Genomics of Wheat, the Basis of Our Daily Bread

  • Manilal William
  • Peter Langridge
  • Richard Trethowan
  • Susanne Dreisigacker
  • Jonathan Crouch
Part of the Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models book series (PGG, volume 1)


Wheat, being an important source of calories across the Americas, Europe, North Africa and Asia, is the most widely grown food crop in the world. Wheat yields have undergone a spectacular rise over the last half century, contributing to the Green Revolution in Asia. However, productivity increases appear to have reached a plateau in recent years and many consider that new advances in genomics will be essential to delivery the rates of productivity increases necessary to prevent hunger. New molecular tools will enhance on-going wheat breeding, offering the plant breeder considerable advantages in time, cost, and response to selection. Perhaps most importantly, it is believed that genomics tools will also facilitate much more efficient utilization of new sources of genetic variation for important agronomic traits from wild species. This chapter provides an overview of the botany and conventional breeding of wheat including a summary of past successes, the current primary breeding targets, and the major constraints to achieving those goals. We then focus on genomic advances in bread wheat and durum wheat during the past decade and the implications of these advances for increasing resilience, stability and productivity in tropical, sub-tropical and semi-arid production systems across the world. This includes the use of genomics to improve the search for, and the characterization of, new beneficial genetic variation and the identification of molecular markers to facilitate the efficient manipulation of that variation in breeding programs. Finally, we provide a list of the currently available trait markers and a perspective on likely future trends and challenges in wheat molecular breeding.


Bread Wheat Durum Wheat Hexaploid Wheat Wheat Breeding Rust Resistance Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Akbari M, Wenzel P, Caig V, Carlig J, Xia L, et al. (2006) Diversity arrays technology (DArT) for high-throughput profiling of the hexaploid wheat genome. Theor Appl Genet 113:1409–1420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Appels R (2003). A consensus molecular genetic map for wheat – a cooperative international effort. In: Pogna NE, Romano M, Pogna EA, Galterio G (eds) Proc 10th Intl Wheat Genetics Symp Pasteum, Italy. Rome: Instituto Sperimentale per la Cerealicoltura. 1:211–214Google Scholar
  3. Autrique E, Singh RP, Tanksley SD, Sorrells ME (1995) Molecular markers for four leaf rust resistance genes introgressed into wheat from wild relatives. Genome 38:75–83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Aung T, Howes NK, McKenzie RIH, Towney-Smith TF (1995) Application of the maize pollen method for wheat doubled haploid (DH) generation in western Canadian spring wheat breeding programs. Ann Wheat Newsl 41:70Google Scholar
  5. Badaeva ED, Amosova AV, Muravenko OV, Samatadze TE, Chikida NN, et al. (2002) Genome differentiation in Aegilops, 3. Evolution of the D genome cluster. Plant Syst Evol 231:163–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Badr YA, Kereim MA, Yehia MA, Fouad OO, Bahieldin A (2005) Production of fertile transgenic wheat plants by laser micropuncture. Photochem Photobiol Sci 4:803–807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bell MA, Fischer RA, Byerlee D, Sayre K (1995) Genetic and agronomic contributions to yield gains: a case study for wheat. Field Crops Res 44:55–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borlaug NE (1968) Wheat breeding and its impact on world food supply. In Proc. 3rd Intl. Wheat Genetics Symp. Australian Academy of Science, Canberra, Australia. 1–36Google Scholar
  9. Blanco A, Bellomo MP, Cenci A, De Giovanni C, Dóvidio R, et al. (1998) A genetic linkage map of wheat. Theor Appl Genet 97:721–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Breseghello F, Sorrells ME (2005) Association mapping of kernel size and milling quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. Genetics 172:1165–1177PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brown-Guedira GL, Singh S, Fritz AK (2003) Performance and mapping of leaf rust resistance transferred to wheat from Triticum timopheevii ssp. armeniacum. Phytopathology, 93:784–789CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Byerlee D, Moya P (1993) Impacts of international wheat breeding research in the developing world, 1966–1990. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F.Google Scholar
  13. Caldwell KS, Dvorak,J, Lagudah ES, Akhunov E, Luo M-C, et al. (2004) Sequence polymorphism in polyploid wheat and their D-genome ancestor. Genetics 167:941–947PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cenci A, Dóvidio R, Tanzarella OA, Ceoloni C, Porceddu E (1999) Identification of molecular markers linked to Pm13, an Aegilops longissima gene conferring resistance to powdery mildew in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 98:448–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Chao S, Lazo GR, You F, Crossman CC, Hummel DD, et al. (2006) Use of a large-scale Triticeae expressed sequence tag resource to reveal gene expression profiles in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Genome 49:531–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chen X, Marcelo A, Soria A, Guiping YS, Dubcovsky J (2003) Development of sequence tagged site and cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers for wheat stripe rust resistance gene Yr5. Crop Sci 43:2058–2064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Christiansen MJ, Andersen SB, Ortiz R (2002) Diversity changes in an intensively bred wheat germplasm during the 20th century. Mol Breed 9:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ciaffi M, Paolacci AR, Dáloisio E, Tanzarella OA, Porceddu E (2005) Identification and characterization of gene sequences expressed in wheat spikelets at the heading stage. Gene 346:221–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Comai L, Henikoff S (2006) TILLING: practical single-nucleotide mutation discovery. Plant J 45:684–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cox TS, Hkiang YT, Gorman MB, Rogers DM (1985) Relationships between coefficient of parentage and genetic indices in soybean. Crop Sci 25:529–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Crossa J, Burgueno J, Dreisigacker S, Vargas M, Herrera-Foessel SA, Lillemo M, Singh RP, Trethowan R, Warburton M, Franco J,Renolds M, Crouch J, Ortiz R (2007) Association analysis of historical bread wheat germplasm using additive genetic covariance of relatives and population structure. Genetics doi:10.1534/genetics.107.078659Google Scholar
