Bacterial Infections

  • Washington C. WinnJr.
  • P. Rocco LaSala
  • Kevin O. Leslie


In Osier’s time, bacterial pneumonia was a dreaded event, so important that he borrowed John Bunyan’s characterization of tuberculosis and anointed the pneumococcus, as the prime pathogen, “Captain of the men of death.”1 One hundred years later much has changed, but much remains the same. Pneumonia is now the sixth most common cause of death and the most common lethal infection in the United States. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is now the second most common nosocomial infection.2 It was documented as a complication in 0.6% of patients in a national surveillance study,3 and has been reported in as many as 20% of patients in critical care units.4 Furthermore, it is the leading cause of death among nosocomial infections.5 Leu and colleagues6 were able to associate one third of the mortality in patients with nosocomial pneumonia to the infection itself. The increase in hospital stay, which averaged 7 days, was statistically significant. It has been estimated that nosocomial pneumonia produces costs in excess of $500 million each year in the United States, largely related to the increased length of hospital stay.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Washington C. WinnJr.
    • 1
  • P. Rocco LaSala
    • 2
  • Kevin O. Leslie
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Flet