Drug Formulary for Pain Management

  • Anita Hickey
  • Ian Laughlin


The use of opioids as the most effective treatment for moderate to severe acute pain and cancer pain is well established. This is in part due to their predictable dose-dependent response, lack of ceiling effect, and predictable production of profound analgesia with progressive dose escalation. Long-term use of opioids does not result in organ toxicity with the exception of methadone and toxic metabolites of meperidine, morphine, and proproxyphene. Escalation of dose is associated with side effects which increase proportionately in the acute pain setting. The side effects may differ according to the opioid administered, due to mediation of both analgesia, and adverse side effects by the mu opioid receptor (Intrurrisi and Lipman 2009).


Neuropathic Pain Cluster Headache Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Triamcinolone Acetonide Serotonin Syndrome 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anita Hickey
    • 1
  • Ian Laughlin
    • 2
  1. 1.Pain Research and Integrative Medicine, Department of AnesthesiologyNaval Medical CenterSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Naval Medical CenterSan DiegoUSA

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