Advertisement

Hip

A. Radiologic Perspective: Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Athlete with Hip and Groin Pain
B. Orthopedic Perspective: Hip Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Cheryl A. Petersilge
  • Carlos A. Guanche

As magnetic resonance (MR) has become increasingly more popular for assessment of hip and groin pain, our knowledge of the many pathologic conditions affecting the hip and pelvis has grown. Magnetic resonance has contributed significantly to our understanding of sports-related injuries as well as to underlying conditions such as femoroacetabular impingement, which can lead to pain and limited range of motion.

Localization of pain originating from the hip or pelvis is clinically difficult. Patients present with nonspecific complaints of hip pain, groin pain, pelvic pain, and even medial knee pain. As discussed in the previous chapter, the differential diagnosis includes internal derangements of the hip, femoroacetabular impingement, loose bodies, bursitis, stress injuries and stress fractures, musculotendinous injuries, tendon avulsions, sports hernias, as well as nerve injury, arthritis, and infection. The site of injury may be the hip joint, the symphysis pubis, the sacroiliac joint, the many sites of tendon origin and insertion, as well as the anterior abdominal wall and inguinal canal. The athletes most at risk for these injuries are those engaged in sports such as soccer, ice hockey, and track—sports that involve kicking, sprinting, and pivoting.

Keywords

Femoral Neck Femoral Head Bone Marrow Edema Groin Pain Magnetic Resonance Arthrography 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Chandler SB. The iliopsoas bursa in man. Anat Rec 1934;58:235–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Robinson P, White LM, Agur A, et al. Obturator externus bursa: anatomic origin and MR imaging features of pathologic involvement. Radiology 2003;228:230–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ferguson SJ, Bryant JT, Ganz R, et al. The acetabular labrum seal: a poroelastic finite element model. Clin Biomech 2000:15; 463–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ferguson SJ, Bryant JT, Ganz R, et al. The influence of the acetabular labrum on hip joint cartilage consolidation: a poroelastic finite element model. J Biomech 2000:33;953–960.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ferguson SJ, Bryant JT, Ganz R et al. An in vitro investigation of the acetabular labrum seal in hip joint mechanics. J Biomech 2003:36;171–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Petersen W, Petersen F, Tillmann B. Structure and vascularization of the acetabular labrum with regard to the pathogenesis and healing of labral lesions. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2003;123: 283–288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Seldes RM, Tan V, Hunt J, et al. Anatomy, histologic features and vascularity of the adult acetabular labra. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2001:382;232–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Walker JM. Histological study of the fetal development of the human acetabulum and labrum: significance in congenital hip disease. Yale J Biol Med 1981:54;255–263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ito K, Leunig M, Ganz R. Histopathologic features of the acetabular labrum in femoroacetabular impingement. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2004:429;262–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kelly B, Shapiro GS, Digiovanni CW, et al. Vascularity of the hip labrum: a cadaveric investigation. Arthroscopy 2005: 21;3–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    McCarthy JC, Noble PC, Schuck MR, et al. The role of labral lesions to development of early degenerative hip disease. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2001:393:25–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McCarthy J, Noble P, Aluisio F V, et al. Anatomy, pathologic features, and treatment of acetabular labral tears. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2003;406:38–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim YT, Azuma H. The nerve endings of the acetabular labrum. Clin Orthop Rel Res 1995;320:176–181.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Abe I, Harada Y, Oinuma K, et al. Acetabular labrum: abnormal findings at MR imaging in asymptomatic hips. Radiology 2000;216:576–581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cotten A, Boutry N, Demondion X, et al. Acetabular labrum: MRI in asymptomatic volunteers. J Comp Assist Tomogr 1998; 22:1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lecouvet FE, Vande Berg BC, Malghem J, et al. MR imaging of the acetabular labrum: variations in 200 asymptomatic hips. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1996;167:1025–1028.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Keene GS, Villar RN. Arthroscopic anatomy of the hip: an in vivo study. Arthroscopy 1994;10:329–399.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Plotz CMJ, Brossman J, Schunke M, et al. Magnetic resonance arthrography of the acetabular labrum. Macroscopic and histological correlation in 20 cadavers. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 2000;82–B:426–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tan V, Seldes RM, Katz MA, et al. Contribution of acetabular labrum to articulating surface area and femoral head coverage in adult hip joints: an anatomic study in cadavera. Am J Orthop 2001:30;809–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Czerny C, Hofmann S, Urban M, et al. MR arthrography of the adult acetabular-labral complex: correlation with surgery and anatomy. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1999;173:345–349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hodler J, Yu JS, Goodwin D, et al. MR arthrography of the hip: improved imaging of the acetabular labrum with histologic cor-relation. Am J Roentgenol 1995;165:887–891.