How can we define the illness we label schizophrenia? As there seems to be no clear and definite answer to this question, I will assume the existence of a nosological category called “schizophrenia” and will also assume that this category was constructed historically.1 Thus our present diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia evolve out of a constant analysis and restructuring of other concepts, which are formed to create the category of schizophrenia. Unlike most other disease entities in psychiatry, schizophrenia is still a label in search of a structure; it is a category applied to a rather large group of symptoms with an almost equal number of etiologies proposed for it.
- Mental Illness
- Nineteenth Century
- Disease Entity
- Late Nineteenth Century
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Notes and References
There have been many attempts to sketch the history of the concept of schizophrenia, either independently or within broader contexts, all of which are helpful, but only one of which provides any synthetic history of the concept: John G. Howells, ed., The Concept of Schizophrenia: Historical Perspectives (Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1991), the essays in which are a useful adjunct to this paper. From 1928 to 1941 see Adolf Meyer, “The Evolution of the Dementia Praecox Concept,” in Charles L. Dana et. al., eds., Schizophrenia [Dementia Praecox] (New York: Paul Hoeber, 1928), 3–15; H. W. Gruhle, “Die Schizophrenie. Geschichtliches,” in O. Bumke, ed., Handbuch der Geisteskranken, IX, Spezieller Teil V (Berlin: Springer, 1932), 1–30; Gregory Zilboorg, A History of Medical Psychology (New York: Norton, 1941; revised edition, 1954). From 1956 to 1970 see J. Wyrsch, Zur Geschichte und Deutung der endogenen Psychosen (Stuttgart: Thieme, 1956); Erwin Ackerknecht, Kurze Geschichte der Psychiatrie (Stuttgart: Enke, 1957); Manfred Bleuler, “The Conception of Schizophrenia Within the Last Fifty Years and Today,” International Journal of Psychiatry 1 (1965), 501–523; Franz Alexander and Sheldon Selesnick, The History of Psychiatry (New York: Harper & Row, 1966); Dieter Wyss, Depth Psychology: A Critical History, Development, Problems (New York: W.W. Norton, 1966); N. D. Lewis, “The History of the Nosology and the Evolution of the Concepts of Schizophrenia,” Proceedings of the American Psychopathological Association 54 (1966),1–18; G. Tourney, “A History of Therapeutic Fashions in Psychiatry, 1800–1966,” American Journal of Psychiatry 124 (1967), 784–796. From 1970 to 1975 see Robert Cancro and Paul W. Pruyser, “A Historical Review of the Development of the Concept of Schizophrenia,” in Robert Cancro, ed., The Schizophrenic Reactions (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1970), 3–12; Henri F. Ellenberger, The Discovery of the Unconscious: The History and Evolution of Dynamic Psychiatry (New York: Basic Books, 1970); Silvano Arieti, Interpretation of Schizophrenia (New York: Basic Books, 1974), 9–29; Werner Janzarik, Themen und Tendenzen der deutschsprachigen Psychiatrie (Berlin: Springer, 1974); A. D. Forrest, “Concepts of Schizophrenia: Historical Review,” in A. D. Forrest and J. Affleck, eds., New Perspectives in Schizophrenia (Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 1975), 1–15. From 1976 to 1979 see M. D. Altschule, “Historical Perspective—Evolution of the Concept of Schizophrenia,” in Stewart Wolf and Beatrice Bishop Berle, eds., The Biology of the Schizophrenic Process (New York: Plenum Press, 1976), 1–13; J. Ramano, “On the Nature of Schizophrenia: Changes in the Observer as Well as the Observed,” Schizophrenia Bulletin 3 (1977), 532–559; Henry Werlinder, Psychopathy: A History of the Concepts/Analysis of the Origin and Development of a Family of Concepts in Psychopathology (Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1978), 100–127; Hannah S. Decker, “The Historical Evolution of Dementia Praecox,” in William E. Fann et al., eds., Phenomenology and Treatment of Schizophrenia (New York: Spectrum, 1978), 301–309; Manfred Bleuler, “On Schizophrenic Psychoses,” American Journal of Psychiatry 136 (1979), 1403–1409. From 1980 to 1983 see Peter Berner, “Schizophrenie: Oberblick und Geschichte,” in U. H. Peters, ed., Psychiatrie 1 (Zurich: Kindler, 1980), 353–370; John M. Neale and Thomas F. Oltmanns, Schizophrenia (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1980), 2–16; Seymour S. Kety, “The Syndrome of Schizophrenia: Unresolved Questions and Opportunities for Research,” British Journal of Psychiatry 136 (1980), 421–436; Sue A. Shapiro, Contemporary Theories of Schizophrenia: Review and Synthesis (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1981), 7–23; Kenneth Kendler and Ming T. Tsuang, “The Nosology of Paranoid Schizophrenia and Other Paranoid Psychoses,” Schizophrenia Bulletin 7 (1981), 594–610; S. P. Fullinwider, Technicians of the Finite: The Rise and Decline of the Schizophrenic in American Thought, 1840–1960 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982); Ph. Van Meerbeck, “D’ou nous viennent la demence précoce et la schizophrénie?” Acta Psychiatrica Belgica 82 (1982), 243–276; R. D. Chandresna, “Phenomenology and Nosology of Schizophrenia: Historical Review,” Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa 8 (1983), 17–24; William N. Goldstein, “DSM-III and the Diagnosis of Schizophrenia,” American Journal of Psychotherapy 37 (1983), 168–181.
