A Critical Analysis of Reflection as a Goal for Teacher Education

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter discusses different views of reflection as a goal for teacher education. First, we examine the different ways in which reflection has been thought about as a goal for teacher education around the world. Next, we discuss three questions in relation to this work (a) the degree to which reflective teacher education has resulted in genuine teacher development, (b) the extent to which the goal of reflection in teacher education has contributed to educational equity, and (c) the relationships between the goal of preparing reflective teachers and what we know about the material realities of teachers work. Following an examination of the use of reflection in one country, China, which explores the influence of global and local forces on the use of reflection in Chinese teacher education, we examine several general trends in the development of the concept of reflection in teacher education in the last 25 years.

Keywords

Teacher education Teacher professional development Teacher reflection Reflective teacher Reflective teacher education 

References

  1. Ames, R. T., & Rosemont, H. (1998). The Analects of Confucius: A philosophical translation. New York: The Ballantine Publishing Group.Google Scholar
  2. Baines, L. (2006). The transmogrification of teacher education. The Teacher Educator, 42(2), 140-156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boud, D., & Walker, D. (1998). Promoting reflection in professional courses: The challenge of context. Studies in higher education, 23(2), 191-207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bullough, R. (2008). Rethinking portfolios: Case records as personal teaching texts for study in pre-service teacher education. In R. Bullough (Ed.), Counter narratives: Studies of teacher education and becoming and being a teacher (pp. 177-192). Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  5. Calderhead, J. (1989). Reflective teaching and teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 5(1), 43-51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Calderhead, J., & Gates, P. (Eds.). (1993). Conceptualizing reflection in teacher development. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  7. Carnoy, M. (2000). Globalization and educational reform. In N. Stromquist & K. Monkman (Eds.), Globalization and education (pp. 43-62). Lanham, MD: Roman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  8. Carr, W., & Kemmis, S. (1986). Becoming critical: Education, knowledge, and action research. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  9. Clift, R., Houston, W. R., & Pugach, M. (Eds.). (1990). Encouraging reflective practice: An analysis of issues and programs. New York: Teachers College PressGoogle Scholar
  10. Cochran-Smith, M., & Lytle, S. (1993). Inside-outside: Teacher research and knowledge. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cole, A. (1997). Impediments to reflective practice: Toward a new agenda for research on teaching. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 3(1), 7-27.Google Scholar
  12. Compton, M., & Weiner, L. (Eds.). (2008). The global assault on teaching, teachers and their unions. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  13. Craft, M. (Ed.). (1996). Teacher education in plural societies: An international review. London: Falmer Press/Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  14. Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Powerful teacher education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  15. Darling-Hammond, L. (2007). The flat earth and education: How America’s commitment to equity will determine our future. Educational Researcher, 36(6), 318-334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Day, C. (1993). Reflection: A necessary but not sufficient condition for professional development. British Educational Research Journal, 19(1), 83-93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dewey, J. (1933). How we think: A restatement of the relations of reflective thinking to the educative process (2nd ed.). Boston, MA: D.C. Heath.Google Scholar
  18. Dinkelman, T. (1997). The promise of action research for critically reflective teacher education. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16, 195-222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Feiman-Nemser, S. (2001). From preparation to practice: Designing a continuum to strengthen and sustain teaching. Teachers College Record, 105(6), 1013-1055.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Feiman-Nemser, S., & Beasley, K. (2007). Discovering and sharing knowledge: Inventing a new role for cooperating teachers. In D. Carroll, H. Featherstone, J. Featherstone, S. Feiman-Nemser & D. Roosevelt (Eds.), Transforming teacher education: Reflections from the field (pp. 139-160). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.Google Scholar
  21. Fendler, L. (2003). Teacher reflection in a hall of mirrors: Historical influences and political reverberations. Educational Researcher, 32(3), 16-25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Freedman, S., Jackson, J., & Boles, K. (1983). Teaching: An imperiled profession. In L. Shulman & G. Sykes (Eds.), Handbook of teaching and policy (pp. 261-299). New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  23. Freire, P. (1973). Education for critical consciousness. New York: Seabury.Google Scholar