  22. Curtis B (2002) Wheat in the world. In: Curtis BC,Rajaram S, Gomez Macpherson H (eds). Bread wheat – Improvement and production. Plant production and protection series No. 30 pp. 1–17Google Scholar
  23. Dóvidio R, Anderson OD (1994) PCR analysis to distinguish between alleles of a member of a multigene family correlated with wheat bread-making quality. Theor Appl Genet 88:759–763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dóvidio R, ad Porceddu E (1996) PCR-based assay for detecting 1B-genes for low molecular weight glutenin subunits related to gluten quality properties in durum wheat. Plant Breeding 115:413–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dayteg C, Tuvesson S, Merker A, Jahoor A, Kolodinska-Brantestam A (2007) Automation of DNA marker analysis for molecular breeding in crops: practical experience of a plant breeding company. Plant Breeding 126:410–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dedryver F, Jubier M-F, Thouvenin J, Goyeau H (1996) Molecular markers linked to the leaf rust resistance gene Lr24 in different wheat cultivars. Genome 39:830–835PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Distelfeld A, Uauy C, Fahima T, Dubcovsky J (2006) Physical map of the wheat high-grain protein content gene Gpc-B1 and development of a high-throughput molecular marker. New Phytol 169:753–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Donini P, Law JR, Koebner RM, Reeves JC, Cooke RJ (2000) Temporal trends in the diversity of UK wheat. Theor Appl Genet 100:912–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dreccer MF, Borgognone MG, Ogbonnaya FC, Trethowan RM, Winter B (2007) CIMMYT-selected synthetic bread wheats for rainfed environments: yield evaluation in Mexico and Australia. Field Crops Res 100:218–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Dreisigacker S, Zhang P, Warburton ML, Skovmand B, Hoisington D, et al. (2005) Genetic diversity among and within CIMMYT wheat landrace accessions investigated with SSRs and implications for plant genetic resources management. Crop Sci 45:653–661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Druka A, Muehlbauer V, Druka I, Caldo R, Baumann U, et al. (2006) An atlas of gene expression from seed to seed through barley development; Funct Int Genom 6:202–211Google Scholar
  32. Dubcovsky J (2004) Marker assisted selection in public breeding programs: the wheat experience. Crop Sci 44:1895–1898CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Duveiller E, Dubin HJ (2002) Helminthosporium leaf blights: spot blotch and tan spot. In: Curtis BC, Rajaram S, Gomez Macpherson H (eds) ‘Bread wheat improvement and production’ Plant Production and Protection Series No. 30. FAO. pp. 285–299Google Scholar
  34. Dweikat I, Ohm H, Mackenzie S, Patterson F, Cambron S, et al. (1994) Association of a DNA marker with Hessian fly resistance gene H9 in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 89:964–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Eagles HA, Bariana HS, Ogbonnaya FC, Rebetzke GJ, Hollamby GH, et al. (2001) Implementation of markers in Australian wheat breeding. Aust J Agric Re. 52:1349–1356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Eastwood RF, Lagudah ES, Appels R (1994) A directed search for DNA sequences tightly linked to cereal cyst nematode resistance genes in Triticum tauschii. Genome 37:311–319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Ellis MH, Spielmeyer W, Gale KR, Rebetzke GJ, Richards RA (2002) “Perfect” markers for the Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b dwarfing genes. Theor Appl Genet 105:1038–1042PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Elouafi I, Nachit MM (2004) A genetic linkage map of the Durum x Triticum dicoccoides backcross population based on SSRs and AFLP markers, and QTL analysis for milling traits. Theor Appl Genet 108:401–413PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Endo TR, Gill BS (1996) The deletion stocks of common wheat. J Hered 87:295–307Google Scholar
  40. Falk DE, Kasha KJ (1983) Genetic studies of the crossability of hexaploid wheat with rye and Hordeum bulbosum. Theor Appl Genet 64:303–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. FAO (2006) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Global Crop Production Statistics. Scholar
  42. Feuillet C, Messmer M, Schachermayr G, Keller B (1995) Genetic and physical characterisation of the Lrl leaf rust resistance locus in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Mol Gen Genet 248: 553–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Feuillet C, Keller B (1999) High gene density is conserved at syntenic loci of small and large grass genomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:8265–8270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Flint-Garcia SA, Thornsberry JM, Buckler ES IV (2003) Structure of linkage disequilibrium in plants. Annu Rev Plant Biol 54:357–374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Flintham JE, Borner A, Worland AJ, Gale MW (1997) Optimizing wheat grain yield: effects of Rht (gibberellin-insensitive) dwarfing genes. J Agric Sci Cambridge 128:11–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Freeling M (2001) Grasses as a single genetic system. Reassesment 2001. Plant Physiol 125:1191–1197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Fu Y-B, Peterson GW, Richards KW, Somers D, DePauw RM, et al. (2005) Allelic reduction and genetic shift in the Canadian hard red spring wheat germplasm released from 1845 to 2004. Theor Appl Genet 110:1505–1516PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fu Y-B, Peterson GW, Yu JK, Gao L, Jia J, et al. (2006) Impact of plant breeding on genetic diversity of the Canadian hard red spring wheat germplasm as revealed by EST-derived SSR markers. Theor Appl Genet 112:1239–1247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Gadaleta A, Mangini G, Mule G, Blanco A (2007) Characterization of dinucleotide and trinucleotide EST-derived microsatellites in the wheat genome. Euphytica 153:73–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gale MD, Devos K (1998) Comparative genetics in the grasses. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:1971–1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Gale MD, Law CN, Worland AJ (1975) The chromosomal location of a major dwarfing gene from Norin 10 in new British semi dwarf wheats. Heredity 35:417–421Google Scholar
