Skip to main content

Characteristics and Variability of the Sea Ice Cover

Part of the Atmospheric and Oceanographic Sciences Library book series (ATSL,volume 41)

Abstract

Mesoscale and large scale characteristics and interannual variability of the Arctic and Antarctic sea ice cover are described and evaluated using geophysical data derived from visible, infrared, and microwave sensors. Thirty years of satellite data were used to assess global, hemispherical, and regional trends and to gain insights into the changing sea ice cover in the two hemispheres. The extent of the sea ice cover in the Arctic is shown to be declining at −4%/decade, whereas in the Antarctic, it has been increasing unexpectedly at 1%/decade. The most intriguing result, however, is the rapid decline in the Arctic perennial ice cover area of about −13%/decade and possible connection with greenhouse gas warming. Equally intriguing is the relative stability of the Antarctic sea ice cover and associated effects of the ozone hole, the Southern Oscillation and the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave.

Keywords

  • Mesoscale characteristics
  • Ice types
  • Ice dynamics

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-68300-3_7
  • Chapter length: 69 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   169.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-0-387-68300-3
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   219.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 7.1
Fig. 7.2
Fig. 7.3
Fig. 7.4
Fig. 7.5
Fig. 7.6
Fig. 7.7
Fig. 7.8
Fig. 7.9
Fig. 7.10
Fig. 7.11
Fig. 7.12
Fig. 7.13
Fig. 7.14
Fig. 7.15
Fig. 7.16
Fig. 7.17
Fig. 7.18
Fig. 7.19
Fig. 7.20
Fig. 7.21
Fig. 7.22
Fig. 7.23
Fig. 7.24
Fig. 7.25
Fig. 7.26
Fig. 7.27
Fig. 7.28
Fig. 7.29
Fig. 7.30
Fig. 7.31
Fig. 7.32
Fig. 7.33
Fig. 7.34
Fig. 7.35

References

  • Ackley, SF (1981) Sea ice atmosphere interactions in the Weddell Sea using drifting buoys. In: Sea Level, Ice and Climatic Change (Proc. Canberra Symposium, December 1979), IAHS Publ. No. 131, pp. 177-191

    Google Scholar 

  • Ackley SF, Geiger C, King JC, Hunke EC, and Comiso JC (2001) The Ronne Polynya of 1997-1998: Observations of air-ice-ocean interaction, Ann. Glaciol. 33:425-429

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Alexander V, and Niebauer HJ (1981) Oceanography of the eastern Bering Sea ice edge zone in spring, Limnol. Oceanogr. 26:1111-1125

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Allison I (1989) The East Antarctic sea ice zone: ice characteristics and drift. Geo Journal 18.1:103-115

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Allison I, Brandt RE, and Warren SG (1993) East Antarctic sea ice: Albedo, thickness distribution and snow cover, J. Geophys. Res. 98(C7):12417-12429

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Arrigo KR, Van Dijken GL (2004) Annual changes in sea ice, chlorophyll a, and primary production in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, Deep Sea Res Part II 51:117-138

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bromwich DH and Kurtz DH (1982) Experiences of Scott’s Northern Party: Evidence for a relationship between winter katabatic winds and the Terra Nova Bay Polynya, Polar Rec. 21:137-146

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bromwich DH and Kurtz DD (1984) Katabatic wind forcing of the Terra Nova Bay polynya, J. Geophys. Res. 89:3561-3572

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bromwich DH, Liu Z, Rogers AN, and Va Woert ML (1998) Winter atmospheric forcing of the Ross Sea polynya, in: Jacobs S and Weiss R (Eds.), Oceans, Ice and Atmosphere: Interactions at the Antarctic Continental Margin, Antarctic Res. Ser., vol. 75, AGU, Washington, DC, pp. 101-133

    Google Scholar 

  • Cavalieri DJ and Martin S (1985) A passive microwave study of polynyas along the Antarctic Wilkes Land Coast, in: Jacobs S (ed) Oceanology of the Antarctic Continental Shelf, Antarctic Research Volume 43, pp. 203-226

    Google Scholar 

  • Colony R, Thorndike AS (1985) Sea ice motion as a drunkard’s walk. J Geophys Res 90: 965-974

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Comiso JC (1986) Characteristics of Arctic winter sea ice from satellite multispectral microwave observations. J Geophys Res 91(C1):975-994

