Comparative Analysis of Neural Crest Cell and Axonal Growth Cone Dynamics and Behavior

  • Frances Lefcort
  • Tim O'Connor
  • Paul M. Kulesa


Actin Filament Neural Tube Neural Crest Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Growth Cone 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahlgren, S.C., and Bronner-Fraser, M., 1999, Inhibition of sonic hedgehog signaling in vivo results in craniofacial neural crest cell death, Curr. Biol. 9: 1304–1314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aizawa, H., Wakatsuki, S., Ishii, A., Moriyama, K., Sasaki, Y., Ohashi, K., et al., 2001, Phosphorylation of cofilin by LIM-kinase is necessary for semaphorin 3A-induced growth cone collapse, Nat. Neurosci. 4: 367–373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Arevalo, J.C., Chao, M.V., 2005, Axonal growth: where neurotrophins meet Wnts. Curr. Opin. Cell. Biol. 17(2): 112–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Askham, J.M., Moncur, P., Markham, A.F., and Morrison, E.E., 2000, Regulation and function of the interaction between the APC tumour suppressor protein and EB1, Oncogene 19: 1950–1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baas, P.W., Deitch, J.S., Black, M.M., and Banker, G.A., 1988, Polarity orientation of microtubules in hippocampal neurons: Uniformity in the axon and nonuniformity in the dendrite, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85: 8335–8339.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Belmadani, A., Tran, P.B., Ren, D., Assimacopoulos, S., Grove, E.A., and Miller, R.J., 2005, The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 regulates the migration of sensory neuron progenitors, J. Neurosci. 25: 3995–4003.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bentley, D., and O'Connor, T.P., 1994, Cytoskeletal events in growth cone steering, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 4: 43–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bentley, D., and Toroian-Raymond, A., 1986, Disoriented pathfinding by pioneer neurone growth cones deprived of filopodia by cytochalasin treatment, Nature 323: 712–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bienz, M., 2002, The subcellular destinations of APC proteins, Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 5: 328–338.Google Scholar
  10. Bito, H., Furuyashiki, T., Ishihara, H., Shibasaki, Y., Ohashi, K., Mizuno, K., et al., 2000, A critical role for a Rho-associated kinase, p160ROCK, in determining axon outgrowth in mammalian CNS neurons, Neuron 26: 431–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Birgbauer, E., Sechrist, J., Bronner-Fraser, M., and Fraser, S., 1995, Rhombomeric origin and rostrocaudal reassortment of neural crest cells revealed by intravital microscopy, Development 121: 935–945.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bonner, J., Gerrow, K.A., and O'Connor, T.P., 2003, The tibial-1 pioneer pathways: An in vivo model for neuronal outgrowth and guidance, Methods Cell Biol. 71: 171–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bovolenta, P., and Mason, C., 1987, Growth cone morphology varies with position in the developing mouse visual pathway from retina to first targets, J. Neurosci. 7: 1447–1460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bourikas, D., Pekarik, V., Baeriswyl, T., Grunditz, A., Sadhu, R., Nardo, M., et al., 2005, Sonic hedgehog guides commissural axons along the longitudinal axis of the spinal cord, Nat. Neurosci. 8: 297–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bovolenta, P., 2005, Morphogen signaling at the vertebrate growth cone: a few cases or a general strategy? J. Nerobiol. 64(4):405–16.Google Scholar
  16. Bradke, F., and Dotti, C.G., 1999, The role of local actin instability in axon formation, Science 283: 1931–1934.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bridgman, P.C., 2002, Growth cones contain myosin II bipolar filament arrays, Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 52: 91–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bridgman, P.C., and Dailey, M.E., 1989, The organization of myosin and actin in rapid frozen nerve growth cones, J. Cell Biol. 108: 95–109.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bridgman, P.C., Dave, S., Asnes, C.F., Tullio, A.N., and Adelstein, R.S., 2001, Myosin IIB is required for growth cone motility, J. Neurosci. 21: 6159–6169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bron, R., Eickholt, B.J., Vermeren, M., Fragale, N., and Cohen, J., 2004, Functional knockdown of neuropilin-1 in the developing chick nervous system by siRNA hairpins phenocopies genetic ablation in the mouse. Dev. Dyn. 230(2): 299–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bronner-Fraser, M., 1986, An antibody to a receptor for fibronectin and laminin perturbs cranial neural crest development in vivo, Dev. Biol. 117: 528–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Bronner-Fraser, M., 1994, Neural crest cell formation and migration in the developing embryo, FASEB J. 8: 699–706.