  52. Giles RJ, Brown TA (2006) Glu allele variations in Aegilops tauschii and Triticum aestivum: implications for the origins of hexaploid wheats. Theor Appl Genet112:1563–1572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gill BS, Friebe B (2002) Cytogenetics, phylogeny and evolution of cultivated wheats. In: Curtis BC, Rajaram S, Gomez Macpherson H (eds) Bread wheat – Improvement and production. Plant production and protection series No. 30 pp. 71–88Google Scholar
  54. Gill BS, Raupp WJ (1987) Direct gene transfers from Aegilops squarrosa L. to hexaploid wheat. Crop Sci 27:445–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gill KS, Gill BS, Endo TR, Mukai Y (1993) Fine physical mapping of Ph1, a chromosome pairing regulator gene in polyploidy wheat. Genetics 134:1231–1236PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Giroux MJ, Morris CF (1997) A glycine to serine change in puroindoline b is associated with wheat grain hardness and low levels of starch surface friabilin. Theor Appl Genet 95:857–864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Gold J, Harder D, Townley-Smith F, Aung T, Procunier J (1999) Development of a molecular marker for rust resistance genes Sr39 and Lr35 in wheat breeding lines. Electronic J Biotechnol 2:(1)Google Scholar
  58. Goodwin JL, Pastori GM, Davey MR, Jones HD (2005) Selectable markers - Antibiotic and herbicide resistance. In: Pena L (ed) “Transgenic Plants: Methods and Protocols. Methods in Molecular Biology”. pp. 191–201Google Scholar
  59. Graner A, Ludwig WF, Melchinger AE (1994) Relationships among European barley germplasm: II. Comparison of RFLP and pedigree data. Crop Sci 34:1199–1205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Gu YQ, Coleman-Derr D, Kong X, Anderson OD (2004) Rapid genome evolution revealed by comparative sequence analysis of orthologous regions from four Triticeae genomes. Plant Physiol 135:459–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gutierrez A (2006) Adaptation of bread wheat to different tillage practices and environments in Mexico. PhD Thesis, Chapingo University, Texcoco, Estado de Mexico. MexicoGoogle Scholar
  62. Hao CY, Zhang XY, Wang LF, Dong YS, Shang XW, et al. (2006) Genetic diversity and core collection evaluations in common wheat germplasm from the northwestern spring wheat region in China. Mol Breed 17:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hartl L, Weiss S, Stephan U, Zeller FJ, Jahoor A (1995) Molecular identification of powdery mildew resistance genes in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Theor Appl Genet 90:601–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hartl L, Mori S, Schweizer G (1998) Identification of a diagnostic molecular marker for the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm4b based on fluorescently labelled AFLPs. Proc 9th Intl Wheat Genet Symp pp 111–113Google Scholar
  65. Hattori J, Ouelle, T, Tinker NA (2005) Wheat EST sequence assembly facilitates comparison of gene contents among plant species and discovery of novel genes. Genome 48:197–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Hayden MJ, Kuchel H, Chalmers KJ (2004) Sequence tagged microsatellites for the Xgwm533 locus provide new diagnostic markers to select for the presence of stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Theor Appl Gene. 109:1641–1647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Helguera M, Khan IA, Dubcovsky J (2000) Development of PCR markers for wheat leaf rust resistance gene Lr47. Theor Appl Genet 101:625–631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Helguera M, Khan IA, Kolmer J, Lijavetzky D, Zhong-qi L, et al. (2003) PCR assays for theLr37-Yr17-Sr38 cluster of rust resistance genes and their use to develop isogenic hard red spring wheat lines. Crop Sci 43:1839–1847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Helguera M, Vanzetti L, Soria M, Khan IA, Kolmer J, et al. (2005) PCR Markers for Triticum speltoides leaf rust resistance gene Lr51 and their use to develop isogenic hard red sring wheat lines. Crop Sci 45:728–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hoisington D, Bohorova N, Fennell S, Khairallah M, Pellegrineschi A, et al. (2002) The application of biotechnology to wheat improvement: New tools to improve wheat productivity. In: Curtis BC, Rajaram S, Gomez Macpherson H (eds) Bread wheat improvement and production. Plant production and protection series No. 30. pp. 175–198Google Scholar
  71. Holzberg S, Brosio P, Gross C, Pogue GP (2002) Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing in a monocot plant. Plant J 30:315–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Howes NK, Woods SM, Townley-Smith TF (1998) Simulation and practical problems of applying multiple marker-assisted selection and doubled haploids to wheat breeding programs. Euphytica 100:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hu T, Metz S, Chay C, Zhou HP, Biest N, et al. 2003. Agrobacterium mediated large-scale transformation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using glyphosate selection. Plant Cell Rep 21:1010–1019Google Scholar