Quoted from the students’ edition of Alfred M. Freedman, Harold I. Kaplan, and Benjamin J. Sadock, eds., Modern Synopsis of Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1976), p. 418.
On historical changes in the appearance of schizophrenia see B. Mahendra, “Where Have All the Catatonics Gone?” Psychological Medicine 1 (1981), 669–671. Compare J. R. Morrison, “Changes in Sub-Type Diagnosis in Schizophrenia: 1920–1966,” American Journal of Psychiatry 131 (1974), 674–677. I am relying in this study on the accepted distinction between an “illness” as a social state created by human evaluation of problematic experiences and a “disease” as a variety of biological events existing independently of human knowledge and evaluation; see D. Locker, Symptoms and Illness: The Cognitive Organization of Disorder (London: Tavistock, 1981). The research in the area of schizophrenia is, in general, operating without a specific definition of the concept of schizophrenia. The standard American periodical dealing with this area, the Schizophrenia Bulletin (funded by the National Institutes of Mental Health), ran a series of guest columns under the title “What is Schizophrenia?” Such openness about the difficulty of definition is rare in any medical subspecialty. See John S. Strauss and Thomas E. Gift, “Choosing an Approach for Diagnosing Schizophrenia,” Archives of General Psychiatry 34 (1977), 1248–1253.
Quoted in Richard Hunter and Ida Macalpine, eds., Three Hundred Years of Psychiatry 1535–1860 (London: Oxford University Press, 1963), p. 987.
Bleuler provides his own discussion of the history of the concept of schizophrenia, which is discussed in detail later (see note 26). See Eugen Bleuler, Dementia Praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien (Leipzig/Wien: Franz Deuticke, 1911), pp. 1–5. (For the English translation from which all quotations are taken see note 10.)
On the problems of interpreting “signs” and symptoms historically see Joel Wilbush, “Clinical Information: Signs, Semeions and Symptoms,” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 77 (1984), 766–773.
See Jane M. Murphy, “Psychiatric Labeling in Cross-Cultural Perspective,” Science 191 (1976), 1019–1028. See also Erwin H. Ackerknecht, Medicine and Ethnology, ed. H. H. Walser and H. M. Koelbing (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press, 1971), and Arthur Kleinman, Leon Eisenberg, and Byron Good, “Culture, Illness, and Care: Clinical Lessons from Anthropologic and Cross-Cultural Research,” Annals of Internal Medicine 88 (1978), 251–258.
H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr., “The Concepts of Health and Disease,” in Arthur L. Caplan, H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr., and James J. McCartney, eds., Concepts of Health and Disease (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1981), p. 40.
P. d’Estrube, “Diagnostic Labels in the History of Psychiatry,” Journal of the Canadian Psychiatric Association 11 (1966), 356–357.
Bleuler’s study was translated into English only after World War II: Dementia Praecox or The Group of Schizophrenias, trans. Joseph Zinkin (New York: International Universities Press, 1950). For a more detailed discussion of the literature on Bleuler see note 26.
