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Industrial Applications of Thermal Spraying Technology

  • Pierre L. Fauchais
  • Joachim V. R. Heberlein
  • Maher I. Boulos
Chapter

Abstract

At its early stages of development, thermal spray technology was mostly used for the repair, rebuilding, retrofitting, and for surface protection against corrosion, erosion and wear. The wider acceptance of the technology for industrial-scale production has started in the late eighties and early nineties, with applications limited to high added-value components in the aeronautic and nuclear industry. Over the two past decades, a wide range of industrial-scale surface modification processes became available. The choice of a specific coating and/or thermal spray process, for a given service condition, depends, however, on the expectation of the user and the cost that could be tolerated for the application. This chapter presents the advantages and limitations of the different spray processes. Then the different coating applications are described, with coatings resistant to wear, corrosion and oxidation, providing thermal protection, clearance control, good bonding, electrical and electronic properties, free standing spray-formed parts, medical applications, replacement of hard chromium… potential applications. These applications are then presented according to the industrial users: aerospace, land-based turbines, automotive, electrical and electronic industries, corrosion applications for land-based and marine applications, medical engineering, ceramic and glass manufacturing, printing, pulp and paper, metal processing, petroleum and chemical industries, electrical utilities, textile and plastic, polymers, reclamation… The development of thermal sprayed coatings in the different countries is then discussed, the last part of the chapter being about the economic analysis of the different spray processes.

These are presently accepted for applications ranging from tribological and wear resistant applications including lubricity and low-friction surfaces, to resistance to corrosion and/or oxidation, thermal protection, freestanding components, electrical and optical components, electromagnetic shielding, electrical insulation, abradable seals, biomedical applications, superconducting oxides, components with coefficient of thermal expansion tailored to service conditions, magnetic coatings, solid oxide fuel cells, replacement of hard chromium, as well as ornamental applications.. This affected, in turn, the selection of the material to be applied for the coating, and the spray process to be used. The coating design process is often complicated, by the fact that in practice components are not always devoted to a single requirement such as wear or corrosion or electrical insulation or thermal insulation. In most cases, coatings must resist to different combined needs: for example, wear is often linked to corrosion.

Abbreviations

ACP

Amorphous Calcium Phosphate

APS

Atmospheric Plasma Spraying

BAG

Bioactive Glass

BOF

Basic Oxygen Furnace

BRT

Burner Rig Test

CMAS

Acronym of each oxide deposits CaO, MgO, Al2O3, and SiO2

CNT

Carbon Nano-tubes

CFRP

Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics rolls

C-SS-CS

Composite surface of Stainless Steel and Carbon Steel welded together

CTE

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion

C-W

Corrosion and Wear

dBA

decibel Authorized

d.c.

direct current

D-gun

Detonation-gun

DRC

Diamond-Reinforced Composite

EAF

Electric Arc Furnace

EBC

Environmental Barrier Coating

EB-PVD

Electron Beam-Physical Vapor Deposition

E–C

Erosion–Corrosion

EHC

Electrolytic Hard Chrome

EIS

Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

FAC

Fe-based Alloy Coatings

FBC

Fluidized-Bed Combustor

fcc

Face Center Cubic

FG

Functionally Graded

FGC

Functionally Graded Coating

GDC

Ce0.8 Gd0.2 O1.9

GS

Gas Shroud

HA

Hydroxyapatite Ca10 (PO4)6 (OH)2

HAT

HA Top coating

HB

Hardness Brinell

HCC

Hard Chromium Coating

HEPS

High-Energy Plasma Spray

HIP

Hot Isostatically Pressed

HPAL

High-Pressure Acid-Leach

HTBC

50 vol. % HA and 50 vol. % TiO2 (HT)

HTH

(HA)/HA + TiO2 bond coat composite

HVAF

High-Velocity Air Flame

HVLF

High-Velocity Liquid Fuel

HVOF

High-Velocity Oxy-fuel Flame

HVPS

High-Velocity Plasma Spray

HVSFS

High-Velocity Suspension Flame Spraying

IACS

International Annealed Copper Standard

IPS

Induction plasma spraying

LaMA

La MgAl11O19

LTA

LaTi2Al9O19

LSCF

La0.6 Sr0.4 Co0.2 Fe0.8 O32-δ

M

Mole unit

MMCs

Metal Matrix Composites

MSWI

Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators

NTSRS

Net Thermal Spraying Residual Stress

ODS

Oxide-Dispersion Strengthened

OEM

Original Equipment Manufacturer

PA-12

Polyamide 12

PAH

Progressive Abradability Hardness

PECVD

Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

PEEK

Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone

PEI

Poly Ether Imide

PGDS

Pulsed Gas Dynamic Spraying

PS

Plasma Sprayed

PS-PVD

Plasma-Sprayed-Plasma Vapor Deposition

PTA

Plasma-Transferred Arc

PVD

Physical Vapor Deposition

QC

Quality Control

r.f.

Radio Frequency

RFC

Rolling Contact Fatigue

RH

Relative air Humidity

SBF

Simulated Body Fluid

SER

Specific Energy Requirement

SLPS

Super solidus Liquid Phase Sintering

SPS

Spark Plasma Sintering

SPS

Suspension Plasma Spraying

SPPS

Solution Precursor Plasma Spraying

SS

Stainless Steel

SSC

Sm0.5 Sr0.5 Co O3

STS

Special Treatment Steel

SW-SS

Spot-Welded Stainless Steel

TBC

Thermal Barrier Coating

TCF

Thermal Cycling Fatigue

TCHT

Thermo Chemical Heat Treatment

TCP

Tricalcium Phosphate

TCR

Temperature Coefficient of Resistance

TF-LPPS

Thin Film-Low Pressure Plasma Spraying

TGO

Thermally Grown Oxide

TSR

Thermal Shock Rig

TTCP

Tetra-Calcium Phosphate

UHTC

Ultrahigh Temperature Ceramics

VIPS

Vacuum Induction Plasma Spraying

VPS

Vacuum Plasma Spraying

WA

Wire Arc

YPSZ

Yttria Partially Stabilized Zirconia

YSZ

Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia

ZFA

ZrO2–CaF2–Ag2O composite coating

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pierre L. Fauchais
    • 1
  • Joachim V. R. Heberlein
    • 2
  • Maher I. Boulos
    • 3
  1. 1.Sciences des Procédés Céramiques et de Traitements de Surface (SPCTS)Université de LimogesLimogesFrance
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  3. 3.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversity of SherbrookeSherbrookeCanada

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