  24. Gay, G. (2000). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  25. Gay, G., & Kirkland, K. (2003). Developing cultural critical consciousness and self-reflection in pre-service teacher education. Theory into Pracrtice, 42(3), 181-187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gonzales, N., Moll, L., & Amanti, C. (Eds.). (2005). Funds of knowledge. New York: Erlbaum/Routledge.Google Scholar
  27. Gore, J., & Zeichner, K. (1991). Action research and reflective teaching in pre-service teacher education: A case study from the U.S.A. Teaching and Teacher Education, 7(2), 119-136.Google Scholar
  28. Grant, C., & Zeichner, K. (1984). On becoming a reflective teacher. In C. Grant (Ed.), Preparing for reflective teaching. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  29. Grimmett, P., & Erickson, G. (1988). Reflection in teacher education. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  30. Grossman, P., Wineburg, S., & Woolworth, S. (2001). Toward a theory of teacher community. Teachers College Record, 103(6), 942-1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Habermas, J. (1971). Knowledge and human interests. London: Heineman.Google Scholar
  32. Handal, G., & Lauvas, P. (1987). Promoting reflective teaching. Milton Leynes: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Harvey, D. (2005). A brief history of neo-liberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Hatton, N., & Smith, D. (1995). Reflection in teacher education: Towards definition and implementation. Teaching and Teacher Education, 11(1), 33-49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hoffman-Kipp, P., Artiles, A., & Lopes-Torres, L. (2003). Beyond reflection: Teacher learning as praxis. Theory into Practice, 42(3), 248-254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hong, M., & Huang, Y. (2002). Categories of reflective teaching by American scholars and its implications. Education Critique, 5, 100-102.Google Scholar
  37. Houston, W. R. (1988). Reflecting on reflection in teacher education. In H. Waxman, H.J. Freiberg, J. Vaughn, & M. Weil (Eds.), Images of reflection in teacher education. (pp. 7-8).Google Scholar
  38. Howard, T. (2003). Culturally relevant pedagogy: Ingredients for critical teacher reflection. Theory into Practice, 42(3), 195-202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hullfish, H. G., & Smith, P. G. (1961). Reflective thinking: The method of education. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co.Google Scholar
  40. Izumi, L., & Coburn, K. G. (January, 2001). Facing the classroom challenge: Teacher quality and teacher training in California’s schools of education. San Francisco, CA: Pacific Research Institute.Google Scholar
  41. Jackson, P. (1968). Life in classrooms. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
  42. Jacob, E. (1995). Reflective practice and anthropology in culturally diverse classrooms. The elementary school journal, 95, 451-463.Google Scholar
  43. Jordan Irvine, J. (2003). Educating teachers for diversity: Seeing with a cultural eye. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  44. Johnson, D., Johnson, B., Farenga, S., & Ness, D. (2005). Trivializing teacher education. Lanham, MD: Roman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  45. Kemmis, S. (1985). Action research and the politics of reflection. In D. Boud, R. Keogh & D. Walker (Eds.), Reflection: Turning experience into learning (pp. 139-164). London: Croom Helm.Google Scholar
  46. Korthagen, F., & Vasalos, A. (2005). Levels in reflection: Core reflection as a means to enhance professional growth. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 11(1), 43-72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kremer Hayon, L. (1990). Reflection and professional knowledge: A conceptual framework. In C. Day, M. Pope, & P. Denicolo (Eds). Insights into tecahers’ thinking and practice (pp. 57-70). London: Falmer Press/Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Lagemann, E. C. (2000). An elusive science: The troubling history of educational research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  49. LaBoskey, V. K. (1994). Development of reflective practice: A study of pre-service teachers. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  50. Lai, H. (2004). How to implement reflective teaching in middle school Chinese teaching. Journal Education Guidance, 4, 63-64.Google Scholar
  51. Liston, D., & Zeichner, K. (1991). Teacher education and the social conditions of schooling. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. Little, J. W. (2002). Locating teachers in communities of practice: Opening up problems of analysis in records of everyday work. Teaching and Teacher Education, 18, 917-946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Loughran, J. (1996). Developing reflective practice. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  54. Loughran, J., & Russell, T. (2002) (Eds.). Improving teacher education practices through self-study. New York: Falmer Press/Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Lu, Z. (2002). Fan si xing jiao xue de wu zhong chuan tong (Five traditions of reflective teaching). Bi jiao jiao yu yan jiu (Comparative Education Research), 1, 7-11.Google Scholar
  56. Lu, X. (2004). Fan si xing jiao xue zai da xue ying yu jiao xue zhong de yun yong (Application of reflective teaching in teaching college English). Journal of Huaiyin Teachers’ College, 26(3), 417-420.Google Scholar
