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Freshwaters: Managing Across Scales in Space and Time

  • Stephen R. Carpenter
  • Reinette Biggs

Abstract

Freshwaters include groundwater, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. These ecosystems represent about 7% of earth’s terrestrial surface area. Although aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems appear clearly separate to the human eye, groundwaters, lakes, and rivers are in fact closely connected to terrestrial systems (Magnuson et al. 2006). Climate, soils, and water-use haracteristics of terrestrial plants affect infiltration of water to groundwater and runoff to surface waters. Terrestrial systems contribute nutrients and organic matter to freshwater systems. Rivers in flood fertilize their valleys. Terrestrial organisms are eaten by aquatic ones, and vice versa. A natural unit for considering coupled terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems is the watershed. Within a watershed, ecosystems are closely linked through flows of water, dissolved chemicals, including nutrients and organic matter, and movements of organisms. Thus watersheds are natural units of analysis for freshwater resources.

Keywords

Ecosystem Service Freshwater Ecosystem Turnover Time Regime Shift Environmental Flow 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Additional Readings

  1. Falkenmark, M., and J. Rockström. 2004. Balancing Water for Humans and Nature: The New Approach in Ecohydrology. Earthscan, London.Google Scholar
  2. Finlayson, C.M., R. D’Cruz, N. Aladin, D.R. Barker, G. Beltram, et al. 2005. Inland water systems. Pages 551–583 in R. Hassan, R. Scholes, and N. Ash, editors. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Current State and Trends. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Island Press, Washington.Google Scholar
  3. Magnuson, J.J., T.K. Kratz, and B.J. Benson, editors. 2006. Long-Term Dynamics of Lakes in the Landscape. Oxford University Press, London.Google Scholar
  4. Naiman, R.J., H. Décamps and M.E. McClain. 2005. Riparia. Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  5. Postel, S.L., and B. Richter. 2003. Rivers for Life: Managing Water for People and Nature. Island Press, Washington.Google Scholar
  6. Vörösmarty, C.J., C. Leveque, C. Revenga, R. Bos, C. Caudill, et al. 2005. Fresh water. Pages 165–207 in R. Hassan, R. Scholes, and N. Ash, editors. Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Current State and Trends. Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. Island Press, Washington.Google Scholar
  7. Walters, C.J., and S.J.D. Martell. 2004. Fisheries Ecology and Management. Princeton University Press, Princeton.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen R. Carpenter
    • 1
  • Reinette Biggs
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for LimnologyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  2. 2.Stockholm Resilience CentreStockholm UniversitySE 106-91 StockholmSweden

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