Electrophysiological and Neuroimaging Techniques in Neuropsychology

  • Margaret Semrud-Clikeman
  • Phyllis Anne Teeter Ellison


There are technological advances in all areas of medicine, and the techniques to diagnose neuropsychological problems are no exception. These advances have moved neuropsychology from a practice emphasizing assessment to determine focal and diffuse lesions to one of developing interventions to compensate for brain damage or neurodevelopmental differences. Historically, neuropsychology has concentrated on the ability to diagnose cerebral lesions on the basis of behavioral data. This emphasis was necessary because technology was unable to provide the evidence for such diagnoses. With the advent of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), lesions, brain tumors, and brain conditions that previously could be seen only with surgery or at autopsy can now be observed in the living patient. Because the neuropsychologist will consult on cases that utilize neuroradiological and electrophysiological techniques, it is important to understand what these basic techniques involve and what they reveal to the clinician. This chapter will provide information about common neuroradiological and electrophysiological techniques with an emphasis on the information neuropsychologists and psychologists need for their practice.


Positron Emission Tomography Autistic Spectrum Disorder Corpus Callosum Anterior Cingulate Cortex Poor Reader 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Abell, F., Krams, M., Ashburner, J., Passingham, R., Friston, K., Frackowiak, R., et al. (1999). The neuroanatomy of autism: A voxel-based whole brain analysis of structural scans. Cognitive Neuroscience, 10, 1647–1651.Google Scholar
  2. Adolphs, R. (2001). The neurobiology of social cognition. Current Opinion in Neurobiology Cognitive Neuroscience., 11, 231–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aldridge, M. A., Braga, E. S., Walton, G. E., & Bower, T. G. R. (1999). The intermodal representation of speech in newborns. Developmental Science, 2, 42–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexander, A. L., Lee, J. E., Lazar, M., Boudos, R., Dubray, M. B., Oakes, T. R., et al. (2007). Diffusion tensor imaging of the corpus callosum in autism. NeuroImage, 34, 61–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allison, T., Puce, A., & McCarthy, G. (2000). Social perception from visual cues: Role of the STS region. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 1364–1366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amaral, D. G., Price, J. L., Pitkanan, A., & Carmichael, S. T. (1992). Anatomical organization of the primate amygdaloid complex. In J. Aggleton (Ed.), The amygdala: Neurobiological aspects of emotion, memory and mental dysfunction. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  7. Ashtari, M., Kumra, S., Bhaskar, S. L., Clarke, T., Thaden, E., Cervellione, K. L., et al. (2005). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A preliminary diffusion tensor imaging study. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 448–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ashwin, C., Wheelwright, S., & Baron-Cohen, S. (2006). Attention bias to faces in Asperger Syndrome: A pictorial emotion Stroop study. Psychological medicine, 36(6),835–843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Aylward, E. H., Minshew, N. J., Field, K., Sparks, B. F., & Singh, N. (2002). Effects of age on brain volume and head circumference in autism. Neurology, 59, 175–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baron-Cohen, S., Ring, H. A., Wheelwright, S., Bullmore, E. T., Brammer, M. J., Simmons, A., et al. (1999). Social intelligence in the normal and autistic brain: An fMRI study. European Journal Neuroscience, 11, 1891–1898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barry, R. J., Johnstone, B., & Clark, C. A. (2003). A review of electrophysiology in attention-deficit/hyeractivity disorder: II. Event-related potentials. Clinical Neurophysiology, 114, 184–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bechara, A., Damasio, H., & Damasio, A. R. (2003). The role of the amygdala in decision making. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 985, 356–369.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berninger, V. W., Abbott, R. D., Abbott, S. P., Graham, S., & Richards, T. (2002). Writing and reading: connections between language by hand and language by eye. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35, 39–56.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bishop, D. V. M. (2007). Using mismatch negativity to study central auditory processing in developmental language and literacy impairments: Where are we, and where should we be going? Psychological Bulletin, 133, 651–672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Black, L. S., deRegnier, R. A., Long, J., Georgieff, M. K., & Nelson, C. A. (2004). Electrographic imaging of recognition memory in 34–38 week gestation intrauterine growth restricted newborns. Experimental Neurology, 190, S72–S83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boger-Megiddo, I. B., Shaw, D. W., Friedman, S. D., Sparks, B. F., Artru, A. A., Giedd, J. N., et al. (2006). Corpus callosum morphometrics in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 36, 733–739.