Advertisement

The Interplay of Internal and External Scripts

A Distributed Cognition Perspective
  • Stefan Carmien
  • Ingo Kollar
  • Gerhard Fischer
  • Frank Fischer
Part of the Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning book series (CULS, volume 6)

Abstract

This chapter describes different script types that are involved when a person X is accomplishing a particular task Y. We refer to concepts and ideas from distributed cognition theories. It is assumed that individuals are holding internal scripts that guide them in the way they process tasks they are faced with, and these internal scripts are standing in a complex relationship to the external scripts provided by an artifact or by other persons. Three factors are regarded as crucial in order to describe the accomplishment of a task, namely (a) the actual activity, (b) knowledge underlying the activity, and (c) the executive function, a (meta-)cognitive instance that is setting the goals for the task and controls the system’s task accomplishment. For each of these three main factors, several sub-categories are introduced, on which two script approaches are compared. The first approach represents the socio-technical environment Memory Aiding Prompting System (MAPS) designed to support individuals with cognitive disabilities in accomplishing everyday tasks with a focus on “tools for living”. The second approach, the so-called collaborative argumentation script, represents a computer-supported collaborative inquiry learning environment to facilitate students’ collaborative argumentation with a focus on “tools for learning”. Implications of the comparison for the design of external scripts are derived and directions for future research are discussed.