  74. Huang L, Gill BS (2001) An RGA like marker detects all known Lr21 leaf rust resistance gene family members in Aegilops tauschii and wheat. Theor Appl Genet 103:1007–1013CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Jaccoud D, Peng K, Feinstein D, Kilian A (2001) Diversity Arrays: a solid state technology for sequence information independent genotyping. Nucleic Acids Res 29:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Jenkins S, Gibson N (2002) High-throughput SNP genotyping. Comp Funct Genom 3:57–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Jia J, Devos KM, Chao S, Miller TE, Reader SM, et al. (1994) RFLP-based maps of the homoeologous group-6 chromosomes of wheat and their application in the tagging of Pm12, a powdery mildew resistance gene transferred from Aegilops speltoides to wheat. Theor Appl Genet 92:559–565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Jiang J, Gill BS (1993) Sequential chromosome banding and in situ hybridization analysis. Genome 36:792–795CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Jiang J, Gill BS (1994) Nonisotopic in situ hybridization and plant genome mapping: the first 10 years. Genome 37:717–725PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Jiang J, Gill BS (2006) Current status and the future of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in plant genome research. Genome 49:1057–1068PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Jiang J, Friebe B, Gill BS (1994) Recent advances in alien gene transfer in wheat. Euphytica 72:199–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Jones HD (2005) Wheat transformation: current technology and applications to grain development and composition. J. Cereal Sci 41:137–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Jung M, Ching A, Bhattramakki D, Dolan M, Tingey S, et al. (2004) Linkage disequilibrium and sequence diversity in a 500-kbp region around the adh1 locus in elite maize germplasm. Theor Appl Genet 109:681–689PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kato K, Miura H, Sawada S (1999) Comparative mapping of the wheat Vrn-A1 region with the rice Hd-6 region. Genome 42:204–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Khan IA, Awan FS, Ahmad A, Fu YB, Iqbal A (2005) Genetic diversity of Pakistan wheat germplasm as revealed by RAPD markers. Genet Resour Crop Evol 52:239–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kim HS, Ward RW (1997) Genetic diversity in eastern U.S. soft winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.) based on RFLPs and coefficient of parentage. Theor Appl Genet 94:472–479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Koebner RMD, Summers W (2003) 21st century wheat breeding: plot selection or plate detection? Trends Biotechnol 21:59–63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Konzak CF, Zhou H (1991) Anther culture methods for double haploid production in wheat. Cereal Res Comm 19:147–164Google Scholar
  89. Korzun V, Roder MS, Ganal MW, Worland AJ, Law CN (1998) Genetic analysis of the dwarfing gene (Rht8) in wheat. Part 1. Molecular mapping of Rht8 on the short arm of chromosome 2D of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 96:1104–1109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kraakman ATW, Niks RE, Van den Berg P, Stam P, Van Eeuwijk FA (2004) Linkage disequilibrium mapping of yield and yield stability in modern spring barley cultivars. Genetics 168: 435–446PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kunne C, Lange M, Funke T, Miehe H, Thiel T, et al. (2005) CR-EST: a resource for crop ESTs. Nucl Acids Res 33:D619–D621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Lage J, Warburton ML, Crossa J, Skovmand B, Andersen SB (2003) Assessment of genetic diversity in synthetic hexaploid wheats and their Triticum dicoccum and Aegilops tauschii parents using AFLPs and agronomic traits. Euphytica 134:305–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Lage J, Trethowan RM (2007) Synthetic hexaploid wheat improves bread wheat adaptation to rainfed environments globally. Aust J Ag Res (In press)Google Scholar
  94. Langridge P, Lagudah ES, Holton TA, Appels R, Sharp PJ, et al. (2001) Trends in genetic and genome analysis in wheat: a review. Aust J Agric Sci 52:1043–1077CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Laurie DA, Bennett MD (1986) Wheat x maize hybridization. Can J Genet Cytol 28:313–316Google Scholar
  96. Law CN, Suarez E, Miller TE, Worland AJ (1998) The influence of the group 1 chromosomes of wheat on ear-emergence times and their involvement with vernalization and day length. Heredity 80:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Li S, Zhang Z, Wang B, Zhong Z, Yao J (1995) Tagging the Pm4a gene in NILs by RAPD analysis. Acta Genet Sin 22:103–108Google Scholar
  98. Li Y-C, Fahima T, Röder MS, Kirzhner VM, Beiles A, et al. (2003) Genetic effects on microsatellite diversity in wild emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccoides) at the Yehudiyya microsite, Israel. Heredity 90:150–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Liu XM, Smith CM, Gill BS (2002) Identification of microsatellite markers linked to Russian wheat aphid resistance genes Dn4 and Dn6. Theor Appl Genet 104:1042–1048PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Liu Z, Sun Q, Ni Z, Yang T (1999) Development of SCAR markers linked to Pm21 gene conferring resistance to powdery mildew in common wheat. Plant Breeding 118:215–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Lu HJ, Fellers JP, Friesen TL, Meinhardt SW, Faris JD (2006) Genomic analysis and marker development for the Tsn1 locus in wheat using bin-mapped ESTs and flanking BAC contigs. Theor Appl Genet 112:1132–1142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Ma JX, Zhou,R, Dong Y, Wang L, Wang X, et al. (2001) Molecular mapping and detection of the yellow rust resistance gene Yr26 in wheat transferred from Triticum turgidum L. using microsatellite markers. Euphytica 120:219–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Ma Z-Q, Gill BS, Sorrells ME, Tanksley SD (1993) RFLP markers linked to two Hessian fly-resistance genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) from Triticum tauschii (coss.) Schmal. Theor Appl Genet 85:750–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Ma ZQ, Sorrells ME, Tanksley SD (1994) RFLP markers linked to powdery mildew resistance genes Pm1, Pm2, Pm3 