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Comiso JC (2002) A rapidly declining Arctic perennial ice cover, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(20):1956, doi:10.1029/2002GL015650

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Comiso JC (2003) Warming trends in the Arctic, J. Clim. 16(21):3498-3510

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Comiso JC (2006) Abrupt decline in the Arctic winter sea ice cover, Geophys. Res. Lett. 33:L18504, doi:10.1029/2006GL027341

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Comiso JC (2009) Enhanced sea ice concentration and ice extent from AMSR-E, J. Remote Sens. Soc. Jpn. 29(1):199-215

    Google Scholar 

  • Comiso JC and Gordon AL (1996) The Cosmonaut Polynya in the Southern Ocean: Structure and variability, J. Geophys. Res. 101(C8):18297-19313

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Comiso JC and Gordon AL (1998) Interannual variabilities of summer ice minimum, coastal polynyas, and bottom water formation in the Weddell Sea, in: Jeffries M (ed) Antarctic sea ice physical properties and processes, AGU Antarctic Research Series Volume, pp. 293-315

    Google Scholar 

  • Comiso JC and Nishio F (2008) Trends in the sea ice cover using enhanced and compatible AMSR-E, SSM/I, and SMMR data, J. Geophys. Res. 113:C02S07, doi:10.1029/2007JC004257

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Comiso JC and Steffen K (2001) Studies of Antarctic sea ice concentrations from satellite data and their applications, J. Geophys. Res. 106(C12):31361-31385

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Comiso JC, Wadhams P, Pedersen LT, Gersten R (2001) The seasonal and interannual variability of the Odden and a study of environmental effects. J Geophys Res 106(C5):9093-9116

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Comiso JC, Grenfell TC, Lange M, Lohanick A, Moore R, and Wadhams P (1992) Microwave remote sensing of the Southern Ocean ice cover. In: Carsey F (ed) Chapter 12, Microwave Remote Sensing of Sea Ice, pp.243-259, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Comiso JC, Grenfell TC, Lange M, Lohanick A, Moore R and Wadhams P (1992) Microwave remote sensing of the Southern Ocean ice cover. In: Carsey F (ed) Chapter 12, Microwave Remote Sensing of Sea Ice, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 243-259

    Google Scholar 

  • Comiso JC, Parkinson CL, Gersten R, and Stock L (2008) Accelerated decline in the Arctic sea ice cover, Geophy. Res. Lett. 35:L01703, doi:10.1029/2007GL031972

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • De Veaux R, Gordon AL, Comiso JC, and Chase NE (1993) Modeling of topographical effects on Antarctic sea ice using multivariate adaptive regression splines, J. Geophys. Res. 98(C11):20207-20319

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Drinkwater MR and Lytle VI (1997) ERS 1 radar and field-observed characteristics of autumn freeze-up in the Weddell Sea. J. Geophy. Res. 102(C6):12593-12603

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Eppler D, Anderson MR, Cavalieri DJ, Comiso JC, Farmer LD, Garrity C, Gloersen P, Grenfell T, Hallikainen M, Lohanick AW, Maetzler C, Melloh RA, Rubinstein I, Swift CT, Garrity C (1992) Passive microwave signatures of sea ice, Chapter 4, in: Carsey F (ed) Microwave Remote Sensing of Sea Ice, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 47-71

    Google Scholar 

  • Fetterer FM, Drinkwater MR, Jezek KC, Laxon SWC, Onstott RG, Ulander LMH (1992) Chapter 7: Sea ice altimetry, in: Carsey F (ed) Microwave Remote Sensing of Sea Ice, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 111-135

    Google Scholar 

  • Gloersen P, Campbell W, Cavalieri D, Comiso J, Parkinson C, Zwally HJ (1992) Arctic and Antarctic sea ice, 1978-1987: Satellite passive microwave observations and analysis, NASA Spec. Publ. 511

    Google Scholar 

  • Gordon AL and Comiso JC (1988) Polynyas in the Southern Ocean, Sci. Am. 256:90-97

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Gordon AL, Visbeck M, and Comiso JC (2007) A link between the Great Weddell Polynya and the Southern Annular Mode, J. Clim. 20(11):2558-2571

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Grenfell TC, Comiso JC, Lange MA, Eicken H, and Wenshahan MR (1994) Passive microwave observations of the Weddell Sea during austral winter and early spring, J. Geophys. Res. 99(C5):9995-10010