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bolter, J. R. (1986). Epilepsy in children: Neuropsychological effects. In J.E. Obzrut & G.W. Hynd (Eds.), Child neuro-psychology: Clinical practice (pp. 59–81). New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Broyd, S. J., Johnstone, S. J., Barry, R. J., Clarke, A. R., McCarthy, R., Selikowitz, M., et al. (2005). The effect of methylphenidate on response inhibition and the event-related potential of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 58, 47–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Burgio-Murphy, A., Klorman, R., Shaywitz, S. E., Fletcher, J. M., Marchione, K. E., Holahan, J. M., et al. (2007). Error-related event-related potentials in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, reading disorder, and math disorder. Biological Psychology, 75, 75–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Canli, T., Sivers, H., Whitfield, S. L., Gotlib, I. H., & Gabrieli, J. D. (2002). Amygdala response to happy faces as a function of extraversion. Science, 296(5576), 2191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Caplan, L. J., Schmahmann, J. D., & Kase, C. S. (1990). Caudate infarcts. Archives of Neurology, 47, 133–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Carmichael, S. T., & Price, J. L. (1995). Limbic connections of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex in macaque monkeys. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 363, 615–641.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Castellanos, F. X., Giedd, J. N., Eckburg, W. L., Marsh, A. C., Kaysen, D., Hamburger, S. D., et al. (1994). Quantitative morphology of the caudate nucleus in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 1791–1796.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chiappa, K. H. (1997). Evoked potentials in clinical medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott-Raven.Google Scholar
  25. Chung, M. K., Dalton, K. M., Alexander, A. L., & Davidson, R. J. (2004). Less white matter concentration in autism: 2D voxel-based morphometry. NeuroImage, 23, 242–251.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cohen, D. J. (1986). Pediatric magnetic resonance imaging. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  27. Courchesne, E., Carper, R., & Akshoomoff, N. (2003). Evidence of brain overgrowth in the first year of life in autism. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 337–344.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Critchley, H. D., Daly, E. M., Bullmore, E. T., Williams, S. C. R., Van Amelsvoort, T., Robertson, D. M., et al. (2000). The functional neuroanatomy of social behavior: Changes in cerebral blood flow when people with autistic disorder process facial expressions. Brain, 123, 2203–2212.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dierks, T., Bolte, S., Hubl, D., Lanfermann, H., & Poustka, F. (2004). Alterations of face processing strategies in autism: A fMRI study. NeuroImage, 13, 1016–1053.Google Scholar
  30. Duara, B., Kushch, A., Gross-Glenn, K., Barker, W. W., Jallad, B., Pascal, S., et al. (1991). Neuroanatomic differences between dyslexic and normal readers on magnetic resonance imaging scans. Archives of Neurology, 48, 410–416.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Durston, S. (2003). Differential patterns of striatal activation in young children with and without ADHD. Biological Psychiatry, 53, 871.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Facotti, A., Lorusso, M. L., Paganoni, P., Cattaneo, C., Galli, R., & Mascetti, G. G. (2003). The time course of attentional focusing in dyslexic and normally reading children. Brain and Cognition, 53, 181–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Filipek, P. A., & Blickman, J. G. (1992). Neurodiagnostic laboratory procedures: Neuroimaging techniques. In R. B. David (Ed.), Pediatric neurology for the clinician. Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Lang.Google Scholar
  34. Filipek, P. A., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Steingard, R. J., Renshaw, P. F., Kennedy, D. N., & Biederman, J. (1997). Volumetric MRI analysis comparing subjects having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with normal controls. Neurology, 48, 589–601.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fine, J. G., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Keith, T. Z., Stapleton, L., & Hynd, G. (2006). Reading and the corpus callosum: An MRI family study of volume and area. Neuropsychology, 21, 235–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Frederici, A. D. (2006). The neural basis of language development and its impairment. Neuron, 52, 941–952.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Galaburda, A. M. (2005). Neurology of learning disabilities: What will the future bring? The answer comes from the successes of the recent past. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 28, 107–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Garavan, H., Ross, T. J., Murphy, K., Roche, R. A., & Stein, E. A. (2002). Dissociable executive functions in the dynamic control of behavior: Inhibition, error detection, and correction. NeuroImage, 17, 1820–1829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Gazzaniga, M. S., Ivry, R. B., & Mangun, G. R. (2002). Cognitive neuroscience: The biology of the mind (2nd ed.). New York: W.W. Norton & Company.Google Scholar
  40. Geschwind, N., & Galaburda, A. M. (1985). Cerebral lateralization: Biological mechanisms, associations, and pathology: I. A hypothesis and a program for research. Archives of Neurology, 42, 521–552.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Giedd, J. N. (2004). Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the adolescent brain. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 1308–1309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Giedd, J. N., Castellanos, F. X., Casey, B. J., Kozuch, P., King, A. C., Hamburger, S. D., et al. (1994). Quantitative morphology of the corpus callosum in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 665–669.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Guttorm, T. K., Leppanen, P. H., Tolvanen, A., & Lyytinen, H. (2003). Event-related potentials in newborns with and without familial risk for dyslexia: Principal component analysis reveals differences between the groups. Journal of Neural Transmission, 110, 1059–1074.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hardan, A. Y., Minshew, N. J., & Keshavan, M. S. (2000). Corpus callosum size in autism. Neurology, 55, 1033–1036.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hare, T. A., Tottenham, N., Davidson, M. C., Glover, G. H., & Casey, B. J. (2005). Contributions of amygdala and striatal activity in emotion regulation. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 624–632.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Harris, R. (1983). Clinical neurophysiology in paediatric neurology. In E.M. Brett (Ed.), Paediatric neurology (pp. 582–600). Edinburgh, Scotland: Churchill Livingston.Google Scholar
  47. Harter, M. R., & Anllo-Vento, L. (1988). Separate brain potential characteristics in children with reading disability and attention deficit disorder: Color and letter relevance effects. Brain and Cognition, 7, 115–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hasselmo, M. E., Rolls, E. T., & Baylis, G. C. (1989). The role of expression and identity in the face-selective responses of neurons in the temporal visual cortex of the monkey. Behavioural Brain Research, 32, 203–218.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Haxby, J. V., Hoffman, E. A., & Gobbini, M. I. (2000). The distributed human neural system for face perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 223–233.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Holcomb, P. J., Ackerman, P. T., & Dykman, R. A. (1985). Cognitive event-related brain potentials in children with attention and reading deficits. Psychophysiology, 22, 656–667.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Howard, M. F., & Reggia, J. A. (2007). A theory of the visual system biology underlying development of spatial frequency lateralization. Brain and Cognition, 64, 111–123.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hynd, G. W., Hall, J., Novey, E. S. (1995). Dyslexia and corpus callosum morphology. Archives of Neurology, 52, 32–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hynd, G. W., Hern, K. L., Novey, E. S., Eliopulos, D., Marshall, R., Gonzalez, J. J., et al. (1993). Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and asymmetry of the caudate nucleus. Journal of Child Neurology, 8, 339–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hynd, G. W., Marshall, R. M., & Semrud-Clikeman, M. (1991). Developmental dyslexia, neurolinguistic theory and deviations in brain morphology. Reading and Writing, 3, 345–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Hynd, G. W., & Semrud-Clikeman, M. (1989). Dyslexia and brain morphology. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 447–482.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hynd, G. W., Semrud-Clikeman, M., Lorys, A. R., Novey, E. S., & Eliopulos, D. (1990). Brain morphology in developmental dyslexia and attention deficit disorder/hyperactivity. Archives of Neurology, 47, 919–926.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hynd, G. W., & Willis, W. G. (1988). Pediatric neuropsychology. Orlando, FL: Grune & Stratton.Google Scholar