andPm4 in wheat. Genome 37:871–875PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Maccaferri M, Sanguineti MC, Noli E, Tuberosa R (2005) Population structure and long-range linkage disequilibrium in a durum wheat elite collection. Mol Breed 15:271–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Mackay I, Powell W (2007) Methods for linkage disequilibrium mapping in crops. Trends Plant Science 12:57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Mago R, Spielmeyer W, Lawrence GL, Lagudah ES, Ellis GJ, et al. (2002) Identification and mapping of molecular markers linked to rust resistance genes located on chromosome 1RS of rye using wheat-rye translocation lines. Theor Appl Genet 104:1317–1324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Mago R, Bariana HS, Dundas IS, Spielmeyer W, Lawrence GL, et al. (2005) Development of PCR markers for the selection of wheat stem rust resistance genes Sr24 and Sr26 in diverse wheat germplasm. Theor Appl Agenet 111:496–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Matthews DE, Carollo VL, Lazo GR, Anderson OD (2003) GrainGenes, the genome database for small-grain crops. Nucl Acids Res 31:183–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. McFadden ES, Sears ER (1946) The origin of Triticum spelta and its free-threshing hexaploid relatives. J Hered 37:81–89Google Scholar
  111. McIntosh RA Yamazaki Y, Devo, KM, Dubkowsky J, Rogers WJ, et al. (2003) Catalogue of gene symbols for wheat. In: Pogna NE, Romano M, Pogna EA, Galterio G (eds) Proc 10th Intl Wheat Genetics Symp Pasteum, Italy. Rome: Instituto Sperimentale per la Cerealicoltura. 4: 1–34Google Scholar
  112. McVittie JA, Gale MD, Marshall GA, Westcott B (1978). The interchromosomal mapping of the Norin 10 and Tom Thumb dwarfing genes. Heredity 40:67–70Google Scholar
  113. Mello-Sampayo T (1971) Genetic regulation of meiotic chromosome pairing by chromosome 3D of Triticum aestivum. Nature New Biol 230:22–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Mezzalama M, Sayre KD, Nicol J (2001) Monitoring root rot diseases on irrigated, bed-planted wheat. In: Reeves J, McNab A, Rajaram S (eds). Proc Warren E. Kronstad Symp CIMMYT pp. 148–151Google Scholar
  115. Michelmore RW, Paran I, Kesseli RV (1991) Identification of markers linked to disease-resistance genes by bulked segregant analysis: a rapid method to detect markers in specific genomic regions by using segregating populations. Proc Natl Acad Sc. USA 88:9828–9832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Miller CA, Altinkut A, Lapitan NLV (2001) A microsatellite marker for tagging Dn2, a wheat gene conferring resistance to the Russian wheat aphid. J Phytopath 149:641–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Mochida K, Yamazaki Y, Ogihara Y (2004) Discrimination of homoeologous gene expression in hexaploid wheat by SNP analysis of contigs grouped from a large number of expressed sequence tags. Mol Gen Genom 270:371–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Mochida K, Kawaura K, Shimosaka E, Kawakami N, Shin-I T, et al. (2006) Tissue expression map of a large number of expressed sequence tags and its application to in silico screening of stress response genes in common wheat. Mol Gen Genet 276:304–312Google Scholar
  119. Morgante M, Salamini F (2003) From plant genomics to breeding practice. Curr Opin Biotechnol 14:214–219PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Mujeeb-Kazi A, Gilchrist LI, Fuentes-Davila G, Delgado R (1998) Production and utilization of D genome synthetic hexaploids in wheat improvement. In: Jaradat AA (ed) Proc 3rd Intl Triticeae Symp ICARDA, Science Publishers, pp. 369–374Google Scholar
  121. Mujeeb-Kazi A, Rajaram S (2002) Transferring alien genes from related species and genera for wheat improvement. In: Curtis BC, Rajaram S, Gomez Macpherson H (eds) Bread wheat – Improvement and production Plant production and protection series No. 30. pp. 71–88Google Scholar
  122. Mukai Y, Nakahara Y, Yamamoto M (1993) Simultaneous discrimination of the three genomes in hexaploid wheat by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization using total genomic and highly repeated DNA probes. Genome 36:489–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Mullen DJ, Platteter A, Teakle NL, Appels R, Colmer TD, et al. (2005) EST-derived SSR markers from defined regions of the wheat genome to identify Lophopyrum elongatum specific loci. Genome 48:811–822Google Scholar
  124. Nelson JC, Singh RP, Autrique JE, Sorrells ME (1997) Mapping genes conferring and suppressing leaf rust resistance in wheat. Crop Sci 37:1928–1935CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Neu C, Stein N, Keller B (2002) Genetic mapping of the Lr20-Pm1 resistance locus reveals suppressed recombination on chromosome arm 7AL in hexaploid wheat. Genome 45:737–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Nordborg M, Borevitz JO, Bergelson J, Berry,CC, Chory J, et al. (2002) The extent of linkage disequilibrium in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nat Genet 30:190–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Ogbonnaya FC, Subrahmanyam NC, Moullet O, Majnik J de, Eagles HA, et al. (2001) Diagnostic DNA markers for cereal cyst nematode resistance in bread wheat. Aust J Agric Res 52:1367–1374Google Scholar
  128. Ogihara Y, Mochida K, Nemoto Y, Murai K, Yamazaki Y, et al. (2003) Correlated clustering and virtual display of gene expression patterns in the wheat life cycle by large-scale statistical analyses of expressed sequence tags. Plant J 33:1001–1011PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Oliver RE, Xu SS, Snack RW, Friesen TL, Jin Y, et al. (2006) Molecular cytogenetic characterization of four partial wheat-Thinopyrum ponticum amphiploids and their reactions to Fusarium head blight, tan spot and Stagonospora nodorum blotch. Theor Appl Genet 112: 1473–1479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Ortiz R, Mowbray D, Dowswell C, Rajaram S (2007) Dedication thicksim Norman E. Borlaug: The humanitarian plant scientist who changed the world. Plant Breeding Rev 28:1–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Ortiz R, Trethowan R, Ortiz Ferrara G, Iwanaga M, Dodds JH, et al. (2007) High yield potential, shuttle breeding and new international wheat improvement strategy. Euphytica (in press)Google Scholar