Thomas Willis, De anima brutorum... exercitationes duae (London: Dring et al., 1683). On the tradition of a “mental ailment during the teen-age years” see Ernest Harms’s introduction to the reprint of Emil Kraepelin, Dementia Praecox and Paraphrenia (1919) (Huntington, New York: Robert E. Krieger, 1971), p. xiii. All references to Kraepelin are to this translation.
Etienne Georget, De la folie (Paris: Crevot, 1820), p. 119; J. E. D. Esquirol, Mental Maladies: A Treatise on Insanity (Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard, 1845), pp. 417–418. In general on this topic see P. J. Pichot, “The Diagnosis and Classification of Mental Disorders in French-Speaking Countries: Background, Current Views and Comparison with Other Nomenclatures,” Psychological Medicine 12 (1982), 475–492, and his “The French Approach to Psychiatric Classification,” British Journal of Psychiatry 144 (1984), 113–118.
Allen W. Hagenbach, “Masturbation as a Cause of Insanity,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases 6 (1879), 609. For the background to this concept see H. Tristram, Jr., “The Disease of Masturbation: Values and the Concept of Disease,” Bulletin of the History of.Medicine 48 (1974), 234–248.
Patricia Meyer Spacks, The Adolescent Idea: Myths of Youth and the Adult Imagination (New York: Basic Books, 1981).
Bénédict August More1, Traite des maladies mentales (Paris: V. Masson, 1860), 565–566. Translation from Altschule, “Historical Perspective,” p. 7 (see note 1).
J._T. Dickson, The Science and Practice of Medicine in Relation to Mind (New York: D. Appleton, 1874), 290–292; G. C. Gaudier, De la démence précoce chez les jeunes aliénés héréditaires (Thesis: University of Paris (376), 1883).
Richard von Krafft-Ebing, Textbook of Insanity, trans. Charles Gilbert Chaddock (Philadelphia: F. A. Davis, 1904), p. 350. Translation (probably of the 1903 seventh revised edition) of Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie auf klinischer Grundlage, originally published in three volumes, Stuttgart, 1879–1880.
Alois Pick, “Über primäre chronische Demenz (sog. Dementia Praecox) im jugendlichen,” Prager medizinische Wochenschrift 16 (1891), 312–315.
See George Mora’s introduction to the translation of K. L. Kahlbaum, Catatonia (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1973), viii–xviii.
See the discussion in Werner Leibbrand and Annemarie Wettley, Der Wahnsinn:Geschichte der abendländischen Psychopathologie (Freiburg/Munich: Karl Alber, 1961), 582–586.
Uwe Henrik Peters, Wörterbuch der Psychiatrie und medizinische Psychologie (Munich: Urban & Schwarzenberg, 1984), 289.
Altschule, “Historical Perspective,” p. 10 (note 1).
See Albrecht Hirschmüller, Physiologie und Psychoanalyse in Leben und Werk Josef Breuers (Bern: Hans Huber, 1978), 207n.
On the destructive influence of this model see E. M. Butler, The Tyranny of Greece over Germany (Boston: Beacon Press, 1958). For the turn of the century see more specifically Wendelin Schmidt-Dengler, “Decadence and Antiquity: The Educational Preconditions of Jung-Wien,” in Erika Nielsen, ed., Focus on Vienna 1900: Change and Continuity in Literature, Music, Art and Intellectual History (Munich: Wilhelm Fink, 1982), 32–45.
Emil Kraepelin, Dementia Praecox and Paraphrenia  (Huntington, New York: Robert E. Krieger, 1971), p. 243 (translation of the section on dementia praecox in the eighth edition of Psychiatrie). On the contemporary reception of Kraepelin see Louise Brink and Smith Ely Jelliffe, “Emil Kraepelin: Psychiatrist and Poet,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases 77 (1933), 134–152. For a more general background see R. L. James and P. R. May, “Diagnosing Schizophrenia; Professor Kraepelin and the Research Diagnostic Criteria,” American Journal of Psychiatry 138 (1981), 50–54; H. Hippius et al., eds., Emil Kraepelin: Lebenserinnerungen (Berlin: Springer, 1983). The editions of Psychiatrie published during Kraepelin’s lifetime were as follows: first edition, Abel, Leipzig, 1883, 384 pp.; second edition, Abel, Leipzig, 1887, 540 pp.; third edition, Abel, Leipzig, 1889, 584 pp.; fourth edition, Meiner, Leipzig, 1893, 707 pp.; fifth edition, Barth, Leipzig, 1896, 825 pp.; sixth edition, Barth, Leipzig, 1899, 969 pp.; seventh edition, Barth, Leipzig, 1903–1904, 1,369 pp.; eighth edition, Barth, Leipzig, 1909–1913, 2,500 pp.
