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Sensors for Critical Path Monitoring

  • Alan Drake
Chapter
Part of the Series on Integrated Circuits and Systems book series (ICIR)

Variability and Its Impact on Timing

Modern processes are becoming more sensitive to noise [25]. In addition to technology parameters having larger variation with each new technology generation [1], [20], timing sensitivity to such environmental conditions as temperature [19], [31], aging [3], workload [19], [13], cross-talk noise in wires [18], NBTI [12], and many other effects is increasing.

Noise processes that effect timing are described as random or systematic, and they are measured from die to die and within die [6], [32]. Random noise is less dependent on the integrated circuit’s design than systematic noise and it is characterized by a number of statistics such as its mean and standard deviation. Systematic noise results from characteristics of the manufacturing process or from the physical design and can be predicted once the underlying process causing the variation is understood. For example, the wire thickness in technologies that use copper metallization is dependent on...

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

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  • Alan Drake

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