  57. Lunenberg, M., Korthagen, F., & Swennen, A. (2007). The teacher educator as a role model. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23, 586-601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lyall, K., & Sell, (2006). The true genius of America at risk: Are we losing our public universities to defacto privatization?. Westport, CT: Prager.Google Scholar
  59. Lyons, N. (1998). Portfolios and their consequences: Developing as a reflective practitioner. In N. Lyons (Ed.), With portfolio in hand: Validating the new teacher professionalism (pp. 247-264). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  60. Markham, M. (1999). Through the looking glass: Reflective teaching through a Lacanian lens. Curriculum Inquiry, 29(1), 55-76.Google Scholar
  61. McIntyre, D. (1993). Theory, theorizing and reflection in initial teacher education. In J. Alderhead & P. Gates (Eds.), Conceptualizing reflection in teacher development (pp. 39-52). London: Falmer Press/Routledge.Google Scholar
  62. McLaughlin, M., & Talbert, J. (2006). Building school-based teacher learning communities. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  63. Milner, R. (2003). Teacher reflection and race in cultural contexts: History, meanings, and methods in teaching. Theory into Practice, 42(3), 173-180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Moon, J. (2004). Reflection in learning and professional development. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. Orland-Barak, L., & Yinon, H. (2007). When theory meets practice: Student teachers’ reflections on their classroom discourse. Teaching and Teacher Education, 23(6), 857-869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Pajak, E. (2000). Approaches to clinical supervision (2nd ed.). Norwood, MA: Christopher- Gordon Publishers.Google Scholar
  67. Peck, R., & Tucker, J. (1973). Research on teacher education. In R. Travers (Ed.), Handbook of research on teaching (2nd ed., pp. 940-978). Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  68. Proce, H. (2006). Reflection in education: A Kantian epistemology. Educational Theory, 56(3), 237-253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Rennert-Ariev, P. (2008). The hidden curriculum of performance-based teacher education. Teachers College Record, 110(1), 105-138.Google Scholar
  70. Richardson, V. (1990). The evolution of reflective teaching and teacher education. In R. Clift, W. R. Houston & M. Pugach (Eds.), Encouraging reflective practice in education (pp. 3-19). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  71. Richert, A. (1992). The content of student teachers’ reflections within different structures for facilitating the reflective process. In T. Russell & H. Munby (Eds.), Teachers and teaching: From classroom to reflection (pp. 156-170). London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  72. Robertson, S. (2000). A class act: Changing teachers’ work, the state, and globalization. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  73. Rodgers, C. (2002a). Defining reflection: Another look at John Dewey and reflective thinking. Teachers College Record, 104(4), 842-866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Rodgers, C. (2002b). Seeing student learning: Teacher change and the role of reflection. Harvard Educational Review, 72(2), 230-253.Google Scholar
  75. Rodgers, C., & Raider-Roth, M. (2006). Presence in teaching. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 12(3), 265-287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Schon, D. (1983). The reflective practitioner: How professionals thinking action. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  77. Schon, D. A. (1987). Educating the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  78. Shi, X. (2004). Developing professional capacities of practice teachers in physical education through reflective teaching. Journal of Beijing Sport University, 27(2), 238-240.Google Scholar
  79. Schwille, J., & Dembele, M. (2007). Global perspectives on teacher learning: Improving Policy and Practice. Paris: UNESCO Institute for Educational Planning.Google Scholar
  80. Shulman, L. (1988). The dangers of dichotomous thinking in education. In P. Grimmett & G. Erickson (Eds.), Reflection in teacher education (pp. 31-38). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  81. Shulman, L. (1992). Research on teaching: A historical and personal perspective. In F. Oser, A. Dick, & J. L. Patry (Eds.), Effective and responsible teaching: The new synthesis (pp. 14-29). San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.Google Scholar
  82. Sirotnik, K. (Ed.). (2004). Holding accountability accountable: What ought to matter in public education. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  83. Smyth, J. (1992). Teachers’ work and the politics of reflection. American Educational Research Journal, 29(2), 267-300.Google Scholar
  84. Smyth, J., Dow, A., Hattam, R., Reid, A., & Shacklock, G. (2000). Teachers’ work in a globalizing economy. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  85. Sumson, J., & Fleet, A. (1996). Reflection: Can we assess it? Should we assess it? Assessment and Evaluation in higher Education, 21(2), 121-130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Swarts, P. (1999). Teacher education reform: Toward reflective practice. In K. Zeichner & L. Dahlstrom (Eds.), Democratic teacher education reform in Africa: The case of Namibia (pp. 29-46). Boulder CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  87. Tabachnick, B. R., Popkewitz, T., & Zeichner, K. (1979-1980). Teacher education and the professional perspectives of student teachers. Interchange, 10, 12-29.Google Scholar