Hans Stierlin, “Bleuler’s Concept of Schizophrenia: A Confusing Legacy,” American Journal of Psychiatry 123 (1967), 996–1001; David E. Raskin, “Bleuler and Schizophrenia,” British Journal of Psychiatry 127 (1975), 231–234; David Rosenthal, “Eugen Bleuler’s Thoughts and Views about Heredity in Schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin 4 (1978), 476–477; M. Menuck, “What Did Eugen Bleuler Really Say?” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry 24 (1979), 161–166; T. J. Crow and E. C. Johnstone, “Dementia Praecox and Schizophrenia: Was Bleuler Wrong?” Journal of the Royal College of Physicians (London) 14 (1980), 238–240; Mark Ast, “Kraepelin and Bleuler: A Comparison of Dementia Praecox and Schizophrenia,” Dissertation, Yeshiva University, 1984. On the World Health Organization’s International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia and its findings, which seem to contradict those of Bleuler, see Norman Sartorius, Robert Shapiro, and Assen Jablensky, “The International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin 11 (1974), 21–34; Assen Jablensky, “Multicultural Studies and the Nature of Schizophrenia: A Review,” Journal of the Royal College of Medicine 80 (1987), 162–167.
Freud’s works are cited in reference to The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud (London: Hogarth Press, 1953–1974), cited as SE, here “The Neuro-Psychoses of Defence” (1894), SE 3:41–68. On Freud’s understanding of the disease see B. L. Boyer and P. C. Giovacchini, Psychoanalytic Treatment of Characterological and Schizophrenic Disorders (New York: Science House, 1967); P.-N. Pao, “Notes on Freud’s Theory of Schizophrenia, International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 54 (1973), 469–476; T. Freeman, “On Freud’s Theory of Schizophrenia,” International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 58 (1977), 383–388.
“Further Remarks on the Defence Neuro-Psychosis” (1896), SE 3:157–185.
For example, the Dadaist and Expressionist Hugo Ball wrote a series of poems called “Sieben Schizophrene Sonette.” See Thomas Anz, ed., Phantasien tiber dem Wahnsinn: Expressionistische Texte (Munich: Carl Hanser, 1980), pp. 56–61, for the text, as well as Wolfgang Rothe, “Der Geisteskranke im Expressionismus,” Confinia Psychiatrica 15 (1972), 195–211, for the popular reception of the idea of schizophrenia.
L. Bellak, Dementia Praecox: The Past Decade’s Work and Present Status: A Review and Examination (New York: Grune, 1948); Schizophrenia: A Review of the Syndromes (New York: Logos, 1957).
See Karl Jaspers, Allgemeine Psychopathologie, 9th ed. (Berlin: Springer, 1973). The first edition was published in 1913.
See the English translation of his Clinical Psychopathology (New York: Grune & Stratton, 1959), translation of the fourth German edition, Klinische Psychopathologie (Stuttgart: Verlag von Georg Thieme, 1955), first published in 1946 as Beiträge zur Psychiatrie. On Schneider’s influence see H. A. Fox, “Bleuler, Schneider and Schizophrenia,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 39 (1978), 703–708; J. Hoenig, “Kurt Schneider and Anglophone Psychiatry,” Comprehensive Psychiatry 23 (1982), 391–400, and his “The Concept of Schizophrenia: Kraepelin-Bleuler-Schneider,” British Journal of Psychiatry 142 (1983), 547–556; Charles P. Peters, “Concepts of Schizophrenia after Kraepelin and Bleuler,” in John Howells, ed., The Concept of Schizophrenia: Historical Perspectives (Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press, 1991), pp. 98–99, and pp. 100–102 for the WHO’s Pilot Study.
“Psychoanalytic Notes upon an Autobiographical Account of a Case of Paranoia (Dementia Paranoides)” (1911), SE 12:1–82.
