Advertisement

Religion and Churches

  • Roberto Cipriani
Chapter

Abstract

The scenario of European society is changing rapidly, particularly in the field of religion and churches. Culture is of vital importance to the presence of religion and churches in the single nations. The religions and churches which have crossed Europe have exerted a certain degree of political power, thus influencing the economy and other related spheres of life.

A common datum affects religions and churches in Europe today: a visible reduction of religious practice. Changes are also evident in other religions of non-European origin but present in almost all of Europe. The different religions and churches operating in Europe manifest a variety of behaviours towards religious pluralism. The difference between religions of Western and Eastern Europe depends mainly on issues of national identity related to religious adherence. The territorial map of Religious Europe is characterized not only by the presence of this or that religious culture but also and above all by the existence of large numbers of minorities: Orthodox Christians or Protestants in Catholic countries, Catholics and Orthodox Christians in Protestant countries Jews and Muslims in the majority of European countries.

Keywords

Religious Practice Religious Community Religious Freedom Jewish People Religious Pluralism 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The author wishes to thank, for their kind and fruitful co-operation Alex Agadjanian, Eileen Barker, Irene Becci, Nonka Bogomilova, Irena Borowik, Pierre Bréchon, Xavier Costa, Karl-Fritz Daiber, Francisco Diez de Velasco, Grace Davie, Luca Diotallevi, Johann Figl, Gavril Flora, Lucia Greskova, Gustav Erik Gullikstad Karlsaune, Danièle Hervieu-Léger, Tomáš Havlícek, Nikos Kokosalakis, Tuomas Martikainen, Zoran Matevski, Frédéric Moens, Kati Niemelä, Enzo Pace, Thorleif Pettersson, Ole Riis, Marjan Smrke, Osman Tastan, Larissa Titarenko, Miklós Tomka, Silvia Velicova, Sipco J. Vellenga, Helena Vilaça, Srdan Vrcan, Ruta Žiliukaite, Siniša Zrinščak; Ilaria Riccioni, Raffaella Leproni and Kay McCarthy (for the translation).