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hanna E (2001) Anomalous peak in Antarctic sea-ice area, winter 1998, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28:1595-1598

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hass C (2009) Dynamics versus thermodynamics: The sea ice thickness distribution. In: Thomas DN, Dieckmann GS (eds) Sea Ice, pp. 113-152, Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, UK

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Holiday JS, Rossiter JR, Kovacs A (1990) Airborne measurement of sea ice thickness using electromagnetic induction sounding. in Ayorinde OA, Sinha NK, Sodhi DS (eds) Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference of offshore mechanics and Arctic engineering, pp. 309-315, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New Hampshire

    Google Scholar 

  • Jacobs SS and Comiso JC (1989) Satellite passive microwave sea ice observations and oceanic processes in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res. 94:18195-18211

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jacobs SS and Comiso JC (1993) A recent sea-ice retreat west of the Antarctic Peninsula, Geophys. Res. Lett. 20(12):1171-1174

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Jacobs SS and Comiso JC (1997) Climate variability in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas. J. Clim. 10(4):697-709

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Johannessen OML, Salina EV, Miles MW (1999) Satellite evidence for an arctic sea ice cover in transformation, Science 286:1937-1939

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kalnay E et al. (1996) The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77:437-471

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • King JC and Harangozo SA (1998) Climate change in the western Antarctic Peninsula since 1945: Observations and possible causes, Ann. Glaciol. 27:571-575

    Google Scholar 

  • Kottmeier C, Sellmann L (1996) Atmospheric and oceanic forcing of Weddell Sea ice motion. J Geophys Res 101(C9):20809-20824

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kottmeier C, Olf J, Frieden W, Roth R (1992) Wind forcing and ice motion in the Weddell Sea. J Geophys Res 97(D18):20373-20383

    Google Scholar 

  • Kovacs A, Morey RM (1986) Electromagnetic measurements of multiyear sea ice using impulse radar. Cold Regions Science and Technology 12:67-93

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kwok R (2005) Ross sea ice motion, area flux and deformation, J. Clim. 18:3759-3776

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kwok R and Comiso JC (2002) Spatial patterns of variability in Antarctic surface temperature: Connections to the Southern Hemisphere Annular Mode and the Southern Oscillation, Geophys. Res. Lett. 29(14), 10.1029/2002GL015415

  • Kwok R and Rothrock DA (1999) Variability of Fram Strait ice flux and North Atlantic Oscillation, J. Geophy. Res. 104(C3):5177-5189

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kwok R, Schweiger A, Rothrock DA, Pang S, Kottmeier C (1998) Sea ice motion from satellite passive microwave imagery assessed with ERS SAR and buoy motions. J Geophys Res 103(C4):8191-8214

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kwok R, Comiso JC, Martin S, and Drucker R (2007) Ross Sea polynyas: Response of ice concentration retrievals to large areas of thin ice, J. Geophys. Res. 112:C12012, doi:10.1029/2006JC003967

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kwok R, Cunningham GF, Wensnahan M, Rigor I, Zwally HJ, Yi D (2009) Thinning and volume loss of the Arctic Ocean sea ice cover: 2003-2008, J. Geophys. Res. 114:C07005

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Lange MA, Ackley SF, Wadhams P, Dieckmann GS, Eicken H (1989) Development of sea ice in the Weddell Sea, Ann. Glacio 12:92-96

    Google Scholar 

  • Laxon S, Peacock N, Smith D (2003) High interannual variability of sea ice thickness in the Arctic region, Nature 425(30):947-949

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Ledley TS and Huang Z (1997) A possible ENSO signal in the Ross Sea, Geophys. Res. Lett. 24:3253-3256

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Liu AK, Zhao Y, and Liu WT (1998) Sea ice motion derived from satellite agrees with buoy observations. EOS Trans. 79:353, 359

    Google Scholar 

  • Manabe S, Spelman MJ, and Stouffer RJ (1992) Transient responses of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to gradual changes of atmospheric CO2, Part II, Seasonal response. J. Clim. 5:105-126

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Markus T and Cavalieri DJ (2009) The AMSR-E NT2 Sea ice concentration algorithm: Its basis and implementation. Remote Sens. Soc. Jpn. 29(1):216-223

    Google Scholar 

  • Martin S, Drucker R, Kwok R, and Holt B (2004) Estimation of the thin ice thickness and heat flux for the Chukchi Sea Alaskan coast polynya from SSM/I data, 1990-2001, J. Geophys Res. 109:C10012, doi:10.1029/2004/JC002428

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Martin S, Drucker R, Kwok R, and Holt B (2005) Improvements in the estimates of ice thickness and production in the Chukchi Sea polynyas derived from AMSR-E, Gephys. Res. Lett. 31:L005505, doi:10.1029/2004GL0022013

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Martin S, Drucker RS, and Kwok R (2007) The areas and ice production of the western and central Ross Sea polynyas, 1992-2002, and their relation to the B-15 and C-19 iceberg events of 2000 and 2002, J. Mar. Syst. 68:201-214

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Masson R (1991) Satellite remote sensing of polar regions, Belhaven Press, London, UK

    Google Scholar 

  • Niebauer HJ, Alexander V, and Henrichs SM (1995) A time series study of the spring bloom at the Bering Sea ice edge I. Physical processes, chlorophyll and nutrient chemistry, Continental Shelf Res 15(15):1859-1877

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Onstott RG (1992) Chapter 5. Sar and scatterometer signatures of sea ice. In: Carsey F (ed) Microwave Remote Sensing of Sea Ice, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 73-104

    Google Scholar 

  • Overland JE and Wang M (2005) The Arctic climate paradox: The recent decrease of the Arctic Oscillation, Geophys. Res. Lett. 32:L06701, doi:10.1029/2004GL021752

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Parkinson CL and Comiso JC (2008), Antarctic sea ice from AMSR-E from two algorithms and comparisons with sea ice from SSM/I, J. Geophys. Res. 113:C02S06, doi:10.1029/2007JC004253

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Parkinson CL, Comiso JC, Zwally HJ, Cavalieri DJ, Gloersen P, and Campbell WJ (1987) Arctic sea ice 1973-1976 from satellite passive microwave observations, NASA Spec. Publ. 489

    Google Scholar 

  • Parkinson CL, Cavalieri DJ, Gloersen P, Zwally HJ, and Comiso JC (1999) Arctic sea ice extents, areas, and trends, 1978-1996, J. Geophys. Res. 104(C9):20837-20856

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Perovich DK, Tucker III WB, and Ligett KA (2002) Aerial Observations of the evolution of ice surface conditions during summer, J. Geophys. Res. 107(C10):8048, doi:10.1029/2000JC000449

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Peterson RG and White WB (1998) Slow teleconnections linking the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave with the tropica; El Nino-Southern Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res. 103(C11):24573-24583

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Proshutinsky AY and Johnson MA (1997) Two circulation regimes of the wind-driven Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res. 102:12493-12514

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Rothrock DA, Yu Y, Maykut G (1999) Thinning of the Arctic sea-ice cover. Geophys Res Lett 26:3469-3472

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Savage ML and Stearns CR (1985) Climate in the vicinity of Ross Island, Antarctica, Antarct. J. U.S. 20:1-9

    Google Scholar 

  • Smith Jr WO, Nelson DM (1985) Phytoplankton bloom produced by a receding ice edge in the Ross Sea: Spatial coherence with the density field. Science 227:163-166

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Smith SD, Muench RD, Pease CH (1990) Polynyas and leads: An overview of physical processes and environment. J Geophys Res 95(C6):9461-9479

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stammerjohn SE, Marinson DG, Smith RC, Yuan X, and Rind D (2008) Trends in Antarctic annual sea ice retreat and advance and their relation to El Nino-Southern Oscillation and Southern Annular Mode variability, J. Geophys. Res. 113:C03S90, doi:10.1029/2007JC004269

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Steig EJ, Schneider DP, Rutherford SD, Mann ME, and Comiso JC (2009) Warming of the Antarctic ice sheet surface since the 1957 International Geophysical Year, Nature 457:459-463

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stroeve JC, Holland MM, Meier W, Scambos T, and Serreze M (2007a) Arctic sea ice decline: Faster than forecast. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34:L09501, doi:10.1029/2007/GL029703

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Stroeve J, Holland MM, Meier W, Scambos T, Serreze MC (2007) Arctic sea ice decline: Faster than forecast. Geophys Res Lett 34:L09501, doi:10.1029/2007GL0029703

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Sullivan CW, Arrigo KR, McClain CR, Comiso JC, and Firestone J (1993) Distributions of phytoplankton blooms in the Southern Ocean, Science 262:1832-1837