Keywords

Executive Function Cognitive Disability Computer Support Collaborative Learn Collaboration Script Task Accomplishment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an Ecology of Mind, Chandler Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  2. Carmien, S. (2002). MAPS: PDA scaffolding for independence for persons with cognitive impairments. Presentation at HCIC Conference 2002. Retrieved June 21, 2006, from http://www.es.colorado.edu/~carmien/MAPS_boaster.pdfGoogle Scholar
  3. Carmien, S. (2006a) MAPS Website, Retrieved June 31, 2006, from http://www.cs.colorado.edu/~l3d/clever/projects/maps.htmlGoogle Scholar
  4. Carmien, S. (2006b) Moving the Fulcrum: Socio-Technical Environments Supporting Distributed Cognition for Persons with Cognitive Disabilities. Doctoral thesis. Univerity of Colorado, Boulder.Google Scholar
  5. Carmien, S., Dawe, M., Fischer, G., Gorman, A., Kintsch, A., & Sullivan, J. F. (2005) “Socio-Technical Environments Supporting People with Cognitive Disabilities Using Public Transportation,” Transactions on Human-Computer Interaction (ToCHI), 12(2), pp. 233–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carmien, S., DePaula, R., Gorman, A., & Kintsch, A. (2003). Increasing Workplace Independence for People with Cognitive Disabilities by Leveraging Distributed Cognition among Caregivers and Clients, ACM 2003 International Conference on Supporting Group Work (GROUP’ 03), pp. 95–104, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA.Google Scholar
  7. Carmien, S., DePaula, R., Gorman, A., & Kintsch, A. (2005b). Increasing Workplace Independence for People with Cognitive Disabilities by Leveraging Distributed Cognition among Caregivers and Clients, Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)-The Journal of Collaborative Computing, 13, 443–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Carmien, S., & Fischer, G. (2005) “Tools for Living and Tools for Learning,” 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Las Vegas, CD Rom.Google Scholar
  9. CLever (2005) CLever: Cognitive Levers-Helping People Help Themselves. Retrieved from http://l3d.cs.colorado.edu/clever/Google Scholar
  10. Cole, M., & Engeström, Y. (1993). A cultural-historical approach to distributed cognition. In G. Salomon (Ed.), Distributed cognitions: Psychological and educational considerations (pp. 1–46). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cox, R. (1999). Representation construction, externalised cognition and individual differences. Learning and Instruction, 9, 343–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.Google Scholar
  13. Engelbart, D. C. (1995). Toward Augmenting the Human Intellect and Boosting Our Collective IQ. Communications of the ACM, 38(8), pp. 30–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fischer, G. (2003). Distributed cognition: A conceptual framework for design-for-all. In C. Stephanidis (Ed.), Proceedings of HCI International 2003, Vol. 4 (pp. 78–82). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  15. Fischer, G., Giaccardi, E., Ye, Y., Sutcliffe, A. G., & Mehandjiev, N. (2004). Meta-Design: A Manifesto for End-User Development. Communications of the ACM, 47(9), 33–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fischer, G., & Giaccardi, E. (2006a). Meta-design: a framework for the future of end user development. In H. Lieberman, F. Paternò, & V. Wulf (Eds.), End user development — empowering people to flexibly employ advanced information and communication technology., Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. (in press)Google Scholar
  17. Fischer, G. (2006b). Distributed Intelligence: Extending the Power of the Unaided, Individual Human Mind. In Proceedings of Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI) Conference, Venice, May 23–26, 2006, (in press).Google Scholar
  18. Hollan, J., Hutchins, E., & Kirsch, D. (2001). Distributed Cognition: Toward a New Foundation for Human-Computer Interaction Research. In J. M. Carroll (Ed.), Human-Computer Interaction in the New Millennium (pp. 75–94). New York: ACM Press.Google Scholar
  19. Kollar, I., Fischer, F., & Hesse, F. W. (in press). Collaboration scripts — a conceptual analysis. Educational Psychology Review.Google Scholar
  20. Kollar, I., Fischer, F., & Slotta, J. D, (2005). Internal and external collaboration scripts in webbased science learning at schools. In T. Koschmann, D. Suthers, & T.-W. Chan (Eds.), Computer Supported Collaborative Learning 2005: The Next 10 Years (pp. 331–340). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  21. Leitão, S. (2000). The potential of argument in knowledge building. Human Development, 43, 332–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Norman, D. A. (1993). Things that make us smart. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  23. Norman, D. A., & Draper, S. W. (Eds.). (1986). User-Centered System Design, New Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  24. O’Donnell, A. M. (1999). Structuring dyadic interaction through scripted cooperation. In A. M. O’Donnell & A. King (Eds.), Cognitive perspectives on peer learning (pp. 179–196). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  25. O’Donnell, A. M., & Dansereau, D. F. (1992). Scripted cooperation in student dyads: A method for analyzing and enhancing academic learning and performance. In R. Hertz-Lazarowitz & N. Miller (Eds.), Interaction in cooperative groups: The theoretical anatomy of group learning (pp. 120–141). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Pea, R. D. (1993). Practices of distributed intelligence and design for education. In G. Salomon (Ed.), Distributed cognitions: psychological and educational considerations (pp. 47–87). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Pea, R. D. (2004). The Social and Technological Dimensions of Scaffolding and Related Theoretical Concepts for Learning, Education, and Human Activity. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13(3), 423–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Perkins, D. N. (1993). Person-plus: a distributed view of thinking and learning. In G. Salomon (Ed.), Distributed cognitions: psychological and educational considerations (pp. 88–110). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Salomon, G. (1990). Cognitive effects with and of computer technology. Communication Research, 17(1), 26–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Salomon, G. (1993). No distribution without individuals’ cognition: a dynamic interactional view. In G. Salomon (Ed.), Distributed cognitions: psychological and educational considerations (pp. 110–138). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  31. Schank, R. C, (2002). Designing world-class e-learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  32. Schank, R. C, & Abelson, R. P. (1977). Scripts, plans, goals and understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  33. Schuler, D., & Namioka, A. (Eds.). (1993). Participatory Design: Principles and Practices. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum AssociatesGoogle Scholar
  34. Slotta, J. D. (2004). Web-Based Inquiry Science Environment. In M. C. Linn, E. A. Davis, & P. Bell (Eds.). Internet Environments for Science Education (pp. 203–231). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  35. Stahl, G. (2002). Contributions to a theoretical framework for CSCL. In G. Stahl (Ed.). Computer support for collaborative learning: Foundations for a CSCL community. Proceedings of CSCL 2002 (pp. 62–71). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  36. Suchman, L. A. (1987). Plans and Situated Actions. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Sullivan, J., & Fischer, G. (2003). Mobile Architectures and Prototypes to Assist Persons with Cognitive Disabilities using Public Transportation, 26th International Conference on Technology and Rehabilitation, Atlanta GA, USA. (CD archive).Google Scholar
  38. The American Association on Mental Retardation (1992). AAMR definition of Mental Retardation.Google Scholar
  39. Toulmin, S. (1958). The uses of argument. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Carmien
    • 1
  • Ingo Kollar
    • 2
  • Gerhard Fischer
    • 1
  • Frank Fischer
    • 2
  1. 1.University of ColoradoBoulder
  2. 2.Knowledge Media Research CenterTübingen

Personalised recommendations