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Brose, K., and Tessier-Lavigne, M., 2000, Slit proteins: Key regulators of axon guidance, axonal branching, and cell migration, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 10: 95–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Brown, M.D., Cornejo, B.J., Kuhn, T.B., and Bamburg, J.R., 2000, Cdc42 stimulates neurite outgrowth and formation of growth cone filopodia and lamellipodia, J. Neurobiol. 43: 352–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Brown, M.E., and Bridgman, P.C., 2003, Retrograde flow rate is increased in growth cones from myosin IIB knockout mice, J. Cell Sci. 116: 1087–1094.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Brown, M.E., and Bridgman, P.C., 2004, Myosin function in nervous and sensory systems, J. Neurobiol. 58: 118–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Buck, K.B., and Zheng, J.Q., 2002, Growth cone turning induced by direct local modification of microtubule dynamics, J. Neurosci. 22: 9358–9367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Butler, S.J., and Dodd, J., 2003, A role for BMP heterodimers in roof plate-mediated repulsion of commissural axons, Neuron 38: 389–401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Challacombe, J.F., Snow, D.M., and Letourneau, P.C., 1996, Actin filament bundles are required for microtubule reorientation during growth cone turning to avoid an inhibitory guidance cue, J. Cell Sci. 109: 2031–2040.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Charron, F., Stein, E., Jeong, J., McMahon, A.P., and Tessier-Lavigne, M., 2003, The morphogen sonic hedgehog is an axonal chemoattractant that collaborates with netrin-1 in midline axon guidance, Cell 113: 11–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Charron, F., Tessier-Lavigne, M., 2005, Novel brain wiring functions for classical morphogens: a role as graded positional cues in axon guidance, Development 132(10): 2251–62.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Chien, C.B., Rosenthal, D.E., Harris, W.A., and Holt, C.E., 1993, Navigational errors made by growth cones without filopodia in the embryonic Xenopus brain, Neuron 11: 237–251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Clegg, D.O., Wingerd, K.L., Hikita, S.T., and Tolhurst, E.C., 2003, Integrins in the development, function and dysfunction of the nervous system, Front. Biosci. 8: d723–d750.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Davy, A., and Soriano, P., 2005, Ephrin signaling in vivo: Look both ways, Dev. Dyn. 232: 1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. DeCalisto, J., Araya, C., Marchant, L., Riaz, C.F., and Mayor, R., 2005, Essential role of non-canonical Wnt signaling in neural crest migration, Development 132: 2587–2597.Google Scholar
  36. Dent, E.W., and Kalil, K., 2001, Axon branching requires interactions between dynamic microtubules and actin filaments, J. Neurosci. 21: 9757–9769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Dickson, B.J., 2001, Rho GTPases in growth cone guidance, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 11: 103–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Erickson, C.A., and Goins, T.L., 1995, Avian neural crest cells can migrate in the dorsolateral path only if they are specified as melanocytes, Development 121: 915–924.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Erickson, C.A., Tosney, K.W., and Weston, J.A., 1980, Analysis of migratory behavior of neural crest and fibroblastic cells in embryonic tissues, Dev. Biol. 77: 142–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Farlie, P.G., Kerr, R., Thomas, P., Symes, T., Minichiello, J., Hearn, C.J., et al., 1999, A paraxial exclusion zone creates patterned cranial neural crest cell outgrowth adjacent to rhombomeres 3 and 5, Dev. Biol. 213: 70–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Fedtsova, N., Perris, R., and Turner, E.E., 2003, Sonic hedgehog regulates the position of the trigeminal ganglia, Dev. Biol. 261: 456–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Forscher, P., and Smith, S.J., 1988, Actions of cytochalasins on the organization of actin filaments and microtubules in a neuronal growth cone, J. Cell Biol. 107: 1505–1516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fu, M., Lui, V.C., Sham, M.H., Pachnis, V., and Tam, P.K., 2004, Sonic hedgehog regulates the probiferetion, differentiation, and migration of enteric neural crest cells in gut. J. Cell. Biol. 166(5): 673–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gallo, G., and Letourneau, P.C., 2004, Regulation of growth cone actin filaments by guidance cues, J. Neurobiol. 58: 92–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Garcia-Castro, M.I., Marcelle, C., Bronner-Fraser, M., 2002, Ectodermal Wnt function as a neural crest inducer. Science. (5582): 848–51.Google Scholar