  132. Paull JG, Pallotta MA, Langridge P, The TT (1995) RFLP markers associated with Sr22 and recombination between chromosome 7A of bread wheat and the diploid species Triticum boeoticum. Theor Appl Genet, 89:1039–1045Google Scholar
  133. Pellegrineschi A, Noguera LM, McLean S, Skovmand B, Brito RM, et al. (2002). Identification of highly transformable wheat genotypes for mass production of fertile transgenic plants. Genome 45:421–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Peng J, Richards DE, Hartley NM, Murphy GP, Devos KM, et al. (1999) ‘Green revolution’ genes encode mutant gibberellin response modulators. Nature 400:256–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Peng JH, Fahima T, Roeder MS, Huang QY Dahan A, et al. (2000) A High-density molecular map of chromosome region harboring stripe-rust resistance genes YrH52 and Yr15 derived from wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides.. Genetica 109:199–210Google Scholar
  136. Penner GA, Clarke J, Bezte LJ, Leisle D (1995) Identification of RAPD markers linked to a gene governing cadmium uptake in durum wheat. Genome 38:543–547PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Prins R, Groenewald JZ, Marais GF, Snape JW, Koebner RMD (2001) AFLP and STS tagging of Lr19, a gene conferring resistance to leaf rust in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 103:618–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Procunier JD, Townley-Smith TF, Fox S, Prashar S, Gray M, et al. (1995) PCR-based RAPD/DGGE markers linked to leaf rust resistance genes Lr29 and Lr25 in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). J Genet Breed 49:87–92Google Scholar
  139. Qi LL, Echalier B, Chao S, Lazo GR, Butler GE, et al. (2004) A chromosome bin map of 16,000 expressed sequence tag loci and distribution of genes among the three genomes of polyploid wheat. Genetics 168:701–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Qu LJ, Foote TN, Roberts MA, Money TA, Aragon-Alcaide L, et al. (1998) A simple PCR-based method for scoring the ph1b deletion in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 96:371–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Rafalski A (2002) Applications of single nucleotide polymorphisms in crop genetics. Curr Opin Plant Biol 5:94–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Rajaram S, Mann CHE, Ortiz-Ferrara G, Mujeeb-Kazi A (1983) Adaptation, stability and high yield potential of certain 1B/1R CIMMYT wheats. In: Sakamoto S (ed) Proc. 6th Int. Wheat Genetics Symp pp. 613–621Google Scholar
  143. Rajaram S, van Ginkel M (2001) Mexico, 50 years of international wheat breeding. (Chapter 22). In: Bonjean AP, Angus WJ (eds) The World Wheat Book, A History of Wheat Breeding, pp. 579–608. Lavoisier Publishing, ParisGoogle Scholar
  144. Rajaram S, Borlaug NE, van Ginkel M (2002) CIMMYT International wheat breeding. In: Curtis BC, Rajaram S, Gomez Macpherson H (eds) Bread wheat – Improvement and production Plant production and protection series No. 30. pp. 103–117Google Scholar
  145. Ranade K, Chang M-S, Ting C-T, Pei D, Hsiao C-F, et al. (2001) High throughput genotyping with single nucleotide polymorphisms. Genome Res 11:1262–1268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Raupp WJ, Sukhwinder-Singh, Brown-Guedira GL, Gill BS (2001) Cytogenetic and molecular mapping of the leaf rust resistance gene Lr39 in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 102: 347–352Google Scholar
  147. Ravel C, Praud S, Murigneux A, Linossier L, Dardevet M, et al. (2006) Identification of Glu-B1–1 as a candidate gene for the quantity of high-molecular-weight glutenin in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by means of an association study. Theor Appl Genet 112:738–743PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Reif JC, Zhang P, Dreisigacker S, Warburton ML, van Ginkel M, et al. (2005) Trends in genetic diversity during the history of wheat domestication and breeding. Theor Appl Genet 110: 859–864PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Remington DL, Thornsberry JM, Matsuoka Y, Wilson LM, Whitt SR, et al. (2001) Structure of linkage disequilibrium and phenotypic associations in the maize genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:11479–11484PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Reynolds MP, van Beem J, van Ginkel M, Hoisington D (1996) Breaking the yield barriers in wheat: a brief summary of the outcomes of an international consultation. In: Reynolds MP, Rajaram S, McNab A (eds) Increasing yield Potential in Wheat: Breaking the Yield Barriers’ CIMMYT. pp. 1–11Google Scholar
  151. Reynolds M, Dreccer F, Trethowan R (2007) Drought adaptive mechanisms from wheat landraces and wild relatives. J Exp Bot 58:177–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Riley R, Chapman V (1958) Genetic control of the cytologically diploid behavior of hexaploid wheat. Nature 182:713–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Röder MS, Korzun V, Wendehake K, Plaschke J, Tixier M-H, et al. (1998) A microsatellite map of wheat. Genetics 149:2007–2023PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Rong JK, Millet E, Manisterski J, Feldman M (2000) A new powdery mildew resistance gene: introgression from wild emmer into common wheat and RFLP based mapping. Euphytica 115:121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Rosenzweig C, Hillel D (1995) Potential impacts of climate change on agriculture and food supply. Consequences, Vol. 1, No. 2Google Scholar