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dinauer PA, Murphy KP, Carroll JF. Sublabral sulcus at the posteroinferior acetabulum: a potential pitfall in MR arthrography diagnosis of acetabular labral tears. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004:183;1745–1753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Petersilge CA, Haque MA, Petersilge WJ, et al. Acetabular labral tears: evaluation with MR arthrography. Radiology 1996; 200:231–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fitzgerald RH. Acetabular labrum tears: Diagnosis and management. Clin Orthop Rel Res 1995; 311:60–68.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Moore SG, Dawson KL. Red and yellow marrow in the femur: age-related changes in appearance at MR imaging. Radiology 1990; 175:219–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ricci C, Cova M, Kang YS, et al. Normal age-related patterns of cellular and fatty bone marrow distribution in the axial skeleton: MR imaging study. Radiology 1990;177:83–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Waitches G, Zawin JK, Poznanski AK. Sequence and rate of bone marrow conversion in the femora of children as seen on MR imaging: are accepted standards accurate? Am J Roentgen 1994;162:1399–1406.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    VandeBerg B, Lecouvet F, Moysan P, et al. MR assessment of red marrow distribution and composition in the proximal femur: cor-relation with clinical and laboratory parameters. Skeletal Radiol 1997;26:589–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    VandeBerg BC, Malghem J, Lecouvet FE, et al. Classification and detection of bone marrow lesions with magnetic resonance imaging. Skeletal Radiol 1998;27:529–545.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Carlson DL, Mawdsley RH. Sports anemia: a review of the literature. Am J Sports Med 1986;1–4:109–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dawson KL, Moore SG, Rowland JM. Age-related marrow changes in the pelvis: MR and anatomic findings. Radiology 1992;183:47–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Levine CD, Schweitzer ME, Ehrlich MS. Pelvic marrow in adults. Skeletal Radiol 1994;23:343–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Czerny C, Hofmann S, Kneehole A, et al. Lesions of the acetabular labrum: accuracy of MR imaging and MR arthrography in detection and staging. Radiology 1996;200:225–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Too Mayan GA, Holman WR, Major NM, et al. Sensitivity of MR arthrography in the evaluation of acetabular labral tears. AJR 2006;186:449–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Byrd JWT, Jones KS. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical assessment, magnetic resonance imaging, magnetic resonance arthrography, and intra-articular injection in hip arthroscopy patients. Am J Sports Med 2004;32:1668–1674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Edwards DJ, Lomas D, Villar RH. Diagnosis of the painful hip by magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopy. J Bone Joint Surg 1995;77—B:374–376.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Knuesel PR, Pfirrmann CW, Noetzli HP, et al. MR Arthrography of the hip: diagnostic performance of a dedicated water-excitation 3D double-echo steady-state sequence to detect cartilage lesions. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004;183:1729–1735.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schmid MR, Notzli HP, Zanetti M, et al. Cartilage lesions in the hip: diagnostic effectiveness of MR arthrography. Radiology 2003;226:382–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chan YS, Lien LC, Hsu HL, et al. Evaluating hip labral tears using magnetic resonance arthrography: a prospective study comparing hip arthroscopy and magnetic resonance arthrography diagnosis. Arthroscopy 2005;21:1250J.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Horii M, Kubo T, Hirasawa Y. Radial MRI of the hip with moderate osteoarthritis. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 2000;82—B:364–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kubo T, Horii M, Harada Y, et al. Radial-sequence magnetic resonance imaging in evaluation of acetabular labrum. J Orthop Sci 1999;4:328–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Plotz CMJ, Brossmann J, von Knoch M, et al. Magnetic resonance arthrography of the acetabular labrum: value of radial reconstructions. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2001;121:450–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Siebenrock KA, Wahab KH, Werlen S, et al. Abnormal extension of the femoral head epiphysis as a cause of cam impingement. Clin Orthop Relat Res 2004;418:54–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mintz D, Hooper T, Connell D, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hip: detection of labral and chondral abnormalities using noncontrast imaging. Arthroscopy 2005:21;385–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rossi F, Dragoni S. Acute avulsion fractures of the pelvis in adolescent competitive athletes: prevalence, location and sports distribution of 203 cases collected. Skeletal Radiol 2001;30:127–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bertin KC, Horstman J, Coleman SS. Isolated fracture of the lesser trochanter in adults: an initial manifestation of metastatic malignant disease. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1984;66:770–773.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bui-Mansfield LT, Chew FS, Lenchik L, et al. Nontraumatic avulsions of the pelvis. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2002;178:423–427.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Phillips CD, Pope TL Jr, Jones JE, et al. Nontraumatic avulsion of the lesser trochanter: a pathognomonic sign of metastatic disease? Skeletal Radiol 1988;17:106–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fernbach SK, Wilkinson RH. Avulsion injuries of the pelvis and proximal femur. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1981;137:581–584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Metzmaker JN, Pappas AM. Avulsion fractures of the pelvis. Am J Sports Med 1985;13:349–358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Stevens M, El-Khoury G, Kathol M, et al. Imaging features of avulsion injuries. Radiographics 1999;19:655–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sundar M, Carty H. Avulsion fractures of the pelvis in children: a report of 32 fractures and their outcome. Skeletal Radiol 1994;23:85–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Brandser EA, El-Khoury GY, Kathol MH. Adolescent hamstring avulsions that simulate tumors. Emerg Radiol 1995;2:273–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yamamoto T, Akisue T, Nakatiani T, et al. Apophysitis of the ischial tuberosity mimicking a neoplasm on magnetic resonance imaging. Skeletal Radiol 2004;33:737–740.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Matheson GO, Clement DB, McKenzie DC, et al. Stress fractures in athletes. A study of 320 cases. Am J Sports Med 1987;15:46–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ahovuo JA, Kiuru MJ, Visuri T. Fatigue stress fractures of the sacrum: diagnosis with MR imaging. Eur Radiol 2004;14: 500–505.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kiuru M, Pihlajamaki H, Ahovuo J. fatigue stress injuries of the pelvic bones and proximal femur: evaluation with MR imaging. Eur Radiol 2003;13:605–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Milgrom C, Giladi M, Stein M et al. Stress fractures in military recruits. A prospective study showing an unusually high incidence. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1985;67:732–735.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Williams T, Puckett M, Dension G, et al. Acetabular stress fractures in military endurance athletes and recruits: incidence and MRI and scintigraphic findings. Skeletal Radiol 2002;31:277–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hohmann E, Wortler K, Imhoff AB. MR imaging of the hip and knee before and after marathon running. Am J Sports Med 2004;32:55–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Yao L, Johnson C, Gentili A, et al. Stress injuries of bone: analysis of MR imaging staging criteria. Acad Radiol 1998;5: 34–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Waters PM, Millis MB. Hip and pelvic injuries in the young athlete. Clin Sports Med 1988;7:513–526.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Major N, Helms C. Pelvic stress injuries: the relationship between osteitis pubis (symphysis pubis stress injury) and sacroiliac abnormalities in athletes. Skeletal Radiol 1997;26:711–717.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Overdeck KH, Palmer WE. Imaging of the hip and groin injuries in athletes. Semin Musculoskeletal Radiol 2004;8:41–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Niva MH, Kiuru MJ, Haataja R, et al. Fatigue injuries of the femur. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 2005;87:1385–1390.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Slocum KA, Gorman JD, Puckett ML, et al. Resolution of abnormal MR signal intensity in patients with stress fractures of the femoral neck. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1997;168:1295–1299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Devas MB. Stress fractures of the femoral neck. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1965;47—B:728–738.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Giladi M, Milgrom C, Kashtan H, et al. Recurrent stress fractures in military recruits. One-year follow-up of 66 recruits. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1986;68:439–441.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Song WS, Yoo JJ, Koo KH, et al. Subchondral fatigue fracture of the femoral head in military recruits. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 2004;86—A:1917–1924.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Johnson AW, Weiss CB Jr, Stento K, et al. Stress fractures of the sacrum: an atypical cause of low back pain in the female athlete. Am J Sports Med 29:498–508.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Major NM, Helms CA. Sacral stress fractures in long-distance runners. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2000;174:727–729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Weaver CJ, Major NM, Garrett WE, et al. Femoral head osteo-chondral lesions in painful hips of athletes: MR imaging findings. AJR 2002;178:973–977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Anderson K, Strickland S, Warren R. Hip and groin injuries in athletes. Am J Sports Med 2001;29:521–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Moorman CT III, Warren RF, Hershman EB, et al. Traumatic posterior hip subluxation in American football. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 2003:85—A;1190–1196.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wilson AJ, Murphy WA, Hardy DC, et al. Transient osteoporosis: transient bone marrow edema? Radiology 1988;167:757–760.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bloem JL. Transient osteoporosis of the hip: MR imaging. Radiology 1988;167:753–755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Malizos KN, Zibis AH, Dailiana Z, et al. MR imaging findings in transient osteoporosis of the hip. Eur J Radiol 2004;50:238–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Miyanishi K, Yamamoto T, Nakashima Y, et al. Subchondral changes in transient osteoporosis of the hip. Skeletal Radiol 2001;30:255–261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Yamamoto T, Kubo T, Hirasawa Y, et al. A clinicopathologic study of transient osteoporosis of the hip. Skeletal Radiol 1999;28:621–627.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    VandeBerg BE, Malghem JJ, Labaisse MA, et al. MR imaging of avascular necrosis and transient marrow edema of the femoral head. Radiographics 1993;13:501–520.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Anderson M, Kaplan P, Dussault R. Adductor insertion avulsion syndrome (thigh splints). AJR Am J Roentgenol 2001;177: 673–675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Anderson SE, Johnston JO, O'Donell RO, et al. MR imaging of sports-related pseudotumor in children: mid femoral diaphyseal periostitis at insertion site of adductor musculature. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2001;176:1227–1231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Koulouris G, Connell D. Evaluation of the hamstring muscle complex following acute injury. Skeletal Radiol 2003;32: 582–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Connell DA, Schneider-Kolsky ME, Hoving JL, et al. Longitudinal study comparing sonographic and MRI assessments of acute and healing hamstring injuries. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004;183:975–984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Brandser EA, El-Khoury GY, Kathol MH, et al. Hamstring injuries: radiographic, conventional tomographic, CT and MR imaging characteristics. Radiology 1995;197:257–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    De Smet AA, Best TM. MR imaging of the distribution and location of acute hamstring injuries in athletes. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2000;174:393–399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Slavotinek JP, Verrall JM, Fon GT. Hamstring injury in athletes: using MR imaging measurements to compare extent of muscle injury with amount of time lost from competition. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2002;179:1621–1628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Pomeranz SJ, Heidt RS JR. MR imaging in the prognostication of hamstring injury. Work in progress. Radiology 1993;189:897–900.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Chung CB, Robertson JE, Cho GJ, et al. Gluteus medius tendon tears and avulsive injuries in elderly women: Imaging findings in six patients. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1999;173:351–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Karpinski MRK, Piggott H. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1985;67—B:762–763.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kingzett-Taylor A, Tirman P, Feller J, et al. Tendinosis and tears of the gluteus medius and minimus muscles as a cause of hip pain: MR imaging findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1999;173:1123–1126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Clancy WG. Runner's injuries. 2. Evaluation and treatment of specific injuries. Am J Sports Med 1980;8:287–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Slawski DP, Howard RF. Surgical management of refractory trochanteric bursitis. Am J Sports Med 1997;25:287–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Yu JS, Habib PA. Common injuries related to weightlifting: MR imaging perspective. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol 2005;9:289–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bunker TD, Esler CNA, Leach WJ. Rotator-cuff tear of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1997;79—B:618–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Kagan A. Rotator-cuff tear of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1998;80—B:182–183.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Pfirmann CWA, Chung CB, Theumann NH, et al. “Greater trochanter of the hip” attachment of the abductor mechanism and a complex of three bursae-MR imaging and MR bursography in cadavers and MR imaging in asymptomatic volunteers. Radiology 2001;221:469–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bird PA, Oakley SP, Shnier R, et al. Prospective evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging and physical examination findings in patients with greater trochanteric pain syndrome. Arthritis Rheum 2001;44:2138–2145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Cvitanic O, Henzie G, Skezas N, et al. MRI diagnosis of tears of the hip abductor tendons (gluteus medius and gluteus minimus). AJR Am J Roentgenol 2004;182:137–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Johnston CAM, Wiley JP, Lindsay DM, et al. Iliopsoas bursitis and tendonitis: a review. Sports Med 1998;25:271–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Varma DGK, Richli WR, Charnsangavej C, et al. MR appearance of the distended iliopsoas bursa. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1991;156:1025–1028.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Wunderbaldinger P, Bremer C, Schellenberger E, et al. Imaging features of iliopsoas bursitis. Eur Radiol 2002;12:409–415.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Guerra J Jr, Armbruster TG, Resnick D, et al. The adult hip: an anatomic study. Part II: the soft-tissue landmarks. Radiology 1978;128:11–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lecouvet FE, Demondion X, Leemrijse T, et al. Spontaneous rupture of the distal iliopsoas tendon: clinical and imaging findings. Eur Radiol 2005;15:2341–2346.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Schaberg JE, Harper MC, Allen WC. The snapping hip syndrome. Am J Sports Med 1984;12:361–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Allen WC, Cope R. Coxa saltans: the snapping hip revisited. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1995;3:303–308.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Janzen DL, Patridge E, Logan M, et al. The snapping hip: clinical and imaging findings in transient subluxation of the iliopsoas tendon. Can Assoc Radio J 1996;47:202–208.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Vaccaro JP, Sauser DD, Beals RK. Iliopsoas bursa imaging: efficacy in depicting abnormal iliopsoas tendon motion in patients with internal snapping hip syndrome. Radiology 1995;197:853–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Altenberg AR. Acetabular labrum tears: a cause of hip pain and degenerative osteoarthritis. South Med J 1977:70;174–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Ganz R, Parvizi J, Beck M et al. Femoroacetabular impingement a cause for osteoarthritis of the hip. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2003:417;112–120.