References

  1. Abela, A. M. (1995) ‘Fundamentalist Religious Values of Young People in Malta: A Western European Perspective’, in L. Tomasi (ed.), Fundamentalism and Youth in Europe, Milan: FrancoAngeli, pp. 43−62.Google Scholar
  2. Allievi, S. (2002) Musulmani d’Occidente. Tendenze dell’islam europeo, Roma: Carocci.Google Scholar
  3. Allievi, S. and Nielsen, J. (eds.) (2003) Muslim Networks and Transnational Communities in and across Europe, Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  4. Azria, R. (1996) ‘Réidentification communautaire du judaïsme’, in G. Davie and D. Hervieu-Léger (eds.), Identités religieuses en Europe, Paris: La Découverte: 253–267.Google Scholar
  5. Barker, E. (1991) New Religious Movements: A Practical Introduction, London: Her Britannic Majesty’s Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  6. Barrett, D. B. et al. (eds.) (2001) World Christian Encyclopaedia. A Comparative Survey of Churches and Religions in the Modern World, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2nd edition.Google Scholar
  7. Bastenier, A. (1991) ‘L’Oriente islamico in Occidente. Alcune coordinate’, Religioni e Società VI (12): 9–17.Google Scholar
  8. Billiet, J. et al. (2003) ‘Church Commitment and Some Consequences in Western and Central Europe’, in R. L. Piedmont and D. O. Moberg (eds.), Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion 14: 129–159.Google Scholar
  9. Bistolfi, R. and Zabbal, F. (1995) Islams d’Europe. Intégration ou insertion communautaire? La Tour d’Aigues: Éditions de l’Aube.Google Scholar
  10. Bizeul, Y. (1991) L’identité protestante. Étude de la minorité protestante de France, Paris: Méridiens Klincksieck.Google Scholar
  11. Bogomilova, N. (2005) Religion, Law and Politics in the Balkans in the End of the 20th and the Beginning of the 21st Century, Sophia: Iztok-Zapad.Google Scholar
  12. Bogomilova-Todorova, N. (1996) ‘Le rôle de la religion dans la transition bulgare’, in G. Naïdénov et al. (eds.), La Bulgarie: une tradition menacée, Neuchâtel: EDES, pp. 157–169.Google Scholar
  13. Bolgiani, F., Margiotta Broglio, F. and Mazzola, R. (eds.) (2006) Chiese cristiane, pluralismo religioso e democrazia liberale in Europa, Bologna: il Mulino.Google Scholar
  14. Bontempi, M. (2005) ‘Religious Pluralism and the Public Sphere’, in G. Bettin Lattes and E. Recchi (eds.), Comparing European Societies, Bologna: Monduzzi Editore, pp. 155–186.Google Scholar
  15. Çelebi, N. (1995) ‘Are “Young Turks” Turning to Fundamentalism?’, in L. Tomasi (ed.), Fundamentalism and Youth in Europe, Milan: FrancoAngeli, pp. 95–100.Google Scholar
  16. Cesari, J. and McLoughlin, S. (2005) European Muslims and the Secular State, London: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  17. Cipriani, R. (1994) ‘Traditions and Transitions: Reflections on the Problems and Prospects for Religions in Eastern and Central Europe’, in W. H. Swatos, Jr. (ed.), Politics and Religion in Central and Eastern Europe. Traditions and Transitions, Westport,Ct-London: Praeger, pp. 1–16.Google Scholar
  18. Cipriani, R. (2001) ‘Religion as Diffusion of Values. “Diffused Religion” in the Context of a Dominant Religious Institution’, in R. K. Fenn (ed.), The Blackwell Companion to Sociology of Religion, Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 292–305.Google Scholar
  19. Davie, G. (2000) Religion in Modern Europe: A Memory Mutates, Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  20. Davie, G. (2002) Europe: The Exceptional Case, London: Darton, Longman Todd.Google Scholar
  21. Davie, G. (2006) ‘Religion in Europe in the 21st Century: the Factors to Take into Account’, Archives Européennes de Sociologie 47 (2): 271–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Davie, G. and Hervieu-Léger, D. (eds.) (1996) Identités religieuses en Europe, Paris: La Découverte.Google Scholar
  23. Denti, D., Ferrari, M. and Perocco, F. (eds.) (2005) I Sikh. Storia e immigrazione, Milan: FrancoAngeli.Google Scholar
  24. Dobbelaere, K. and Riis, O. (2002) ‘Religious and Moral Pluralism: Theories, Research Questions, and Design’, in R. L. Piedmont and D. O. Moberg (eds.), Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 13, pp. 159–171.Google Scholar
  25. Dreyfus, F.-G. (1993) ‘Le protestantisme contre l’Europe’, in G. Vincent and J.-P. Willaime (eds.), Religions et Transformations de l’Europe, Paris: Presses Universitaires de France, pp. 127–141.Google Scholar
  26. Filoramo, G. (2001) ‘Giudaismo’, in G. Filoramo et al., Manuale di Storia delle Religioni, Milan: Mondolibri, pp. 173–192.Google Scholar
  27. Friedli, R. and Schnewly Purdie, M. (eds.) (2004) ‘L’Europe des religions. Éléments d’analyse des champs religieux européens’, Studia Religiosa Helvetica Jahrbuch, pp. 8–9.Google Scholar
  28. Genre, E. and Pajer, F. (2005) L’Unione Europea e la sfida delle religioni. Verso una nuova presenza della religione nella scuola, Torino: Claudiana.Google Scholar
  29. Harmati, B. (1984) ‘General Remarks on the Study Program on “The Church and Civil Religion”’ in B. Harmati (ed.), The Church and Civil Religion in the Nordic Countries of Europe, Geneva: Department of Studies of the Lutheran World Federation, pp. 7–18.Google Scholar
  30. Hebly, J. A. (1976) Protestants in Russia, Belfast: Christian Journals Ltd.Google Scholar
  31. Inglehart, R. (ed.) (2003) Human Values and Social Change: Findings from the Values Surveys, Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  32. Jackson, R., Miedema, S., Weisse, W. and Willaime, J.-P. (eds.) (2007) Religion and Education in Europe. Developments, Contexts and Debates, Münster-New York-München-Berlin: Waxmann.Google Scholar
  33. Journal of Religion in Europe, Leiden: BrillGoogle Scholar
  34. Kääriäinen, K. (1999) ‘Religiousness in Russia after the Collapse of Communism’, Social Compass 46 (1): 35–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Klausen, J. (2005) The Islamic Challenge. Politics and Religion in Western Europe, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Kuburić, Z. and Moe, Ch. (eds.) (2006) Religion and Pluralism in Education. Comparative Approaches in the Western Balkans, Novi Sad: CEIR in cooperation with Kotor Network.Google Scholar
  37. Liogier, R. (2006) ‘L’opposition symbolique entre bouddhisme et islam en contexte européen’, Religioni e Società XXI (56): 67–88.Google Scholar
  38. Makrides, V. N. (1996), ‘Ortodossia e nazionalismo nella Grecia moderna: aspetti di una correlazione’, Religioni e Società XI (25): 43–70.Google Scholar
  39. Maréchal, B. et al. (eds.) (2003) Muslims in the Enlarged Europe, Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  40. Marinović Jerolimov, D. and Zrinščak, S. (2006) ‘Religion Within and Beyond Borders: The Case of Croatia’, Social Compass 53 (2): 279–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Martin, D. (2005) On Secularization: Towards a Revised General Theory, Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  42. Mortensen, V. (ed.) (2006) Religion & Society. Crossdisciplinary European Perspectives, Højbjerg: Forlaget Univers.Google Scholar
  43. Nökel, S. and Tezcan, L. (eds.) (2007) ‘Islam and New Europe. Continuities, Changes, Confrontations’, Yearbook of the Sociology of the Islam, p. 6.Google Scholar
  44. Norris, P. and Inglehart R. (2004) Sacred and Secular. Religion and Politics Worldwide, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Poulat, E. (1986) L’Église, c’est un monde. L’Ecclésiosphère, Paris: Éditions du Cerf.Google Scholar
  46. Poulat, E. (1988) Poussières de raison. Esquisses de météosociologie dans un monde au risque de l’homme, Paris: Éditions du Cerf.Google Scholar
  47. Rath, J. et al. (2001) Western Europe and Its Islam, Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  48. Rémond, R. (1999) Religion and Society in Modern Europe, Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Scarpi, P. (2001) ‘Le religioni del mondo antico: i politeismi’, in G. Filoramo et al., Manuale di Storia delle Religioni, Milan: Mondolibri, pp. 5–157.Google Scholar
  50. Talin, K. (1995) ‘Young People and Religious Fundamentalism in France’, in L. Tomasi (ed.), Fundamentalism and Youth in Europe, Milan: FrancoAngeli, pp. 63–80.Google Scholar
  51. Whal, K. (1995) ‘German Youth and Religious and Political Fundamentalism: The Situation in the Nineties’, in L. Tomasi (ed.), Fundamentalism and Youth in Europe, Milan: FrancoAngeli, pp. 81–94.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sciences of EducationUniversity of Roma TreRomaItaly

Personalised recommendations