  46. Goldstein, A.M., Brewer, K.C., Doyle, A.M., Nagy, N., and Roberts, D.J., 2005, BMP signaling is necessary for neural crest cell migration and ganglion formation in the enteric nervous system, Mech. Dev. 122: 821–833.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Gomez, T.M., Robles, E., Poo, M., and Spitzer, N.C., 2001, Filopodial calcium transients promote substrate dependent growth cone turning, Science 291: 1983–1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Gordon-Weeks, P.R., 1991, Evidence for microtubule capture by filopodial actin filaments in growth cones, Neuroreport 2: 573–576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gordon-Weeks, P.R., 2004, Microtubules and growth cone function, J. Neurobiol. 58: 70–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Graham, A., Begbie, J., and McGonnell, I., 2004, Significance of the cranial neural crest, Dev. Dyn. 229: 5–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Guan, K.L., and Rao, Y., 2003, Signalling mechanisms mediating neuronal responses to guidance cues. Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 4(12): 941–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Gurniak, C.B., Perlas, E., and Witke, W., 2005, The actin depolymerizing factor n-cofilin is essential for neural tube morphogenesis and neural crest cell migration, Dev. Biol. 278: 231–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Haendel, M.A., Bollinger, K.E., and Baas, P.W., 1996, Cytoskeletal changes during neurogenesis in cultures of avian neural crest cells, J. Neurocytol. 25: 289–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Halloran, M.C., and Berndt, J.D., 2003, Current progress in neural crest cell motility and migration and future prospects for the zebrafish model system, Dev. Dyn. 228: 497–513.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hari, L., Brault, V., Kleber, M., Lee, H.Y., Ille, F., Leimeroth, R., et al., 2002, Lineage-specific requirements of beta-catenin in neural crest development, J. Cell Biol. 159: 867–880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hay, E.D., 1995, An overview of epithelio-mesenchymal transformation, Acta Anat. 154: 8–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Heidemann, S.R., Landers, J.M., and Hamborg, M.A., 1981, Polarity orientation of axonal microtubules, J. Cell Biol. 91: 661–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Helms, J., and Schneider, R.A., 2003, Cranial skeletal biology, Nature 423: 326–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Huber, A.B., Kolodkin, A.L., Ginty, D.D., and Cloutier, J.F., 2003, Signaling at the growth cone: Ligand-receptor complexes and the control of axon growth and guidance, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 26: 509–563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Ishizaki, T., Morishima, Y., Okamoto, M., Furuyashiki, T., Kato, T., and Narumiya, S., 2001, Coordination of microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton by the Rho effector mDia1, Nat. Cell Biol. 3: 8–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Jacinto, A., Wood, W., Balayo, T., Turmaine, M., Martinez-Aria, A. and Martin, P., 2000, Dynamic actin-based epithelial adhesion and cell matching during Drosophila dorsal closure. Curr. Biol. 10(22): 1420–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Jia, L., Cheng, L., and Raper, J., 2005, Slit/Robo signaling is necessary to confine early neural crest cells to the ventral migratory pathway in the trunk. Dev. Biol. 282(2): 411–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Jurney, W.M., Gallo, G., Letourneau, P.C., and McLoon, S.C., 2002, Rac1-mediated endocytosis during ephrin-A2- and semaphorin 3A-induced growth cone collapse, J. Neurosci. 22: 6019–6028.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Kasemeier-Kulesa, J.C., Kulesa, P.M., and Lefcort, F., 2005, Imaging neural crest cell dynamics during formation of dorsal root ganglia and sympathetic ganglia, Development 132: 235–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Kawasaki, T., Bekku, Y., Suto, F., Kitsukawa, T., Taniguchi, M., Nagatsu, I., et al., 2002, Requirement of neuropilin 1-mediated Sema3A signals in patterning of the sympathetic nervous system, Development 129: 671–680.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kil, S.H., Krull, C.E., Cann, G., Clegg, D., and Bronner-Fraser, M., 1998, The alpha4 subunit of integrin is important for neural crest cell migration, Dev. Biol. 202: 29–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Knaut, H., Blader, P., Strahle, U., and Schier, A.F., 2005, Assembly of trigeminal sensory ganglia by chemokine signaling, Neuron 47: 653–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Krull, C.E., 2001, Segmental organization of neural crest migration, Mech. Dev. 105: 37–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Krull, C.E., Collazo, A., Fraser, S.E., and Bronner-Fraser, M., 1995, Segmental migration of trunk neural crest: Time-lapse analysis reveals a role for PNA-binding molecules, Development. 121: 3733–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Krull, C.E., Lansford, R., Gale, N.W., Collazo, A., Marcelle, C., Yancopoulos, G.D., et al., 1997, Interactions of Eph-related receptors and ligands confer rostrocaudal pattern to trunk neural crest Migration, Curr. Biol. 7: 571–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kulesa, P.M., and Fraser, S.E., 1998, Neural crest cell dynamics revealed by time-lapse video microscopy of whole chick explant cultures, Dev. Biol. 204: 327–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kulesa, P.M., and Fraser, S.E., 2000, In ovo time-lapse analysis of chick hindbrain neural crest cell migration shows cell interactions during migration to the branchial arches, Development 127: 1161–1172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Le Douarin, N., 1982, The Neural Crest, Cambridge Universty Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  74. Lichtman, J.W., and Fraser, S.E., 2001, The neuronal naturalist: Watching neurons in their native habitat, Nat. Neurosci. 4(Suppl.): 1215–1220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lumsden, A., and Keynes, R., 1989, Segmental patterns of neuronal development in the chick hindbrain, Nature 337: 424–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lumsden, A., and Krumlauf, R., 1996, Patterning the vertebrate neuraxis, Science 274: 1109–1115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lee, H.Y., Kleber, M., Hari, L., Brault, V., Suter, U., Taketo, M.M., et al., 2004, Instructive role of Wnt/beta-catenin in sensory fate specification in neural crest stem cells, Science. 303: 1020–1023.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Lewis, A.K., and Bridgman, P.C., 1992, Nerve growth cone lamellipodia contain two populations of actin filaments that differ in organization and polarity, J. Cell Biol. 119: 1219–1243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Lewis, J.L., Bonner, J., Modrell, M., Ragland, J.W., Moon, R.T., Dorsky, R.I., et al., 2004, Reiterated Wnt signaling during zebrafish neural crest development, Development 131: 1299–1308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Li, Q., Shirabe, K., Thisse, C., Thisse, B., Okamoto, H., Masai, I., et al., 2005, Chemokine signalingguides axons within the retina in zebrafish, J. Neurosci. 25: 1711–1717.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Lieberam, I., Agalliu, D., Nagasawa, T., Ericson, J., and Jessell, T.M., 2005, A Cxcl12-CXCR4 chemokine signaling pathway defines the initial trajectory of mammalian motor axons, Neuron 47: 667–679.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Lin, C.H., and Forscher, P., 1993, Cytoskeletal remodeling during growth cone-target interactions, J. Cell Biol. 121: 1369–1383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Lin, C.H., and Forscher, P., 1995, Growth cone advance is inversely proportional to retrograde F-actin flow, Neuron 14: 763–771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Liu, B.P., and Strittmatter, S.M., 2001, Semaphorin-mediated axonal guidance via Rho-related G proteins, Curr. Opin. Cell Biol. 13: 619–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Liu, J.P., and Jessell, T.M., 1998, A role for rhoB in the delamination of neural crest cells from the dorsal neural tube, Development 125: 5055–5067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Loring, J.F., and Erickson, C.A., 1987, Neural crest cell migratory pathways in the trunk of the chick embryo, Dev. Biol. 121: 220–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Lundquist, E.A., 2003, Rac proteins and the control of axon development, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 13: 384–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. McLennan, R., and Krull, C.E., 2002, Ephrin-as cooperate with EphA4 to promote trunk neural crest migration, Gene Expr. 10: 295–305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Murai, K.K., and Pasquale, E.B., 2005, New exchanges in eph-dependent growth cone dynamics, Neuron 46: 161–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Marsh, L., and Letourneau, P.C., 1984, Growth of neurites without filopodial or lamellipodial activity in the presence of cytochalasin B, J. Cell Biol. 99: 2041–2047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Morrison, E.E., Moncur, P.M., and Askham, J.M., 2002, EB1 identifies sites of microtubule polymerisation during neurite development, Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 98: 145–152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Nathke, I.S., Adams, C.L., Polakis, P., Sellin, J.H., and Nelson, W.J., 1996, The adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor protein localizes to plasma membrane sites involved in active cell migration, J. Cell Biol. 134: 165–179.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Newgreen, D.F., Ritterman, M., and Peters, E.A., 1979, Morphology and behaviour of neural crest cells of chick embryo in vitro, Cell Tissue Res. 203: 115–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Oakley, R.A., Lasky, C.J., Erickson, C.A., and Tosney, K.W., 1994, Glycoconjugates mark a transient barrier to neural crest migration int eh chicken embryo, Development 120: 103–114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. O'Connor, T.P., and Bentley, D., 1993, Accumulation of actin in subsets of pioneer growth cone filopodia in response to neural and epithelial guidance cues in situ, J. Cell Biol. 123: 935–948.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Osborne, N.J., Begbie, J., Chilton, J.K. Schmidt, H., and Eickholt, B.J., 2005, Semaphorin/neuropilin signaling influences the positioning of migratory neural crest cells within the hindbrain region of the chick, Dev. Dyn. 232: 939–949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Patapoutian, A., and Reichardt, L.F., 2000, Roles of Wnt proteins in neural development and maintenance, Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. 10: 392–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Perris, R., and Perissinotto, D., 2000, Role of the extracellular matrix during neural crest cell migration, Mech. Dev. 95: 3–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Poliakov, A., Cotrina, M., and Wilkinson, D.G., 2004, Diverse roles of eph receptors and ephrins in the regulation of cell migration and tissue assembly, Dev. Cell 7: 465–480.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Pujol, F., Kitabgi, P., and Boudin, H., 2005, the chemokine SDF-1 differentially regulates axonal elongation and branching in hippocampel neurons. J. Cell. Sci. 118(pt 5): 1071–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Rickmann, M., Fawcett, J.W., and Keynes, R.J., 1985, The migration of neural crest cells and the growth of motor axons through the rostral half of the chick somite, J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 90: 437–455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Rochlin, M.W., Dailey, M.E., and Bridgman, P.C., 1999, Polymerizing microtubules activate site-directed F-actin assembly in nerve growth cones, Mol. Biol. Cell 10: 2309–2327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Sabry, J.H., O'Connor, T.P., Evans, L., Toroian-Raymond, A., Kirschner, M., and Bentley, D., 1991, Microtubule behavior during guidance of pioneer neuron growth cones in situ, J. Cell Biol. 115: 381–395.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Santagati, F., and Rijli, F., 2003, Cranial neural crest and the building of the vertebrate head, Nature Rev. Neuro. 4: 806–818.Google Scholar
  105. Santiago, A., and Erickson, C.A., 2002, Ephrin-B ligands play a dual role in the control of neural crest cell migration, Development 129: 3621–3632.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Sahin, M., Greer, P.L., Lin, M.Z., Poucher, H., Eberhart, J., Schmidt, S., et al., 2005, Eph Dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of ephexin1 moduulates growth cone collapse, Neuron 46: 191–204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Salie, R., Niederkofler, V., and Arber, S., 2005, Patterning molecules: Multitasking in the nervous system, Neuron 45(2): 189–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Sarmiere, P.D., and Bamburg, J.R., 2004, Regulation of the neuronal actin cytoskeleton by ADF/cofilin. J. Neuroboil. 58(1): 103–17.Google Scholar
  109. Schaefer, A.W., Kabir, N., and Forscher, P., 2002, Filopodia and actin arcs guide the assembly and transport of two populations of microtubules with unique dynamic parameters in neuronal growth cones. J. Cell. Biol. 158(1): 139–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Schilling, T.F., and Kimmel, C.B., 1994, Segment and cell type lineage restrictions during pharyngeal arch development in the zebrafish embryo, Development 120: 483–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Schneider, C., Wicht, H., Enderich, J., Wegner, M., and Rohrer, H., 1999, Bone morphogenetic proteins are required in vivo for the generation of sympathetic neurons. Neuron. 24(4): 861–70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Sechrist, J., Serbedzija, G.N., Scherson, T., Graser, S.E., and Bronner-Fraser, M., 1993, Segmental migration of the hindbrain neural crest does not arise from its segmental generation, Development 118: 691–703.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Segal, R.A., 2003, Selectivity in neurotrophin signaling: Theme and variations, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 26: 299–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Serbedzija, G.N., Bronner-Fraser, M., Fraser, S.E., 1992, Vital dye analysis of cranial neural crest cell migration in the mouse embryo. Development. 