Advertisement

Text-To-Speech Formant Synthesis For French

  • Michel Divay
  • Ed Bruckert
Part of the Signals and Communication Technology book series (SCT)

Abstract

This chapter presents a formant synthesizer for French. The first steps of text-to-speech synthesizers are independent of the synthesizer’s type. Letter-to-sound conversion, phoneme duration and intonation calculation can be done in different ways regardless of the signal synthesizer. The main difference resides in the use or not of a large dictionary to get information on each word. Although there are other approaches to design a text-to-speech synthesizer from the acoustic point of view, formant synthesizers still have the advantages of being small in computer memory size and easy to modify to get new voice characteristics. Many fundamental voice parameters can be controlled. Consequently, the formant synthesizer development is time-consuming. Each detail of speech theory has to be understood and mimicked in the synthesizer. Singing can be achieved with the synthesizer by controlling duration and intonation for each phoneme of the song.

Keywords

Letter-to-sound rules Grapheme-to-phoneme translation Prosody Phoneme durations Formant motions Formant synthesizer Synthesis of songs HLsyn 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen, J., Carlson, R., Granström, B., Hunnicutt, S., Klatt, D. H., & Pisoni, D. B. (1979). Conversion of unrestricted text-to-speech. Unpublished Monograph, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, J., Hunnicutt, S., & Klatt, D. From text to speech: The MITalk system. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bernstein, J., & Nessly, L. (1981). Performance comparison of component algorithms for the phonemicization of orthography. Proceedings of the 19th Annual meeting of the Stanford University Association for Computational Linguistics.Google Scholar
  4. Bruckert, E., Minow M., & Tetschner,W. (1983, April 21). Three-tiered software and VLSI aid developmental system to read text aloud. Electronics.Google Scholar
  5. Divay, M. (1990, March). Traitement du langage naturel: la phonétisation ou comment apprendre à l’ordinateur à lire un texte Français. Micro-Systèmes.Google Scholar
  6. Divay, M., & Vitale, A.J. (1997). Algorithms for grapheme-phoneme translation for English and French: Applications for database searches and speech synthesis. Computational Linguistics, 23(4), 495-523.Google Scholar
  7. Divay, M. (1999). Phonological rules for speech synthesis, In D. Gardner-Bonneau (Ed.), Human factors and voice interactive systems (pp. 99-121). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  8. Francis, A., & Nusbaum, H. C. (1999). Evaluating the quality of speech synthesis. In D. Gardner-Bonneau (Ed.), Human factors and voice interactive systems(pp. 63-97). Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  9. Hertz, S. R. (1985). A versatile dictionary for speech synthesis by rule. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Supplement 1:77, S11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hunnicutt, S. (1976). Phonological rules for a text-to-speech system. American Journal of Computational Linguistics, Microfiche 57.Google Scholar
  11. Klatt, D. H., & Klatt, L. C. (1990). Analysis, synthesis, and perception of voice quality variations among female and male talkers. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 87, 820-857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Klatt, D. H. (1987, September). Review of text-to-speech conversion for English. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, pp. 737-793.Google Scholar
  13. O’Shaughnessy, D., Lennig, M., Mermelstein, P., & Divay, M. (1981). Simulation d’un lecteur automatique du Français. 12 èmes Journées d’Études sur la Parole. Montreal, Canada.Google Scholar
  14. Stevens, K.N., & Bickley, C.A. (1991). Constraints among parameters simplify control of Klatt formant synthesizer. Journal of Phonetics, 19, 161-174.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michel Divay
    • 1
  • Ed Bruckert
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut Universitaire de Technologie de LannionUniversitè de RennesFrance
  2. 2.Fonix corporationMassachusettsUSA

Personalised recommendations