  88. Tabachnick, B. R., & Zeichner, K. (Eds.). (1991). Issues and practices in inquiry-oriented teacher education. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  89. Tatto, M. T. (Ed.). (2007). Reforming teaching globally. Oxford: Symposium Books.Google Scholar
  90. Tellez, K. (2007). Have the conceptual reforms (and one anti-reform) in pre-service teacher education improved the education of multicultural, multilingual children and youth? Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 13(6), 543-564.Google Scholar
  91. Tickle, L. (1996). Reflective teaching: Embrace or Elusion? In R. McBride (Ed.), Teacher education policy (pp. 135-148). London: Falmer/Routledge.Google Scholar
  92. Tremmel, R. (1993). Zen and the art of reflective practice in teacher education. Harvard Educational Review, 63(4), 434-458.Google Scholar
  93. Tse, H. (2007). Professional development through transformation: Linking two assessment models of teachers’ reflective thinking and practice. In T. Townsend & R. Bates (Eds.), Handbook of teacher education: Globalization, standards, and professionalism in times of change. (pp. 495-505) Springer: DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  94. Vavrus, M. (2002). Transforming the multicultural education of teachers. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  95. Valli, L. (Ed.). (1992). Reflective teacher education: Cases and critiques. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  96. Valli, L. (1997). Listening to other voices: A description of teacher reflection in the United States. Peabody Journal of Education, 72(1), 67-88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Van Mannen, M. (1977). Linking ways of knowing with ways of being practical. Curriculum Inquiry, 6, 205-228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Villegas-Reimers, E. (2003). Teacher professional development: An international review of the literature. Paris: UNESCO Institute for Educational Planning.Google Scholar
  99. Villegas, A. M., & Lucas, T. (2002). Educating culturally responsive teachers: A coherent approach. Albany, NY: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
  100. Villegas, A. M., & Lucas, T. (2004). Diversfying the teacher workforce: A retrospective and prospective analysis. In M. Smylie & D. Miretzky (Eds.), Developingthe teacher workforce (pp. 70-104). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  101. Walkington, J. (2005). Becoming a teacher: Encouraging development of teacher identity through reflective practice. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 33(1), 53-64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Walsh, K. (2004). A candidate-centered model for teacher preparation and licensure. In F. Hess, A. Rotherham & K. Walsh (Eds.), A qualified teacher in every classroom (pp. 119-148). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.Google Scholar
  103. Wang, Q. (2001). Ying yu jiao shi xing dong yan jiu (Action research for teachers of English). Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.Google Scholar
  104. Wang, Z. (2004). Fan si xing jiao xue de chang shi: Xin ke cheng biao zhun xia ru he xie wu li jiao hou ji (Practice of reflective teaching: How to write a post -teaching journal for physics teaching under the new curriculum standard. Journal of Zhenjiang College, 17(2), 113-114.Google Scholar
  105. Ward, J., & McCotter, S. (2004). Reflection as a visible outcome for pre-service teachers. Teaching and Teacher Education, 20, 243-257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Westbury, I., Hopmann, S., & Riquarts, K. (Eds.). (2000) Teaching as reflective practice: The German didaktik tradition. New York: Erlbaum/Routledge.Google Scholar
  107. Xiong, C. (1999). Fan si xing jiao xue (Reflective Teaching). Shanghai: Eastern China Normal University Press.Google Scholar
  108. Xiong, C. (2002). Shuo fan si xing jiao xue de li lun yu shi jian (Theory and practice of reflective teaching). Shanghai Education New Research, 6, 4-9.Google Scholar
  109. Yu, L. (2003). Foreign Language Teachers Training and Reflective Teaching. Journal of Jinzhou Teachers College, 25(1), 123-126.Google Scholar
  110. Zeichner, K. (1981). Reflective teaching and field-based experience in teacher education. Interchange, 12, 1-22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zeichner, K. (1987). Preparing reflective teachers: An overview of instructional strategies which have been employed in pre-service teacher education. International Journal of Educational Research, 11(5), 565-575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zeichner, K. (1995). Beyond the divide of teacher research and academic research. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 1(2), 153-172.Google Scholar
  113. Zeichner, K. (1996). Teachers as reflective practitioners and the democratization of school reform. In K. Zeichner, S. Melnick, & M. L. Gomez (Eds.), Currents of reform in pre-service teacher education (pp. 199-214). New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  114. Zeichner, K. (2003). Teacher research as professional development for P-12 educators in the U.S. Educational Action Research, 11(2), 301-325.Google Scholar
  115. Zeichner, K., & Liston, D. (1987). Teaching student teachers to reflect. Harvard Educational Review, 57, 23-48.Google Scholar
  116. Zeichner, K., & Liston, D. (1996). Reflective teaching: An introduction. New York: Routledge/Erlbaum.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations