Responses of Brainstem Respiratory Neurons to Activation of Midbrain Periaqueductal Gray in the Rat

  • Hari Subramanian
  • Zheng-Gui Huang
  • Ron Balnave
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 605)

Eupneic breathing has been shown to be affected by output from the midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) (Huang et al. 2000; Hayward et al. 2003; Subramanian et al. 2007). In the rat, anatomical tracing studies have demonstrated connections between the PAG and other brainstem areas. It is generally accepted that PAG efferents activate descending pathways that originate in the medulla (Holstege 1991b). The aims of our studies were to isolate and record from respiratory cells in the ventral respiratory group (VRG) and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) regions of the rat brainstem and to examine the changes in firing patterns and timing of these cells following excitatory amino acid (EAA) stimulation of the PAG. We also investigated the effect of β-adrenergic blockade in the vlNTS on the PAG induced respiratory patterning.


Excitatory Amino Acid Nucleus Tractus Solitarius Respiratory Neuron Ventral Respiratory Group Dorsal Brainstem 
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© Springer 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hari Subramanian
    • 1
  • Zheng-Gui Huang
    • 2
  • Ron Balnave
    • 3
  1. 1.UMCG, Center for UroneurologyUniversity of GroningenAD GroningenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of PharmacologyWannan Medical CollegeWuhu CityP.R.China
  3. 3.School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health SciencesThe University of SydneyLidcombeAustralia

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