  58. Jabbari, B., Maitland, C. G., Morris, L. M., Morales, J., & Gunderson, C. H. (1985). The value of visual evoked potential as a screening test in neurofibromatosis. Archives of Neurology, 42, 1072–1074.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Jasper, H. H. (1958). The ten twenty system of the international federation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 10, 371–375.Google Scholar
  60. Jernigan, T. L., Hesselink, J. R., Sowell, E., & Tallal, P. (1991). Cerebral structure on magnetic resonance imaging in language- and learning-impaired children. Archives of Neurology, 48, 539–545.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Johnstone, S. J., Barry, R. J., Anderson, J. W., & Coyle, S. F. (1996). Age-related changes in child and adolescent event-related potential component morphology, amplitude, and latency to standard and target stimuli in an auditory oddball task. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 24, 223–238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Johnstone, S. J., Barry, R. J., & Clarke, A. R. (2007). Behavioural and ERP indices of response inhibition during a stop-signal task in children with two subtypes of attention-deficit hyperactivity. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 66, 37–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Just, M. A., Cherkassky, V. L., Keller, T. A., & Minshew, N. J. (2004). Cortical activation and synchronization during sentence comprehension in high-functioning autism: evidence of underconnectivity. Brain, 127, 1811–1821.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kana, R. K., Keller, T. A., Cherkassky, V. L., Minshew, N. J., & Just, M. A. (2006). Sentence comprehension in autism: Thinking in pictures with decreased functional connectivity. Brain, 129, 2484–2493.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kerns, J. G., Cohen, J. D., MacDonald, A. W., Cho, R. Y., Stenger, V. A., & Carter, C. S. (2004). Anterior cingulate conflict monitoring and adjustments in control. Science, 303, 1023–1026.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Killgore, W. D., & Yurgelun-Todd, D. A. (2005). Social anxiety predicts amygdala activation in adolescents viewing fearful faces. Neuroreport, 16, 1671–1675.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Klorman, R., Thatcher, J. E., Shaywitz, S. E., Fletcher, J. M., Marchione, K. E., Holahan, J. M., et al. (2002). Effects of event probability and sequence on children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity, reading, and math disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 795–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Klorman, R., Brumaghim, J. T., Fitzpatrick, P. A., Borgstedt, A. D. (1994). Clinical and cognitive effects of methylphenidate on children with attention deficit disorder as a function of aggression/oppositionality and age. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 206–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Koshino, H., Carpenter, P. A., Minshew, N. J., Cherkassky, V. L., Keller, T. A., & Just, M. A. (2005). Functional connectivity in an fMRI working memory task in high-functioning autism. NeuroImage, 24, 810–821.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Larsen, J. P., Hoien, T., Lundberg, I., & Odegaard, H. (1990). MRI evaluation of the size and symmetry of the planum temporale in adolescents with developmental dyslexia. Brain and Language, 39, 289–301.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Liotti, M., Pliszka, S. R., Perez,R., Glahn, D. C., & Semrud-Clikeman, M. (2001). Electrophysiological correlates of response inhibition in children and adolescents with ADHD: Influence of gender, age, and previous treatment history. Psychophysiology, 44, 936–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Liotti, M., Pliszka, S. R.,Semrud-Clikeman, M., Higgins, K., & Perez, I., R. (in press). Evidence for specificity of ERP abnormalities during response inhibition in ADHD Brain and Cognition.Google Scholar
  73. Lou, H. C., Hendriksen, L., & Bruhn, P. (1984). Focal cerebral hypoperfusion in children with dysphasia and/or attention deficit disorder. Archives of Neurology, 41, 825–829.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Lou, H. C., Henriksen, L., Bruhn, P., Borner, H., & Nielson, J. B. (1989). Striatal dysfunction in attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder. Archives of Neurology, 46, 48–52.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Maurer, U., Bucher, K., Brem, S., & Brandeis, D. (2003). Development of the automatic mismatch response: From frontal positivity in kindergarten children to the mismatch negativity. Clinical Neurophysiology, 114, 808–817.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McBurnett, K., Pfiffner, L. J., & Frick, P. J. (2001). Symptom properties as a function of ADHD type. An argument for continued study of sluggish cognitive tempo. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 207–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McCrory, E., Mechelli, A., Frith, U., & Price, C. J. (2005). More than words: A common neural basis for reading and naming deficits in developmental dyslexia? Brain, 128, 261–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Menkes, J. H., & Sarnat, H. B. (2000). Child neurology. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams, & Wilkins.Google Scholar
  79. Millich, R., Ballentine, A. C., & Lynam, D. R. (2001). ADHD-combined type and ADHD-predominately inattentive type are distinct and unrelated disorders. Clinical Psychology, Science, & Practice, 8, 463–488.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Molfese, D. L., & Molfese, V. J. (1994). Short-term and long-term developmental outcomes. In G. Dawson & K.W. Fischer (Eds.), Human behavior and the developing brain (pp. 493–517). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  81. Monk, C. S., McClure, E. B., Nelson, E. E., Zarahn, E., Bilder, R. M., & Leivenluft, E. (2003). Adolescent immaturity in attention-related brain engagement to emotional facial expressions. NeuroImage, 20, 420–428.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Naatanen, R. (1990). The role of attention in auditory information processing as revealed by event-related potentials and other brain measures of cognitive function. Behavior and Brain Sciences, 13, 112–130.Google Scholar
  83. Novitski, N., Huotilainen, M., Tervaniemi, M., Naatanen, R., & Fellman, V. (2006). Neonatal frequency discrimination in 250–4000 Hz range: Electrophysiological evidence. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118, 412–419.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Ohnishi, T., Matsuda, H., Hashimoto, T., Kunihiro, T., Nishikawa, M., Uema, T., et al. (2000). Abnormal regional cerebral blood flow in childhood autism. Brain, 123, 1838–1844.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Olson, R. K. (1999). Genes, environment, and reading disabilities. In R. Sternberg & L. Spear-Swerling (Eds.), Perspectives on learning disabilities (pp. 3–22). Oxford: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  86. Pennington, B. F. (1991). Diagnosing learning disorders. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  87. Perrett, D. I., & Mistlin, A. J. (1990). Perception of facial characteristics by monkeys. In W. C. Stebbins & M. A. Berkley (Eds.), Comparative perception (pp. 187–215). Oxford: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  88. Pessoa, L., Kastner, S., & Ungerleider, L. G. (2002). Attentional control of the processing of neutral and emotional stimuli. Cognitive Brain Research, 15, 31–45.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Picton, T. W., & Taylor, M. J. (2007). Electrophysiological evaluation of human brain development. Developmental Neuropsychology, 3, 249–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Pierce, K., Muller, R. A., Ambrose, J., Allen, G., & Courchesne, E. (2001). Face processing occurs outside the fusiform 'face area' in autism: Evidence from functional MRI. Brain, 124, 2059–2073.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Piven, J., Arndt, S., Bailey, J., & Andreasen, N. (1996). Regional brain enlargement in autism: A magnetic resonance imaging study. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 530–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pliszka, S. R., Liotti, M., & Woldroff, M. G. (2000). Inhibitory control in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Event-related potentials identify the processing component and timing of an impaired right-frontal response-inhibition mechanism. Biological Psychiatry, 48, 238–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Posner, M. I., & Raichle, M. E. (1994). Images of mind. New York: Scientific American Library.Google Scholar
  94. Posner, M. I., & Rothbart, M. K. (2007). Research on attention networks as a model for the integration of psychological science. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 1–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pugh, K. R., Mencl, W. E., Jenner, A. R., Katz, L., Frost, S. J., Lee, J. R., et al. (2001). Neurobiological studies of reading and reading disability. Journal of Communication Disorders, 34, 479–492.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Regtvoort, A. G. F. M., van Leeuwen, T. H., Stoel, R. D., & van der Leij, A. (2006). Efficiency of visual information processing in children at-risk for dyslexia: Habituation of single-trial ERPs. Brain and Language, 98, 319–331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Rodriguez, P. D., & Baylis, G. C. (2007). Activation of brain attention systems in individuals with symptoms of ADHD. Behavioural Neurology, 18, 115–130.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rubia, K., Overmeyer, S., Taylor, E., Brammer, M. J., Williams, S. C. R., Simmons, A., et al. (1999). Hypofrontality in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during higher-order motor control: A study with functional MRI. