Information and communication technology in education: Desires, promises, and obstacles

  • Erno Lehtinen

Abstract

Rather than a narrow inter-relatationship focused on technical skills, the challenge of ICT for education lies in the new types of knowledge that are opened through the technology. Complex problems in a world of rapid cultural and technological change, a re-consideration of styles of working, and new types of communication challenge both society and education. The focus of research has shifted to the social interaction when computers are used as part of the new learning environment. Yet despite promises of more effective learning, the reality is that learning differences are measurable mainly in experimental or special project classrooms. Change in regular classrooms has proved elusive. Recent evaluations of teachers’ responses to the pedagogical challenges illustrate the need for more effective implementation and dissemination strategies.

Key words

communication skills learning theory social interaction change research 

References

  1. Achtenhagen, F. (1993) Learning, thinking and acting in complex economic situations. Economia 3 (1) 18–17.Google Scholar
  2. Baskerville, R., Smithson, S., Ojelanki, N., and Degross, J. (1995) Information technology and new organisational forms: Choosing chaos over panaceas. European Journal of Information Systems 4 (2) 66–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bereiter, C. and Scardamalia, M. (1993) Surpassing Ourselves: An Inquiry into the Nature and Implications of Expertise. Chicago, IL: Open Court.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, J.S., Collins, A., and Duguid, P. (1989) Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher 18 (1) 32–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cobb, P. (1994) Constructivism and learning. In T. Husen and T.N. Postlethwaite (eds.), International Encyclopedia of Education. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  6. Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt (1996) Multimedia environments for enhancing learning in mathematics. In S. Vosniadou, E. De Corte and H. Mandl (eds.), International Perspectives on Psychological Foundations of Technology-Based Learning Environments. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  7. Collins, A. and Brown, J. S. (1988) Computer as a tool for learning through reflection. In: H. Mandl and A. Lesgold (eds.) Learning Issues for Intelligent Tutoring Systems. New York: Springer-Verlag.Google Scholar
  8. Crook, C. (1994) Computers and the Collaborative Experience of Learning. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Cuban, L. (1986) Teachers and Machines. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  10. Dillenbourg, P. (1999) Introduction; What do we mean by `Collaborative Learning’? In P. Dillenbourg (ed.) Collaborative learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches. Amsterdam: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  11. Edwards, J., Norton, S, Taylor, S., Weiss, M., and Dusseldorp, R. (1975) How effective is CAI? A review of the research. Research in Review. 33, 147–153.Google Scholar
  12. Järvelä, S., Bonk, C.J., Lehtinen, E., and Hämäläinen, S. (in press) A theoretical analysis of social interactions in computer-based learning environments: Evidence for reciprocal understandings. Journal of Educational Computing Research.Google Scholar
  13. de Jong, T. and Wouter R. van Joolingen (1998) Scientific discovery learning with computer simulations of conceptual domains. Review of Educational Research 68 (2), 179–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Katz, S. and Lesgold, A. (1993) Collaborative problem-solving and reflection in Sherlock II. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Collaborative Problem Solving: Theoretical frameworks and Innovative systems. Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  15. Khaili, A. and Shashaani, L. (1994) The effectiveness of computer applications: A meta-analysis. Journal of Research on Computing in Education 27, 48–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kulik, C-L.C. and Kulik J.A. (1991) Effectiveness of computer-based instruction. An updated analysis. Computers in Human Behaviour. 7, 75–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kulik, J.A. (1994) Meta-analytic studies of findings on computer-based instruction. In E.L. Baker and H.F. O’Neil (eds.) Technology Assessment in Education and Training. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  18. Kulik, J.A. and Kulik, C-L.C. (1987) Review of recent research literature on computer-based instruction. Contemporary Educational Psychology. 12 (3), 222–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lajoie, A.P. and Lesgold, A.M. (1989) Apprenticeship training in the workplace: computer-coached practice environment as a new form of apprenticeship. Machine-Mediated Learning. 3, 7–28.Google Scholar
  20. Lamon, M., Secules, T., Petrosino, A., Bransford, J., and Goldman, S. (1996) Schools for thought: Overview of the project and lessons learned from one of the sites. In L. Schauble and R. Glaser (eds.) Innovations in Learning. New Environments for Education. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  21. Lehtinen, E. and Rui, E. (1996) Computer supported complex learning: An environment for learning experimental methods and statistical inference. Machine-Mediated Learning.Google Scholar
  22. Lehtinen, E. and Repo, S. (1996) Activity, social interaction and reflective abstraction: Learning advanced mathematics in a computer environment. In S. Vosniadou, E. De Corte, R. Glaser, and H. Mandl (eds.) International Perspectives on the Design of Technology Supported Learning Environments. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  23. Lehtinen, E., Hakkarainen, K., Lipponen, L., Rahikainen, M., and Muukkonen, H. (1999) Computer Supported Collaborative Learning: A Review. The J.H.G.I. Giesbers Reports on Education, No. 10. Department of Educational Sciences. University of Nijmegen.Google Scholar
  24. Littleton, K. and Häkkinen, P. (1999) Learning together: Understanding the processes of computer-based collaborative learning. In P. Dillenbourg (ed.) Collaborative Learning: Cognitive and Computational Approaches. Amsterdam: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  25. Littleton, K. and Light, P. (1999) Learning with Computers: Analysing Productive Interaction. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Negroponte, N. (1995) Being Digital. New York. Vintage Books.Google Scholar
  27. Pelgrum, W. J. (1996) The educational potential of new information technologies: Where are we now? In B. A. Collis (ed.) Children and Computers in School. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  28. Reusser, K. (1993) Tutoring systems and pedagogical theory. In S. Lajoie and S. Derry (eds.) Computers as Cognitive Tools. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  29. Riflcin, J. (1995) The End of Work. The Decline of the Global Labour Force and the Dawn of the Post-Market Era. New York: Putman Book.Google Scholar
  30. Salomon. G. (1994) Differences in patterns: Studying computer enhanced learning environments. In S. Vosniadou, E. De Corte and H. Mandl (eds.), Technology-Based Learning Environments: Psychological and Educational Foundations. NATO ASI Series F: Computer and System Science, Vol. 137. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  31. Scardamalia, M., and Bereiter, C. (1994) Computer support for knowledge-building communities. The Journal of the Learning Sciences. 3, 265–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Suthers, D. D. (1998) Computer aided education and training initiative. Technical Report (12 January 1998 )Google Scholar
  33. Sinko, M. and Lehtinen, E. (1999) The challenge of ICT in Finnish education. Jyväskylä: Atena.Google Scholar
  34. Slavin, R E. (1997) Research on co-operative learning and achievement: A quarter century of research. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of Pedagogical Psychology, Frankfurt, September.Google Scholar
  35. Tapscott, D. (1996) The Digital Economy: Promise and Peril in the Age of Networked Intelligence. New York. McGaw-Hill.Google Scholar
  36. Vinsonhaler, J. F. and Bass, R. K. (1972) A summary of the major studies on CAI drill and practice. Educational Technology. 12, 29–32.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erno Lehtinen
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of EducationUniversity of TurkuTurun YliopistoFinland

Personalised recommendations