Advertisement

Skating

  • R. Neil Humble
  • Hilary Smith
Chapter

Abstract

Skating in all its various forms has shown increased popularity worldwide. Olympic speed skating champions are coming from areas of warm climate, and ice hockey teams are starting up in almost every populated geographical location. There are three major types of ice skating: hockey skating, figure skating, and speed skating. All these forms of ice skating have similarities and differences with respect to footwear and biomechanics. A close cousin to the three major types of ice skating is in-line skating. This is a similar biomechanical activity and an increasingly common recreational and fitness endeavor.

Keywords

Skating footwear Speed skating Figure skating Hockey 

References

  1. 1.
    Bradley MA: Prevention and treatment of foot and ankle injuries in figure skaters. Curr Sports Med Rep, 5(5): 258–261, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bruening DA, Richards JG: The Effects of articulated figure skates on jump landing forces. J Appl Biomech. 22(4): 285–295, 2006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arnold AS, King DL, Smith, SL: Figure skating and sports biomechanics: The Basic Physics of Jumping and Rotating. Skating. Sept. 2004.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Smith AD, Ludington R: Injuries in Elite pairs skaters and ice dancers. Am J Sports Med, 17(4): 482–488, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dubravic-Simunjak S, Pecina M, Kuipers H, Moran J, Haspl M: Incidence of injuries in Elite junior figure skaters. Am J Sports Med,. 31(6): 511–515, 2003.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
    Bruening DA, Richards JG: Optimal Ankle axis position for articulated boots. Sports Biomech,. 4(2): 215–225, 2005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    van Ingen Schenau GJ, de Koning J, Houdijk H: Backgrounds of the slapskate. Faculty of Human Movement Sciences: Dept. of Kinesiology, Vrije Universiteit of Amsterdam. Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1997.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    van Ingen Schenau GJ, de Groot G, Scheurs AW, Meester H, de Koning JJ: A New Skate Allowing Powerful Plantar Flexions Improves Performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 28(4): 531–535, 1996.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Houdijk H, de Koning JJ, de Groot G, Bobbert MF, van Ingen Schenau GJ: Push-off Mechanics in Speed Skating with Conventional Skates and Klapskates. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 32(3): 635–641, 2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Houdijk H: Scientific Explanation for Success of the Klapskate. Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research. May 2001.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Roy B: Biomechanical features of different staring positions and skating strides in ice hockey. in, Asmussen E, Jorgenson K (eds.), Biomechanics V1-B, p. 137. Baltimore, MD University Park Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hoshizaki TB, Kirchner GJ: A comparison of the kinematic patterns between supported and non-supported ankles during the acceleration phase of forward skating. Proceedings of the International Symposium of Biomechanics in Sport, 1987.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Marino GW: Acceleration time relationships in an ice skating start. Res Q 50:55, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mueller M: Kinematics of speed skating. Master’s thesis, University of Wisconsin, 1972.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Marino GW, Weese RG: A kinematic analysis of the ice skating stride. in Terauds J, Gros HJ (eds.), Science in Skiing, Skating and Hockey, pp. 65, 73. Del Mar, CA: Academic Publishers, 1979.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Root ML, Orien WP, Weed JH, Hughes RJ: Biomechanical Examination of the Foot, Vol 1. Clinical Biomechanics Corporation. Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kirby KA: Subtalar Joint Axis Location and Rotational Equilibrium Theory of Foot Function. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc 91(9): 465–487, 2001.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Blake RL: Inverted functional orthoses. JAPMA 76: 275, 1986.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Neil Humble
    • 1
  • Hilary Smith
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Surgery, Division of PodiatryUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Dr. William M. Scholl College of Podiatric MedicineRosalind Franklin University of Medicine and ScienceNorth ChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations