Improving Workflow Execution through SLA-based Advance Reservation

  • Philipp Wieder
  • Oliver Wäldrich
  • Wolfgang Ziegler
  • Ramin Yahyapour


In SOA-based Grid environments service provider and service consumer usually do not know each other. In order to establish a business relation they must inter alia (i) create a trust relationship, and (ii) set up mechanisms to create reliable, verifiable, and, at least in a commercial environment, also audible agreements with respect to the services requested, delivered and consumed. In this paper we will only briefly address (i) but concentrate on solutions for (ii) based on Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Therefore we will give an overview on the state-of-the-art of SLA usage in Grids, highlight possible obstacles for the deployment of SLAs, and present a detailed example of a service improving the execution of workflows through the use of WS-Agreement to negotiate advance reservation of resources to execute workflow components.


SLA workflow Grid advance reservation UNICORE 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    M. Aiello, G. Frankova, and D. Malfatti. What’s in an Agreement? A Formal Analysis and an extension of WS-Agreement. In Service-Oriented Computing – ICSOC 2005, volume 3826 of LNCS, pages 424–436. Springer, December 12–15, 2005.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    A. Andrieux, K. Czajkowski, A. Dan, K. Keahey, H. Ludwig, T. Nakata, J. Pruyne, J. Rofrano, S. Tuecke, and M. Xu. WS-Agreement - Web Services Agreement Specification, April 5, 2007. <>.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    A. Anjomshoaa, F. Brisard, M. Drescher, D. Fellows, A. Ly, S. McGough, D. Pulsipher, and A. Savva. Job Submission Description Language (JSDL) Specification v1.0. Grid Forum Document GFD.56, Global Grid Forum, November 2005.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    The Business Grid Project. Web site. 30 Mar 2006 <>.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    C. Dumitrescu and I. Raicu and I. Foster. DI-GRUBER: A Distributed Approach to Grid Resource Brokering. In SC ’05: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM/IEEE conference on Supercomputing, page 38, Washington, DC, USA, 2005. IEEE Computer Society.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    CoreGRID. Web site. 14 Aug 2006 <>.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    K. Czajkowski, I. Foster, C. Kesselman, V. Sander, and S. Tuecke. SNAP: A protocol for negotiating service level agreements and coordinating resource management in distributed systems. In Job Scheduling Strategies for Parallel Processing (Proceedings of the 8th International JSSPP Workshop), volume 2537 of LNCS, pages 153 – 158. Springer, 2002.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    K. Czajkowski, I. Foster, C. Kesselman, and S. Tuecke. Grid Service Level Agreements. In J. Nabrzyski, J. M. Schopf, and J. Weglarz, editors, Grid Resource Management, pages 119–134. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    A. Dan, K. Keahey, H. Ludwig, and J. Rofrano. Guarantee Terms in WS-Agreement. Technical report, Grid Resource Allocation Agreement Protocol (GRAAP) Working Group Meetings, 2004.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    I. Foster, M. Fidler, A. Roy, and V. Sander. End-to-end quality of service for high-end applications. Computer Communications, Special Issue on Network Support for Grid Computing, 2002.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Grid Resousource Allocation Agreement Protocol Working Group. Web site. 07 Aug 2006, <>.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Compatibility and Conversion of different Grid Workflow Description Languages. Web site. 14 Aug 2006 <>.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    D. Lamanna, J. Skene, and W. Emmerich. SLAng: A Language for Defining Service Level Agreements. In Proceedings of the 9th IEEE Workshop on Future Trends in Distributed Computing Systems (FTDCS’03), pages 100 – 106. IEEE Computer Society Press, 2003.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    H. Ludwig, A. Dan, and B. Kearney. Cremona: An Architecture and Library for Creation and Monitoring WS-Agreements. In ICSOC’04, New York. ACM, 2004.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    H. Ludwig, A. Keller, A. Dan, R. P. King, and R. Franck. Web Service Level Agreement (WSLA) Language Specification. IBM, USA. <>.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    H. Ludwig, T. Nakata, O. Wäldrich, Ph. Wieder, and W. Ziegler. Reliable Orchestration of Resources using WS-Agreement. In Proc. of the 2006 International Conference on High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC-06), volume 4208 of LNCS, pages 753–762. Springer, September 13–15, 2006.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    J. MacLaren, R. Sakellariou, K.T. Krishnakumar, J. Garibaldi, and D. Ouelhadj. Towards Service Level Agreement Based Scheduling on the Grid. Workshop on Planning and Scheduling for Web and Grid Services (in conjunction with ICAPS-04), 2004.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    P. Masche, P. Mckee, and B. Mitchell. The Increasing Role of Service Level Agreements in B2B Systems. In 2nd international conference on web information systems and technologies, Setubal, Portugal, April 2006.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    MPI: A Message-Passing Interface Standard. Web site. 20 Apr 2007 <>.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    S. Thatte (ed.). Business Process Execution Language for Web Services version 1.1. <>.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    A. Streit, O. Wäldrich, Ph. Wieder, and W. Ziegler. On Scheduling in UNICORE – Extending the Web Services Agreement based Resource Management Framework. In Proc. of Parallel Computing 2005 (ParCo 2005), September 13–16, 2005. To appear.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    W.M.P van der Aalst, A.H.M. ter Hofstede, B. Kiepuszewski, and A.P. Barros. Workflow Patterns. Distributed and Parallel Databases, 14(3):5–51, July 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    VIOLA – Vertically Integrated Optical Testbed for Large Application in DFN, 2006. Web site. 29 Mar 2006 <>.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    O. Wäldrich, P.Wieder, and W. Ziegler. A Meta-scheduling Service for Co-allocating Arbitrary Types of Resources. In Proc. of the Second Grid Resource Management Workshop (GRMWS’05), volume 3911 of LNCS, pages 782–791. Springer, 2006.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    Parallel Workloads Archive - San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) SP2 log, 2006. Web site. 29 Mar 2006 <>.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philipp Wieder
    • 1
  • Oliver Wäldrich
    • 2
  • Wolfgang Ziegler
    • 2
  • Ramin Yahyapour
    • 3
  1. 1.Central Institute for Applied Mathematics Research Centre JülichGermany
  2. 2.Department of BioinformaticsFraunhofer Institute SCAIGermany
  3. 3.CEI, University Dortmund44221 DortmundGermany

Personalised recommendations