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Harris WH, Bourne RB, Oh I. Intra-articular acetabular labrum: a possible etiological factor in certain cases of osteoarthritis of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg 1979:61—A;510–514.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Hase T, Ueo T. Acetabular labral tear: arthroscopic diagnosis and treatment. Arthroscopy 1999;15:138–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ikeda T, Awaya G, Suzuki S, et al. Torn acetabular labrum in young patients. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1988;70–13–16.Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Lage LA, Patel JV, Villar RN. The acetabular labral tear: an arthroscopic classification. Arthroscopy 1996;12:;269–272.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Noguchi Y, Miura H, Takasugi S, et al. Cartilage and labrum degeneration in the dysplastic hip generally originates in the anterosuperior weight-bearing area: an arthroscopic observation. Arthroscopy 1999:15;496–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Beck M, Leunig M, Parvizi J, et al. Anterior femoroacetabular impingement. Part II. Midterm results of surgical treatment. Clin Orthop 2004;418:67–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Beck M, Kalhor M, Leunig M, et al. Hip morphology influences the pattern of damage to the acetabular cartilage: femoroacetabular impingement as a cause of early osteoarthritis of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 2005;87:1012–1018.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Eijer H, Myers SR, Ganz R. Anterior femoroacetabular impingement after femoral neck fractures. J Orthop Trauma 2001;15:475–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ito K, Minka MA II, Leunig M, et al. Femoroacetabular impingement and the cam effect: an MRI-based quantitative anatomical study of the femoral head-neck offset. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 2001;83:171–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Leunig M, Beck M, Woo A, et al. Acetabular rim degeneration. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2003:413;201–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Leunig M, Podeszwa D, Beck M, et al. Magnetic resonance arthrography of labral disorders in hips with dysplasia and impingement. Clin Orthop 2004;418:74–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Notzli HP, Wyss RG, Stoecklin CH, et al. The contour of the femoral head-neck junction as a predictor for the risk of anterior impingement. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 2002;84: 556–560.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kassarjian A, Yoon LS, Belzile E, et al. Triad of MR arthrographic findings in patients with cam-type femoroacetabular impingement. Radiology 2005;236:588–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Fargo LA, Glick JM, Sampson TG. Hip arthroscopy for acetabular labral tears. Arthroscopy 1999;15:132–137.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Dameron TB. Bucket-handle tear of acetabular labrum accompanying posterior dislocation of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1959;41:131–134.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Paterson I. The torn acetabular labrum A block to reduction of a dislocated hip. J Bone Joint Surg 1957:39—B;306–309.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Rashleigh-Belcher HJC, Cannon SR. Recurrent dislocation of the hip with a “Bankart-type” lesion. J Bone Joint Surg 1986;68—B:398–399.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Shea KP, Kalamchi A, Thompson GH. Acetabular epiphysis-labrum entrapment following traumatic anterior dislocation of the hip in children. J Pediatr Orthop 1986;6:215–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Leunig M, Sledge JB, Gill TJ, et al. Traumatic labral avulsion from the stable rim: a constant pathology in displaced transverse acetabular fractures. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2003:123; 392–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Jager M, Wild A, Westhoff B, et al. Femoroacetabular impingement caused by a femoral osseous head-neck bump deformity: clinical, radiological, and experimental results. J Orthop Sci 2004;9:256–263.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Cooperman DR, Charles LM, Pathria M, et al. Post-mortem description of slipped capital femoral epiphysis. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1992;74—B:595–599.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Dorrell JH, Catterall A. The torn acetabular labrum. J Bone Joint Surg 1986;68—B:400–403.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Goodman DA, Feighan JE, Smith AD, et al. Subclinical slipped capital femoral epiphysis. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1997;79:1489–1487.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Klaue K, Durnin CW, Ganz R. The acetabular rim syndrome. J Bone Joint Surg 1991;73—B:423–429.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Leunig M, Casillas MM, Hamlet M, et al. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis Early mechanical damage to the acetabular cartilage by a prominent femoral metaphysis. Acta Orthop Scan 2000;71:370–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    McCarthy JC, Lee J. Acetabular dysplasia: a paradigm of arthroscopic examination of chondral injuries. Clin Orthop Rel Res 2002:405;122–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Snow SW, Keret D, Scarangella S, et al. Anterior impingement of the femoral head: a late phenomenon of Legg-Calve-Perthes' disease. J Pediatr Orthop 1993;13:286–289.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Stulberg SD, Cordell LD, Harris WH, et al. Unrecognized childhood hip disease: a major cause of idiopathic osteoarthritis of the hip. In: The Hip. Proceedings of the Third Meeting of the Hip Society. St. Louis: CV Mosby, 1975:212–228.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Tonnis D, Heinecke A. Acetabular and femoral anteversion: relationship with osteoarthritis of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg [Am] 1999;81:1747–1770.