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Thompson DW and Wallace JM (1998) The Arctic oscillation signature in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields, Geophys. Res. Lett. 25(9):1297-1300

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Turner J, Comiso JC, Marshall GJ, Connolley WM, Lachlan-Cope TA, Bracegirdle T, Wang Z, Meredith M, and Maksym T (2009) Antarctic sea ice extent increases as a result of anthropogenic activity, Geophys. Res. Lett. 36:L08502, doi:10.1029/2009GL037524

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Tsatsoulis C, Kwok R (Editors) (1998) Analysis of SAR data of the Polar Oceans: Recent Advances. Springer-Verlag, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  • Vilma T, Launiainen J (1993) Icer drift in the Weddell Sea in 1990-1991 as tracked by a satellite buoy. J Geophys Res 98:14471-14485

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Vinje T (2001) Fram Strait ice fluxes and atmospheric circulation 1950-2000. J. Clim. 14:3508-3517

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Vinje T and Finnekasa O (1986) The ice transport through the Fram Strait, Norsk Polariinst. Skrifter Rep. 186:39

    Google Scholar 

  • Wadhams P (1997) Ice thickness in the Arctic Ocean: The statistical reliability of experimental data. J Geophys Res 102(C13):27,951-27,959

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wadhams P (2000) Ice in the Ocean. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, London, UK

    Google Scholar 

  • Wadhams P and Comiso JC (1992) The ice thickness distribution inferred using remote sensing techniques. in: Carsey F (ed) Microwave remote sensing of sea ice, AGU Geophuysical Monograph 68, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  • Wadhams P and Davis NR (2000) Further evidence of ice thinning in the Arctic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett. 27:3973-3975

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wadhams P, Lange MA, Ackley SF (1987) The ice thickness distribution across the Atlantic sector of the Antarctic Ocean in midwinter. J Geophys Res 92(C13):14535-14552

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wadhams P, Tucker W, Krabill W, Swift R, Comiso J, Davis N (1992) The relationship between sea ice freeboard and draft in the Arctic Basin and apllications for ice thickness monitoring. J Geophys Res 97(C12):20325-20334

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Walsh JE, Chapman WL, and Shy TL (1996) Recent decrease of sea level pressure in the Central Arctic, J. Clim. 9:480-486

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • White WB and Peterson RG (1996) An Antarctic circumpolar wave in surface pressure, wind, temperature and sea ice extent, Nature 380:699-702

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Worby AP and Comiso JC (2004) Studies of Antarctic sea ice edge and ice extent from satellite and ship observations, Remote Sens Environ 92(1):98-111

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yang J and Comiso JC (2007) Unexpected seasonal variability in salinity of the Beaufort Sea upper layer in 1996-1997, J. Geophys. Res. 112:C05034, doi:10.1029/2004JC002716

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Yang J, Comiso J, Krishfield R, and Honjo S (2001) The role of synoptic storms in the development of the 1997 warming and freshening event in the Beaufort Sea, Geophys. Res. Lett. 28(5):799-802

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zwally HJ, Comiso JC, Parkinson CL, Campbell WJ, Carsey FD, and Gloersen P (1983) Antarctic sea ice 1973-1976 from satellite passive microwave observations. NASA Spec. Publ. 459, Greenbelt, MD

    Google Scholar 

  • Zwally HJ, Comiso JC, and Gordon AL (1985) Antarctic offshore leads and polynyas and oceanographic effects, in: Jacobs S (ed) Oceanology of the Antarctic Continental Shelf, Antarctic Research Volume 43, pp. 203-226

    Google Scholar 

  • Zwally HJ, Yi D, Kwok R, Zhao Y (2008) ICESat measurements of sea ice freeboard and estimate of sea ice thickness in the Weddell Sea. J Geophys Res 113:doi:10.1029/2007/JC004284

    Google Scholar 

  • Zwally HJ, Comiso JC, Parkinson CL, Cavalieri DJ, and Gloersen P (2002) Variability of the Antarctic sea ice cover, J. Geophys. Res. 107(C5):1029-1047

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Josefino Comiso .

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2010 United States Government as represented by the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Comiso, J. (2010). Characteristics and Variability of the Sea Ice Cover. In: Polar Oceans from Space. Atmospheric and Oceanographic Sciences Library, vol 41. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-68300-3_7

Download citation