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 891–896.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rubia, K., Smith, A. B., Brammer, M. J., & Taylor, E. (2003). Right inferior prefrontal cortex mediates response inhibition while mesial prefrontal cortex is responsible for error detection. NeuroImage, 20, 351–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Rubia, K., Smith, A. B., Brammer, M. J., Toone, B., & Taylor, E. (2005). Abnormal brain activation during inhibition and error detection in medication-naïve adolescents with ADHD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1067–1075.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Santos, A., Joly-Pottuz, B., Moreno, S., Habib, M., & Besson, M. (2007). Behavioural and event-related potentials evidence for pitch discrimination deficits in dyslexic children: Improvement after intensive phonic intervention. Neuropsychologia, 45, 1080–1090.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schultz, R. T., Gauthier, I., Klin, A., Fulbright, R. K., Anderson, A. W., Volkmar, F., et al. (2000). Abnormal ventral temporal cortical activity during face discrimination among individuals with autism and Asperger Syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 331–340.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Schultz, R. T., Grelotti, D. J., Klin, A., Kleinman, J., Van der Gaag, C., Marois, R., et al. (2003). The role of the fusiform face area in social cognition: Implications for the pathobiology of autism. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society of London, 358, 415–427.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Schultz, R. T., Grelotti, D. J., Klin, A., Levitan, E., Cantey, T., Skudlarski, P., et al. (2001). An fMRI study of face recognition, facial expression detection, and social judgment in autism spectrum conditions. Paper presented at the International Meeting for Autism Research.Google Scholar
  105. Schultz, R. T., Romanski, L. M., & Tsatsanis, K. D. (2000). Neurofunctional models of autistic disorder and Asperger syndrome: Clues from neuroimaging. In A. Klin, F. R. Volkmar, & S. S. Sparrow (Eds.), Asperger syndrome. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  106. Schulz, K. P., Fan, J., Tang, C. Y., Newcorn, J. H., Buchsbaum, M. S., Cheung, A. M., et al. (2004). Response inhibition in adolescents diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during childhood: An event-related fMRI study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 1650–1657.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Sears, L. L., Vest, C., Mohamed, S., Bailey, J., Ranson, B. J., & Piven, J. (1999). An MRI study of the basal ganglia in autism. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry, 23, 613–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Semrud-Clikeman, M. (2006). Neuropsychological aspects for evaluating LD. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38, 563–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Semrud-Clikeman, M., Filipek, P. A., Biederman, J., Steingard, R. J., Kennedy, D. N., Renshaw, P. F., et al. (1994). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: Magnetic resonance imaging morphometric analysis of the corpus callosum. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 875–881.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Semrud-Clikeman, M., Hooper, S. R., Hynd, G. W., Hern, K., Presley, R., & Watson T. (1996). Prediction of group membership in developmental dyslexia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and normal controls using brain morphometric analysis of magnetic resonance imaging. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 11, 521–528.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Semrud-Clikeman, M., Hynd, G., Novey, E. S., & Eliopulos, D. (1991). Dyslexia and brain morphology: Relationships between neuroanatomical variation and neurolinguistic tasks. Learning and Individual Differences, 3, 225–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Semrud-Clikeman, M., Pliszka, S. R., Lancaster, J., & Liotti, M. (2006). Volumetric MRI differences in treatment-naïve vs chronically treated children with ADHD. Neurology, 67.Google Scholar
  113. Shaywitz, B. A., Shaywitz, S. E., Pugh, K., Fulbright, R. K., & Skudlarski, P. (2002). Disruption of posterior brain systems for reading in children with developmental dyslexia. Biological Psychiatry, 52, 101–110.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Shaywitz, S. E. (2003). Overcoming dyslexia: A new and complete science-based program for reading problems at any level. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  115. Shaywitz, S. E., Mody, M., & Shaywitz, B. A. (2006). Neural mechanisms in dyslexia. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 278–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., Fletcher, J. M., & Escobar, M. D. (1990). Prevalence of reading disability in boys and girls: Results of the Conneticut Longitudinal Study. