• Paul Langer


Bicycling is a sport that is unique in that the human body functions as the engine of a machine. The energy to propel the machine forward is generated primarily by the lower extremity muscles and transferred to the bike’s drivetrain through the pedals. Cycling as a sport as well as a mode of transportation has become increasingly specialized. Subcategories of bicycling sports include road biking, mountain biking, track racing, cyclocross (a combination of road and mountain biking), fitness (stationary, spin) cycling, and triathlon cycling. Each of the subcategories of cycling can employ different cycling positions and footwear/pedal systems. In addition to recreational cycling, the number of bicyclists who commute has been increasing. According to the US Census, the number of bike commuters increased by 9% between 1990 and 2000. The number of commuters will likely continue to increase due to increased funding of bicycle infrastructure.


Cycling footwear Cycling biomechanics Cycling injuries Cycling shoe construction Mountain bike footwear 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Langer
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Minnesota Medical SchoolMinneapolisUSA

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