Integrating Neurological, Neuroradiological, and Psychological Examinations in Neuropsychological Assessment

  • Margaret Semrud-Clikeman
  • Phyllis Anne Teeter Ellison


This chapter provides guidelines to help psychologists determine when to refer a child or adolescent for neuropsychological assessment, neurological examination, or other neurodiagnostic testing (e.g., CT scan or MRI). Children and adolescents often need neurological, neuroradiological, and/ or neuropsychological assessments. Although not every child seen for cognitive, academic, psychiatric, or behavioral problems requires further assessment apart from traditional psychoeducational evaluations, some disorders do need further attention by specialists to investigate the child’s neurological or neuropsychological status. Clinical and school psychologists should be apprised of conditions that typically require further attention. The nature of neurologic, neuroradiologic, and neuropsychological assessment will be discussed, along with guidelines for making referrals. Further, aspects of psychological, psychosocial, and academic functioning are discussed, as these areas may be seriously compromised by brain-related disorders of childhood. Integration of these various evaluation findings are discussed.


Neuropsychological Assessment Neuropsychological Evaluation Childhood Disorder Juvenile Detention Center Differential Ability Scale 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Achenbach, T. M. (1990). Conceptualization of developmental psychopathology. In M. Lewis & S. R. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (pp. 3–13). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Achenbach, T. M. (1991). Manual for the child behavior checklist and revised child behavior profile. Burlington, VT: T.M. Achenbach.Google Scholar
  3. Achenbach, T. M. (2005). Advancing assessment of children and adolescents: Commentary on evidence-based assessment of child and adolescent disorders. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 541–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Achenbach, T. M., & Rescorla, L. A. (2001). Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. Burlington, VT: University of Vermont, Research Center for Children, Youth, and Families.Google Scholar
  5. Castellanos, F. X., Lee, P. P., Sharp, W., Jeffries, N. O., Greenstein, D. K., Clasen, L. S., et al. (2002). Developmental trajectories of brain volume abnormalities in children with adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 28 (4), 1740–1749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Donders, J. (2007). Traumatic brain injury. In S. J. Hunter & J. Donders (Eds.), Pediatric neuropsychological intervention (pp. 91–111). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Eden, G., & Moats, L. C. (2002). The role of neuroscience in the remediation of students with dyslexia. Nature Neuroscience, 5, 1080–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gabrieli, J. D. (2003). Neuroimaging evidence about the brain basis of dyslexia. Paper presented at the International Dyslexia Association, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  9. Giedd, J. N. (2004). Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the adolescent brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 1308–1309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hynd, G. W., & Willis, W. G. (1988). Pediatric neuropsychology. Orlando, FL: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  11. National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Washington, DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.Google Scholar
  12. Papanicolaou, A. C. (2003). Brain imaging in normal and impaired reading: A developmental-educational perspective. Paper presented at the International Dyslexia Association.Google Scholar
  13. Pliszka, S. R., Glahn, D. C., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Franklin, C., Perez, R., Xiong, J., et al. (2006). Neuroimaging of inhibitory control areas in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who were treatment naive or in long-term treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163 (6), 1052–1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Semrud-Clikeman, M. (2004). Traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  15. Semrud-Clikeman, M., Pliszka, S. R., Lancaster, J., & Liotti, M. (2006). Volumetric MRI differences in treatment-naïve vs chronically treated children with ADHD. Neurology, 67, 1023–1027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Shaywitz, B. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Blachman, B. A., Pugh, K. R., Fulbright, R. K., Skudlarski, P., et al. (2004). Development of left occipitotemporal systems for skilled reading in children after a phonologically-based intervention. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 926–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Shaywitz, B. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Pugh, K., Fulbright, R. K., & Skudlarski, P. (2002). Disruption of posterior brain systems for reading in children with developmental dyslexia. Biological Psychiatry, 52 , 101–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Swaiman, K. F. (1994). Cerebellar dysfunction and ataxia in childhood. In K. F. Swaiman (Ed.), Pediatric neurology (Vol. 2, pp. 261–270). St. Louis: Mosby.Google Scholar
  19. Swaiman, K. F., Ashwal, S., & Ferriero, D. M. (2006). Pediatric neurology (4th ed.). San Diego: Mosby.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margaret Semrud-Clikeman
    • 1
  • Phyllis Anne Teeter Ellison
    • 2
  1. 1.Michigan State UniversityLansingUSA
  2. 2.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA

Personalised recommendations