In Chapters 2 and 3, we reviewed linear regression and additive modelling techniques. In Chapters 4–7, we showed how to extend these methods to allow for heterogeneity, nested data, and temporal or spatial correlation structures. The resulting methods were called linear mixed modelling and additive mixed modelling (see the left hand pathway of Fig. 13.1). In Chapter 9, we introduced generalised linear modelling (GLM) and generalised additive modelling (GAM), and applied them to absence–presence data, proportional data, and count data. We used the Bernoulli and binomial distributions for 0–1 data (the 0 stands for absence and the 1 for presence), and proportional data (Y successes out of n independent trials), and we used the Poisson distribution for count data. However, one of the underlying assumptions of theses approaches (GLM and GAM) is that the data are independent, which is not always the case. In this chapter, we take this into account and extend the GLM and GAM models to allow for correlation between the observations, and nested data structures. It should come as no surprise that these methods are called generalised linear mixed modelling (GLMM) and generalised additive mixed modelling (GAMM); see the right hand pathway of Fig. 13.1.
- Generalise Linear Modelling
- Generalise Linear Mixed Modelling
- Generalise Additive Modelling
- Generalise Linear Modelling Model
- Residual Standard Error
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