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Beall DP, Sweet CF, Martin HD, et al. Imaging findings of femoroacetabular impingement syndrome. Skeletal Radiol 2005;34:691–701.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Reynolds D, Lucas J, Klaue K. Retroversion of the acetabulum: a cause of hip pain. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1999;81:281–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Siebenrock KA, Schoeniger R, Ganz R. Anterior femoro-acetabular impingement due to acetabular retroversion. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 2003;85:278–286.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    McCarthy JC, Busconi B. The role of hip arthroscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of hip disease. Orthopedics 1995;18:753–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Blankenbaker DG, De Smet AA, Keene JS. Abstracts of the Society of Skeletal Radiology: correlation of arthroscopic grading and localization of hip labral tears with MR arthrographic findings. Skeletal Radiol 2006;35:338.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Leunig M, Werlen S, Ungersbock A, et al. Evaluation of the acetabular labrum by MR arthrography. J Bone Joint Surg [Br] 1997;79—B:230–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Horii M, Kubo T, Inoue S, et al. Coverage of the femoral head by the acetabular labrum in dysplastic hips. Acta Orthop Scand 2003;74:287–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Crabbe JP, Martel W, Matthews. Rapid growth of femoral herniation pit. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1992;159:1038–1040.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Daenen B, Preidler KW, Padmanabhan S, et al. Symptomatic herniation pits of the femoral neck: anatomic and clinical study. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1997;168–149–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Pitt MJ, Graham AR, Shipman JH, et al. Herniation pit of the femoral neck. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1982;138:1115–1121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Leunig M, Beck M, Kalhor M, et al. Fibrocystic changes at anterosuperior femoral neck: prevalence in hips with femoroacetabular impingement. Radiology 2005;236:237–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Nokes SR, Vogler JB, Spritzer CE, et al. Herniation pits of the femoral neck: appearance at MR imaging. Radiology 1989;172:231–234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Haller J, Resnick D, Greenway G, et al. Juxtaacetabular ganglionic (or synovial) cysts: CT and MR features. J Comp Assist Tomogr 1989; 13:976–983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Lagier R, Seigne JM, Mbakop A. Juxta-acetabular mucoid cyst in a patient with osteoarthritis of the hip secondary to dysplasia. Int Orthop 1984;8:19–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Magee T, Hinson G. Association of paralabral cysts with acetabular disorders. AJR 2000;174:1381–1384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Schnarkowski P, Steinbach LS, Tirman PF, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of labral cysts of the hip. Skel Radiol 1996; 25:733–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Yukata K, Arai K, Yoshizumi Y, et al. Obturator neuropathy cause by an acetabular labral cyst: MRI findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2005;184:S112–S114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Sherman PM, Matchette MW, Sanders TG, et al. Acetabular paralabral cyst: an uncommon cause of sciatica. Skeletal Radiol 2003;32–90–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Gray AJ, Villar RN. The ligamentum teres of the hip: an arthroscopic classification of its pathology. Arthroscopy 1997;13:575–578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Byrd JW, Jones KS. Traumatic rupture of the ligamentum teres as a source of hip pain. Arthroscopy 2004;20:385–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Armfield DR, Martin R, Robertson DD, et al. Abstracts of the Society of Skeletal Radiology: detection of partial tears of the ligamentum teres using MR arthrography of the hip. Skeletal Radiol 2006;35:319–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Fredberg U, Kissmeyer-Nielsen P. The sportsman's hernia—fact or fiction? Scand J Med Sci Sports 1996;6:201–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Martens MA, Hansen L, Mulier JC. Adductor tendonitis and musculus rectus abdominis tendopathy. Am J Sports Med 1987;15:353–356.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Verrall GM, Hamilton IA, Slavotinek JP, et al. Hip joint range of motion reduction in sports-related chronic groin injury diagnosed as pubic bone stress injury. J Sci Med Sport 2005;8:77–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Lovell G. The diagnosis of chronic groin pain in athletes: a review of 189 cases. Aust J Sci Med Sport 1995;27:76–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Ekberg O, Persson NH, Abrahamsson P, et al. Longstanding groin pain in athletes. Sports Med 1988;6:56–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Fricker PA, Taunton JE, Ammann W. Osteitis pubis in athletes: infection, inflammation or injury? Sports Med 1991;12: 266–279.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Slavotinek JP, Verrall GM, Fon GT, et al. Groin pain in footballers: the association between preseason clinical and pubic bone magnetic resonance imaging findings and athlete outcome. Am J Sports Med 2005;33:894–899.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Verrall G, Slavotinek J, Fon G. Incidence of pubic bone marrow oedema in Australian rules football players: relation to groin pain. Br J Sports Med 2001;35:28–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Lovell G, Galloway H, Hopkins W, et al. Osteitis pubis and assessment of bone marrow edema at the pubic symphysis with MRI in an elite junior male soccer squad. Clin J Sport Med 2006;16:117–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Albers SL, Spritzer CE, Garrett WE JR, et al. MR findings in athletes with pubalgia. Skeletal Radiol 2001;30:270–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Gibbon W, Hession P. Disease of the pubis and pubic symphysis: MR imaging appearances. AJR Am J Roentgenol 1997;169:849–853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Brennan D, et al. Secondary cleft sign as a marker of injury in athletes with groin pain: MR image appearance and interpretation. Radiology 2005;235:162–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    O'Connell MJ, Powell T, McCaffrey NM, et al. Symphyseal cleft injection in the diagnosis and treatment of osteitis pubis in athletes. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2002;179:955–959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Wiley J. Traumatic osteitis pubis: the gracilis syndrome. Am J Sports Med 1983;11:360–363.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Irshad K, Feldman LS, Lavoie C, et al. Operative management of “hockey groin syndrome” 12 years of experience in National Hockey League players. Surgery 2001;130:759–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Ziprin P, Williams P, Foster ME. External oblique aponeurosis nerve entrapment as a cause of groin pain in the athlete. Br J Surg 1999;86:566–568.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Malycha P, Lovell G. Inguinal surgery in athletes with chronic groin pain: the “sportsman's” hernia. Aust N Z J Surg 1992;62:123–125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Taylor D, Meyers W, Moylan J, et al. Abdominal musculature abnormalities as a cause of groin pain in athletes: inguinal hernias and pubalgia. Am J Sports Med 1991;19:239–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Meyers WC, Foley D P, Garrett WE, et al. Management of severe lower abdominal or inguinal pain in high performance athletes. Pain (Performing athletes with abdominal or inguinal neuromuscular pain study group). Am J Sport Med 2000;28:2–8.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    van den Berg JC, de Valois JC, Go PM, et al. Detection of groin hernia with physical examination, ultrasound, and MRI compared with laparoscopic findings. Invest Radiol 1993;34: 739–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    DeAngelis NA, Busconi BD. Assessment and differential diagnosis of the painful hip. Clin Orthop 2003;406(1):11–18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Philippon MJ. The role of arthroscopic thermal capsulorrhaphy in the hip. Clin Sports Med 2001;20:817–819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Byrd JWT. Indications and contraindications. In: Byrd JWT, ed. Operative Hip Arthroscopy. New York: Thieme, 1998:69–82.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Fitzgerald RH Jr. Acetabular labrum tears: diagnosis and treatment. Clin Orthop Rel Res 1995;311:60–68.Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    McCarthy JC, Noble PC, Schuck MR, et al. The role of labral lesions to development of early hip disease. Clin Orthop 2001;393:25–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Ferguson SJ, Bryant JT, Ganz R, et al. The acetabular labrum seal: a poroelastic finite element model. Clin Biomech 2000;15: 463–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Kim YT, Azuma H. The nerve endings of the acetabular labrum. Clin Orthop 1995;320:176–181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Mason JB. Acetabular labral tears in the athlete. Clin Sports med 2001;20:779–790.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Dorfmann H, Boyer T. Arthroscopy of the hip: 12 years of experience. Arthroscopy 1999;15:67–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Lage LA, Patel JV, Villar RN. The acetabular labral tear: an arthroscopic classification. Arthroscopy 1996;12:269–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    McCarthy J, Noble P, Aluisio FV, Schuck M, Wright J, Lee JA. Anatomy, pathologic features, and treatment of acetabular labral tears. Clin Orthop 2003;406:38–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    McCarthy J, Barsoum W, Puri L, et al. The Role of hip arthroscopy in the elite athlete. Clin Orthop 2003;406:71–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Kelly BT, Buly RL. Hip arthroscopy update. Hosp Special Surg J 2005;1:40–48.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Czerny C, Hofmann S, Urban M, et al. MR arthrography of the adult acetabular capsular-labral complex: correlation with surgery and anatomy. AJR Am J Radiol 1999;173: 345–349.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Byrd JWT, Jones KS. Prospective analysis of hip arthroscopy with 2—year follow-up. Arthroscopy 2000;16(6):58–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Connell DA, Potter HG, Wickiewicz TL. Noncontrast magnetic resonance imaging of superior labral lesions. 102 cases confirmed at arthroscopic surgery. Am J Sports Med 1999;27: 208–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Kelly BT, Shapiro GS, Digiovanni CW, et al. Vascularity of the hip labrum: a cadaveric investigation. Arthroscopy 2005; 21:3–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Petersen W, Petersen F, Tillman B. Structure and vascularization of the acetabular labrum with regard to the pathogenesis and healing of labral lesions. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg 2003;123(6):282–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    McCarthy JC, Busconi B. The role of hip arthroscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of hip disease. Orthopedics 1995;18: 753–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Holgersson S, Brattstrom H, Mogensen B et al. Arthroscopy of the hip in juvenile chronic arthritis. J Pediatr Orthop 1981;1:273–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Maurice H, Crone M, Watt I. Synovial chondromatosis. J Bone Joint Surg 1988;70B:807–811.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Murphy F, Dahlin D, Sullivan C. Articular synovial chondromatosis. J Bone Joint Surg 1962;44A:77–86.