  156. Roses AD (2002) Pharmacogeentics place in modern medical science and practice. Life Sci 70:1471–1480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Roussel V, Koenig J, Beckert M, Balfourier F (2004) Molecular diversity in French bread wheat accessions related to temporal trends and breeding programmes. Theor Appl Genet 108: 920–930PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Roussel V, Leisova L, Exbrayat F, Stehno Z, Balfourier F (2005) SSR allelic diversity changes in 480 European wheat varieties released from 1840 to 2000. Theor Appl Genet 111: 162–170PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Sandhu D, Gill BS (2002a) Gene-containing regions of wheat and other grass genomes. Plant Physiol 128:803–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Sandhu D, Gill BS (2002b) Structural and functional organization of the ‘1so.8 gene-rich region’ in the Triticeae. Plant Mol Biol 48:791–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Sarma RN, Fish L, Gill BS, Snape JW (2000) Physical characterization of the homoeologous group 5 chromosomes of wheat in terms of rice linkage blocks and physical mapping of some important genes. Genome 43:191–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Sarma RN, Gill BS, Sasaki T, Galiba G, Sutjk J, et al. (1998) Comparative mapping of the wheat chromosome 5A. Vrn A-1 region with rice and its relationship to QTL for flowring time. Theor Appl Genet 97:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Sayre KD, Rajaram S, Fischer RA (1997) Yield potential progress in short bread wheats in northwest Mexico. Crop Sci 37:36–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Schachermayr G , Messmer MM, Feuillet C, Winzeler H, Winzeler M, et al. (1995) Identification of molecular markers linked to the Agropyron elongatum-derived leaf rust resistance geneLr24 in wheat. Theor Appl Genet 90:982–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Schachermayr G, Siedler H, Gale MD, Winzeler H, Winzeler M, et al. (1994) Identification and localization of molecular markers linked to the Lr9 leaf rust resistance gene of wheat. Theor Appl Genet 88:110–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Schachermayr G, Feuillet C, Keller B (1997) Molecular markers for the detection of the wheat leaf rust resistance gene Lr10 in diverse genetic backgrounds. Mol Breeding 3:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Scofield SR, Huang L, Brandt AS, Gill BS (2005) Development of a virus-induced gene-silencing system for hexaploid wheat and its use in functional analysis of the Lr21-mediated leaf rust resistance pathway. Plant Physiol 138:2165–2173PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Semagn K, Bjonstad A, Skinnes H, Maroy AG, Tarkegne Y, et al. (2006) Distribution of DArT, AFLP, and SSR markers in a genetic map of a doubled-haploid hexaploid wheat population. Genome 49:545–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Seo YW, Johnson JW, Jarret RL (1997) A molecular marker associated with the H21 Hessian fly resistance gene in wheat. Mol Breeding 3:177–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Seyfarth R, Feuillet C, Keller B (1998) Development and characterization of molecular markers for the adult leaf rust resistance genes Lr13 and Lr35 in wheat. Proc 9mathrmth Intl Wheat Genet Symp 3:154–155Google Scholar
  171. Sharma HC, Gill BS (1983) Current status of wide hybridisation in wheat. Euphytica 32:17–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Shen LH, Gong J, Caldo RA, Nettleton D, Cook D, et al. (2005) BarleyBase - an expression profiling database for plant genornics. Nucl Acids Res 33:D614–D618PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Shen X, Zhou M, Lu W, Ohm H (2003) Detection of fusarium head blight resistance QTL in a wheat population using bulked segregant analysis. Theor Appl Genet 106:1041–1047PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Shen XR, Francki MG, Ohm HW (2006) A resistance-like gene identified by EST mapping and its association with a QTL controlling Fusarium head blight infection on wheat chromosome 3BS. Genome 49:631–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Sherman JD, Yan L, Talbert L, Dubcovsky J (2004) A PCR marker for growth habit in common wheat based on allelic variation at the VRN-A1 gene. Crop Sci 44:1832–1838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Shewry PR, Jones HD (2005) Transgenic wheat: where do we stand after the first 12 years? Ann Appl Biol 147:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Shi AN, Leath S, Murphy JP (1998) A major gene for powdery mildew resistance transferred to common wheat from wild einkorn wheat. Phytopath 88:144–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Simons KJ, Fellers JP, Trick HN, Zhang ZC, Tai YS, et al. (2006) Molecular characterization of the major wheat domestication gene Q. Genetics 172:547–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Singh RP, Nelson JC, Sorrels ME (2000) Mapping Yr28 and other genes for resistance to stripe rust in wheat. Crop Sci 40:1148–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Slade AJ, Knauf VC (2005) TILLING moves beyond functional genomics into crop improvement. Transgenic Res 14:109–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Slade AJ, Fuerstenberg SI, Loeffler D, Steine MN, Facciotti D (2005) A reverse genetic, nontransgenic approach to wheat crop improvement by TILLING. Nature Biotech 23:75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Somers DJ, Kirkpatrick R, Moniwa M, Walsh A (2003) Mining single nucleotide polymorphisms from hexaploid wheat ESTs. Genome 46:431–437PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Somers DJ, Isaac P, Edwards K (2004) A high-density microsatellite consensus map for bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet 109:1105–1114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Sorrells ME, La Rota M, Bermudez-Kandianis CE, Greene RA, Kantety R, et al. (2003) Comparative DNA sequence analysis of wheat and rice genomes. Genome Res 13: 1818–1827Google Scholar
  185. Sourdille P, Singh S, Cadalen T, Brown-Guedira GL, Gay G, et al. (2004) Microsatellite-based deletion bin system for the establishment of genetic-physical map relationships in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Funct Integr Genomics 4:12–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Sparks CA, Jones HD (2004) Transformation of wheat by biolistics. In: Curtis IS (ed) “Transgenic Crops of the World: Essential Protocols”. pp. 19–34Google Scholar
