wacker, J., Heldmann, M., & Stemmler, G. (2003). Separating emotion and motivational direction in fear and anger: Effects on frontal asymmetry. Emotion, 3(2), 167–193.
Waldstein, S. R., Kop, W. J., Schmidt, L. A., Haufler, A. J., Krantz, D. S., & Fox, N. (2000). Frontal electrocortical and cardiovascular reactivity during happiness and anger. Biological Psychology, 55(3–23).
Watson, J. B. (1925). Experimental studies on the growth of the emotions. Pediatric Seminars, 32, 328–348.
Watson, J. S. (1972). Smiling, cooing, and the game. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 18, 323–339.
White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66, 297–323.
van Bakel, H. J., & Riksen-Walraven, J. M. (2004). Stress reactivity in 15-month old infants: Links with infant temperament, cognitive competence, and attachment security. Developmental Psychobiology, 44(3), 157–167.