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Mintz DN, Hooper T, Connell D, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hip: Detection of labral and chondral abnormalities using noncontrast imaging. Arthroscopy 2005;21:385–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Ganz R, Parvizi J, Beck M, et al. Femoroacetabular impingement: a cause for early osteoarthritis of the hip. Clin Orthop 2003;417:112–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Beck M, Leunig, Parvizi et al. Anterior Femoroacetabular impingement: part II: midterm results of surgical treatment. Clin Orthop 2004;418:67–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Lavigne M, Parvizi J, Beck M, et al. Anterior femoroacetabular impingement: part I: technique of joint preserving surgery. Clin Orthop 2004;413:61–66.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Ito K, Minka M, Leunig et al. Femoroacetabular impingement and the cam-effect. J Bone Joint Surg 2001;83B(2):171–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Kim YJ, Jaramillo D, Millis MB, et al. Assessment of early osteoarthritis in hip dysplasia with delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage. J Bone Joint Surg 2003;85(A):1987–1992.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Bashir A, Gray ML, Hartke J, Burstein D. Nondestructive imaging of human cartilage glycosaminoglycan concentration by MRI. Magn Reson Med 1999;41:857–865.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Gray AJR, Villar RN. The ligamentum teres of the hip: An arthroscopic classification of its pathology. Arthroscopy 1997;13:575–578.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Byrd JWT, Jones KS. Traumatic rupture of the ligamentum teres as a source of hip pain. Arthroscopy 2004;20:385–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Santori N, Villar RN. Arthroscopic findings in the initial stages of hip osteoarthritis. Orthopedics 1999;22:405–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Kelly BT, Williams RJ, Philippon MJ. Hip Arthroscopy: Current indications, treatment options, and management issues. Am J Sports Med 2003;31(6):1020–1037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Bellabarba C, Sheinkop MB, Kuo KN. Idiopathic hip instability. An unrecognized cause of coxa Saltans in the adult. Clin Orthop 1998;355:261–271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Liedenberg F, Dommisse GF. Recurrent post-traumatic dislocation of the hip. J Bone Joint Surg 1969;51B:632–637.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Philippon MJ. Debridement of acetabular labral tears associated with thermal capsulorrhaphy. Oper Tech Sports Med 2002;10:215–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Dorchak JD, Barrack RL, Kneisl JS, Alexander AH. Arthroscopic treatment of symptomatic synovial plica of the knee: long-term follow-up. Am J Sports Med 1991;19:503–507.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Dupont J Y. Synovial plicae of the knee: controversies and review. Clin Sports Med 1997;16:87–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Johnson DP, Eastwood DM, Witherow PJ. Symptomatic synovial plicae of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg 1993;75A:1485–1496.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Atlihan D, Jones DC, Guanche CA. Arthroscopic treatment of a symptomatic hip plica. Clin Orthop 2003;411:174–177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Frich LH, Lauritzen J, Juhl M. Arthroscopy in diagnosis and treatment of hip disorders. Orthopedics 1989;12:389–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Blickenstaff LD, Morris JM. Fatigue fracture of the femoral neck. J Bone Joint Surg 1966;48A:1031–1047.Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Shin AY, Gillingham BL. Fatigue fractures of the femoral neck in athletes. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1997;5:293–302.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Jones BH, Harris JM, Vinh TN, et al. Exercise-induced stress fractures and stress reactions of bone: epidemiology, etiology, and classification. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 1989;17:379–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Anderson K, Strickland SM, Warren RF. Hip and groin injuries in athletes. Am J Sports Med 2001;29:521–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Drinkwater BL, Nilson K, Chestnut CH III, et al. Bone mineral content of amenorrheic and eumenorrheic athletes. N Engl J Med 1984;311:277–281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    McBryde AM Jr. Stress fractures in runners. Clin Sports Med 1985;4:737–752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Fullerton LR Jr, Snowdy HA. Femoral neck stress fractures. Am J Sports Med 1988;16:365–377.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Atlihan D, Quick DC, Guanche CA. Stress fracture of the iliac bone in a young female runner. Orthopedics 2003; 26:729–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Iwamoto J, Takeda T. Stress fractures in athletes: review of 196 cases. J Orthop Sci 2003;8:273–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Greany RB, Gerber FH, Laughlin RL, et al. Distribution and natural history of stress fractures in U.S. Marine recruits. Radiology 1983;146:339–346.Google Scholar
  232. 232.
    Guanche CA, Kozin SH, Levy AS, et al. The use of MRI in the diagnosis of occult hip fractures in the elderly: a preliminary review. Orthopedics 1994;17:327–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Prather JL, Nusynowitz ML, Snowdy HA, et al. Scintigraphic findings in stress fractures. J Bone Joint Surg 1977;59A:869–874.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Aro H, Dahlstrom S. Conservative management of distraction-type stress fractures of the femoral neck. J Bone Joint Surg 1986;68B:65–67.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cheryl A. Petersilge
    • 1
  • Carlos A. Guanche
    • 2
  1. 1.Departments of Radiology and Orthopedic Surgery, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine; Marymount HospitalCleveland Clinic Health SystemClevelandUSA
  2. 2.Southern California Orthopedic InstituteVan NuysUSA

Personalised recommendations