116(2): 297–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Silver, J., 1994, Inhibitory molecules in development and regeneration, J. Neurol. 242: S22–S24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Strachan, L.R., and Condic, M.L., 2004, Cranial neural crest recycle surface integrins in a substratum-dependent manner to promote rapid motility, J. Cell Biol. 167: 545–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Suter, D.M., and Forscher, P., 2000, Substrate-cytoskeletal coupling as a mechanism for the regulation of growth cone motility and guidance, J. Neurobiol. 44: 97–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Tanaka, E., and Sabry, J., 1995, Making the connection: Cytoskeletal rearrangements during growth cone guidance, Cell 83: 171–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Tanaka, E., Ho, T., and Kirschner, M.W., 1995, The role of microtubule dynamics in growth cone motility and axonal growth, J. Cell Biol. 128: 139–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Teddy, J.M., and Kulesa, P.M., 2004, In vivo evidence for short- and long-range cell communication in cranial neural crest cells, Development 131: 6141–6151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Testaz, S., Delannet, M., and Duband, J., 1999, Adhesion and migration of avian neural crest cells on fibronectin require the cooperating activities of multiple integrins of the (beta) 1 and (beta) 3 families, J. Cell Sci. 112: 4715–4728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Tosney, K.W., and Landmesser, L.T., 1985, Growth cone morphology and trajectory in the lumbosacral region of the chick embryo, J. Neurosci. 5: 2345–2358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Tosney, K.W., and Oakley, R.A., 1990, The perinotochordal mesenchyme acts as a barrier to axon advance in the chick embryo: Implications for a general mechanism of axonal guidance, Exp. Neurol. 109: 75–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Trainor, P., and Krumlauf, R., 2000, Plasticity in mouse neural crest cells reveals a new patterning role for cranial mesoderm, Nat. Cell Biol. 2: 96–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Vadlamudi, R.K., Li, F., Barnes, C.J., Bagheri-Yarmand, R., and Kumar, R., 2004, p41-Arc subunit of human Arp2/3 complex is a p21-activated kinase-1-interacting substrate, EMBO Rep. 5: 154–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Wahl, S., Barth, H., Ciossek, T., Aktories, K., and Mueller, B.K., 2000, Ephrin-A5 induces collapse of growth cones by activating Rho and Rho kinase, J. Cell Biol. 149: 263–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. White, P.M., Morrisou, S.J., Orimoto, K., Kubu, C.J., Verdi, J.M., and Anderson, D.J., 2001, Neural crest stem cells undergo cell-intrinsic differentiation signals. Neuron. 29(1): 57–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Wong, K., Ren, X.R., Huang, Y.Z., Xie, Y., Liu, G., Saito, H., et al., 2001, Signal transduction in neuronal migration: Roles of GTPase activating proteins and the small GTPase Cdc42 in the Slit-Robo pathway, Cell 107: 209–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Yu, H.H., and Moens, C.B., 2005, Semaphorin signaling guides cranial neural crest cell migration in zebrafish, Dev. Biol. 280: 373–385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Yuste, R., and Konnerth, A., 2005, Imaging in Neuroscience and Development, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.Google Scholar
  131. Zhou, F.Q., and Cohan, C.S., 2004, How actin filaments and microtubules steer growth cones to their targets? J. Neurobiol. 58: 84–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Zhou, F.Q., Waterman-Storer, C.M., and Cohan, C.S., 2002, Focal loss of actin bundles causes microtubule redistribution and growth cone turning, J. Cell Biol. 157: 839–849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Zhou, F.Q., Zhou, J., Dedhar, S., Wu, Y.H., and Snider, W.D., 2004, NGF-induced axon growth is mediated by localized inactivation of GSK-3beta and functions of the microtubule plus end binding protein APC, Neuron 42: 897–912.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Zou, Y., 2004, Wnt signaling in axon guidance, Trends Neurosci. 27: 528–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Zumbrunn, J., Kinoshita, K., Hyman, A.A., and Nathke, I.S., 2001, Binding of the adenomatous polyposis coli protein to microtubules increases microtubule stability and is regulated by GSK3 beta phosphorylation, Curr. Biol. 11: 44–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frances Lefcort
    • 1
  • Tim O'Connor
    • 2
  • Paul M. Kulesa
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Cell Biology and NeuroscienceMontana State UniversityBozemanUSA
  2. 2.Department of Cellular and Physiological Sciences, Member of ICORDUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  3. 3.Stowers Institute for Medical ResearchKansas CityUSA

Personalised recommendations