  187. Srichumpa P, Brunner S, Keller B, Yahiaoui N (2005) Allelic series of four powdery mildew resistance genes at the Pm3 locus in hexaploid bread wheat. Plant Physiol 139:885–895PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Stoutjesdijk P, Kammholz SJ, Kleven S, Matssy S, Banks PM, et al. (2001) PCR-based molecular marker for the Bdv2 Thinopyrum intermedium source of barley yellow dwarf virus resistance in wheat. Aust J Agric Res 52:1383–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Tang J, Gao L, Cao Y, Jia J (2006) Homologous analysis of SSR-ESTs and transferability of wheat SSR-EST markers across barley, rice and maize. Euphytica 151:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Tanksley SD, McCouch SR (1997) Seed banks and molecular maps: Unlocking genetic potential from the wild. Science 277:1063–1066PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Tenaillon MI, Sawkins MC, Long AD, Gaut RL, Doebley JF (2001) Patterns of DNA sequence polymorphism along chromosome 1 of maize (Zea mays ssp.mays L.). Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:9161–9166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Trethowan RM, Reynolds MP, Sayre KD, Ortiz-Monasterio I (2005a) Adapting wheat cultivars to resource conserving farming practices and human nutritional needs. Ann Appl Biol 146:404–413Google Scholar
  193. Trethowan RM, Hodson D, Braun HJ, Pfeiffer WH (2005b) Wheat breeding environments. In: Dubin J, Lantican MA, Morris ML (eds) ‘Impacts of International Wheat Breeding Research in the Developing World, 1988–2002. CIMMYT pp. 4–11Google Scholar
  194. Trethowan RM, Reynolds MP, Ortiz-Monasterio JI, Ortiz R (2007) The Genetic Basis of the on-going Green Revolution in wheat production. Plant Breed Rev 28:39–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Trethowan RM, Reynolds MP (2007) Drought resistance: genetic approaches for improving productivity under stress. In: Buck HT, Nisi JE, Salomòn N (eds), Wheat Production in Stressed Environments. Series: Developments in Plant Breeding, Vol 12:289–299Google Scholar
  196. Tuvesson S, Post R, Ljungberg A (2003) Wheat anther culture. In: Maluszynski M, Kasha KJ, Forster BP, Szarejko I (eds) Doubled haploid production in crop plants – a manual. pp 71–76. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht/Boston/ LondonGoogle Scholar
  197. Upadhya MD, Swaminathan MS (1963) Genome analysis in Triticum zhukovskyi, a new hexaploid wheat. Chromosoma 14:589–600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Van Beuningen LT, Bush RH (1997) Genetic diversity among North American spring wheat cultivars: I. Analysis of the coefficient of parentage matrix. Crop Sci 37:570–579CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Varshney RK, Graner A, Sorrells ME (2005) Genic microsatellite markers in plants: features and applications. Trends Biotech 23:48–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Wan YC, Layton J (2006) heat (Triticum aestivum L.), In: Wang K (ed) “Agrobacterium Protocols, 2nd Edition, Vol 1 Methods in Molecular Biology” pp. 245–253Google Scholar
  201. Wang L, Ma J, Zhou R, Wang X, Jia J (2002) cMolecular tagging of the yellow rust resistance gene Yr10 in common wheat, PI 178383 (Triticum aestivum L). Euphytica 124:71–73Google Scholar
  202. Warburton ML, Crossa J, Franco J, Kazi M, Trethowan R, et al. (2006) Bringing wild relatives back into the family: recovering genetic diversity in CIMMYT bread wheat germplasm. Euphytica 149:289–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Weil C (2005) Single base hits score a home run in wheat. Trends Biotechnol 23:220–222PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. William HM, Singh RP, Huerta-Espino J, Ortiz-Islas S, Hoisington D (2003) Molecular marker mapping of leaf rust resistance gene Lr46 and its association with stripe rust resistance gene Yr29 in wheat. Phytopathology 93:153–159CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. William HM, Trethowan R, Crosby-Galvan EM (2007) Wheat breeding assisted by markers: CIMMYT’s experience. Euphytica (In press)Google Scholar
  206. Wilson ID, Barker GLA, Beswick RW, Shepherd SK, Lu CG, et al. (2004) A transcriptomics resource for wheat functional genomics. Plant Biotech J 2:495–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Worland AJ (1996) The influence of flowering time genes on environmental adaptability in European wheats. Euphytica 89:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Wu H, Sparks C, Jones H (2006) Characterisation of T-DNA loci and vector backbone sequences in transgenic wheat produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Mol Breeding 18:195–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Yan L, Loukoianov A, Tranquilli G, Helguera M, Fahima T, et al. (2003) Positional cloning of the wheat vernalization gene Vrn-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci 100:6263–6268PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Yu JK, Dake TM, Singh S, Benscher D, Li WL, et al. (2004) Development and mapping of EST-derived simple sequence repeat markers for hexaploid wheat. Genome 47:805–818PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Zhang LY, Bernard M, Leroy P, Feuillet C, Sourdille P (2005a) High transferability of bread wheat EST-derived SSRs to other cereals. Theor Appl Genet 111:677–687Google Scholar
  212. Zhang P, Dreisigacker S, Melchinger AE, van Ginkel M, Hoisington D, et al. (2005b) Quantifying novel sequence variation in CIMMYT synthetic hexaploid wheats and their backcross-derived lines using SSR markers. Mol Breeding 12:1–10Google Scholar
  213. Zhang LY, Ravel C, Bernard M, Balfourier F, Leroy P, et al. (2006) Transferable bread wheat EST-SSRs can be useful for phylogenetic studies among the Triticeae species. Theor Appl Genet 113:407–418PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Zohary D, Hopf M (1993) Domestication of plants in the old world, 2nd ed. Oxford, UK, Calrendon PressGoogle Scholar
  215. Zondervan KT, Cardon LR (2004) The complex interplay among factors that influence allelic association. Nat Rev Genet 5:86–100Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manilal William
    • 1
  • Peter Langridge
  • Richard Trethowan
  • Susanne Dreisigacker
  • Jonathan Crouch
  1. 1.Genetic Resources and Enhancement Unit, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)Texcoco

Personalised recommendations