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 264, 998–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Shaywitz, S. E., Shaywitz, B. A., Fulbright, R. K., Skudlarski, P., Mencl, W. E., Constable, R. T., et al. (2003). Neural systems for compensation and persistence: Young adult outcome of childhood reading disability. Biological Psychiatry, 54, 25–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Shaywitz, Silk, T. J., Rinehart, N., Bradshaw, J. L., Tonge, B., Egan, G., O'Boyle, M. W., et al. (2006). Visuospatial processing and the function of prefrontal-parietal networks in autism spectrum disorders: a functional MRI study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 1440–1443.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Simpson, J. R., Öngür, D., Akbudak, E., Conturo, T. E., & Ollinger, J. M. (2000). The emotional modulation of cognitive processing: An fMRI study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, 157–170.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Smith, J. L., Johnstone, S. J., & Barry, R. J. (2004). Inhibitory processing during the Go/NoGo task: an ERP analysis of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clinical Neurophysiology, 115, 1320–1331.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Somerville, L. H., Kim, H., Johnstone, T., Alexander, A. L., & Whalen, P. J. (2004). Human amygdala responses during presentation of happy and neutral faces: Correlations with state anxiety. Biological Psychiatry, 55, 897–903.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Taroyan, N. A., Nicolson, R. I., & Fawcett, A. J. (2006). Behavioural and neurophysiological correlates of dyslexia in the continuous performance task. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118, 845–855.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Vaidya, C. J., Austin, G., Kirkorian, G., Ridlehuber, H. W., Desmond, J. E., Glover, G. H., et al. (1998). Selective effects of methylphenidate in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A functional magnetic resonance study. Neurobiology, 95, 14494–14499.Google Scholar
  124. van Mourik, R., Oosterlaan, J., Heslenfeld, D. J., Konig, C. E., & Sergeant, J. A. (2007). When distraction is not distracting: A behavioral and ERP study on distraction in ADHD. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118, 1855–1865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Vidal, C. N., Nicolson, R., DeVito, T. J., Hayashi, K. M., Geaga, J. A., Drost, D. J., et al. (2006). Mapping corpus callosum deficits in autism: An index of aberrant cortical connectivity. Biological Psychiatry, 60, 218–225.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. von Koss Torkildsen, J., Syversen, G., Simonsen, H. G., Moen, I., & Lindgren, M. (2007). Brain responses to lexical-semantic priming in children at-risk for dyslexia. Brain and Language, 102, 243–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Waldman, I. D., Lilienfeld, S. O., & Lahey, B. B. (1995). Toward construct validity in the childhood disruptive behavior disorders: Classification and diagnosis in DSM-IV and beyond. Advances in Clinical Child Psychology, 17, 323–363.Google Scholar
  128. Wetzel, N., & Schroger, E. (2007). Cognitive control of involuntary attention and distraction in children and adolescents. Brain Research, 1155, 134–146.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wetzel, N., Widmann, A., Berti, S., & Schroger, E. (2006). The development of involuntary and voluntary attention from childhood to adulthood: A combined behavioral and event-related potential study. Clinical Neurophysiology, 117, 2191–2203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Winner, E., Brownell, H., Happe, F., Blum, A., & Pincus, D. (1998). Distinguishing lies from jokes: Theory of mind deficits and discourse interpretation in right hemisphere brain-damaged patients. Brain Language, 62, 89–106.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Yang, T. T., Menon, V., Eliez, S., Blasey, C., White, C. D., Reid, A. J., et al. (2002). Amygdalar activation associated with positive and negative facial expressions. Neuroreport: For Rapid Communication of Neuroscience Research, 13, 1737–1741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Zametkin, A. J., & Cohen, R. M. (1991). Cerebral glucose metabolism in hyperactivity (letter to the editor). New England Journal of Medicine, 324, 1216–1217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Zametkin, A. J., Nordahl, T. E., Gross, M., King, A. C., Semple, W. E., Rumsey, J., et al. (1990). Cerebral glucose metabolism in adults with hyperactivity of childhood onset. New England Journal of Medicine, 323, 1361–1366.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margaret Semrud-Clikeman
    • 1
  • Phyllis Anne Teeter Ellison
    • 2
  1. 1.Michigan State UniversityLansingUSA
  2. 2.Department of Educational PsychologyUniversity of WisconsinMilwaukeeUSA

Personalised recommendations