“On Narcissism” (1914), SE 14:67–107.
A good interpretation of the Schreber case and an introduction into the problems that it presented to the early psychoanalysts can be found in C. Barry Chabot, Freud on Schreber: Psychoanalytic Theory and the Critical Act (Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press, 1982). The standard book on Schreber is Zvi Lothane, In Defense of Schreber: Soul Murder and Psychiatry (Hillsdale NJ: The Analytic Press, 1992).
See my essay “The Mad As Artist: Medicine, History and Degenerate Art,” Journal of Contemporary History 20 (1985), 575–597.
Hans Prinzhorn, Bildnerei der Geisteskranken: Ein Beitrag zur Psychologie und Psychopathologie der Gestaltung (Berlin: Springer, 1923); Wilhelm Mayer-Gross, Selbstschilderungen der Verwirrtheit: Die onairoide Erlebnisform (Berlin: Springer, 1924). See Aubrey Lewis, “William Meyer-Gross,” Confrontations Psychiatriques 6 (1973), 109–125.
On the parallels and differences between Freud and Jung see Robert S. Steele, Freud and Jung: Conflicts of Interpretation (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1982).
The Collected Works of C. G. Jung (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1967ff), hereafter cited as CW. See his essays “The Psychology of Dementia Praecox” (1907), CW 3:1–151, and “On Dementia Praecox” (1910e/1908), CW 18:335.
“A Contribution to the Study of Psychological Types,” CW 6:499–509.
See the more detailed discussion in Chapter 9.
For the appropriate materials see A. Lief, ed., The Commonsense Psychiatry of Dr. Adolf Meyer (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1948), and Eunice E. Winters, ed., The Collected Papers of Adolf Meyer, 4 volumes (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1951). On Meyer see the essay by L. B. Ritvo in the Dictionary of National Biography 4 (1946–1950), 569–572; Manfred Bleuler, “Early Swiss Sources of Adolf Meyer’s Concepts,” American Journal of Psychiatry 119 (1962), 193–196; Hans H. Walser, “Die wissenschaftlichen Anfänge von Adolf Meyer (1866–1950) und die Entstehung der ‘Züricher psychiatrischen Schule,’ “ Gesnerus 23 (1966), 202–210; Hans H. Walser, “Adolf Meyer—Student of the Zurich Psychiatric School,” Gesnerus 41 (1984), 49–51. Meyer’s disappearance from the discussion of the concept of schizophrenia by the late 1970s (following the publication of DSM-III) can be judged by the absence of his name from Sue A. Shapiro’s review (see note 1) of those theories still held to be important at the time of the publication of her overview (1981).
P. H. Hoch and P. Polatin, “Pseudoneurotic Forms of Schizophrenia,” Psychiatric Quarterly 23 (1949), 248–276; P. H. Hoch and S. L. Dunaif, “Pseudoneurotic Schizophrenia,” in P. H. Hoch and J. Zubin, eds., Psychiatry and the Law (New York: Grune & Stratton, 1955)., 169–195.
See specifically his Schizophrenia: The Sacred Symbol of Psychiatry (New York: Basic Books, 1976) and his more recent book, Insanity: The Idea and Its Consequences (New York; Wiley, 1987). On Szasz and the critics of contemporary psychiatry see P. Sedgwick, Psycho Politics: Laing, Foucault, Goffman, Szasz and the Future of Mass Psychiatry (New York: Harper & Row, 1982).
See his Clinical Studies in Psychiatry (New York: Norton, 1956) and Schizophrenia as a Human Process (New York: Norton, 1962), which collect most of the early papers. On Sullivan see the comprehensive biography by Helen Swick Perry, Psychiatrist of America: The Life of Harry Stack Sullivan (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1982).
“Schizophrenia: Its Conservative and Malignant Features” (1924), reprinted in his Schizophrenia as a Human Process, p. 20.
J. S. Kasanin, ed., Language and Thought in Schizophrenia (New York: Norton, 1964). This volume, first published in 1944, presented papers read at a meeting of the American Psychiatric Association in 1939. For recent attempts to systematize the phenomenology of schizophrenic language see R. E. Hoffman, S. Stopek, and N. C. Andreasen, “A Comparative Study of Manic vs. Schizophrenic Speech Disorganizastion,” Archives of General Psychiatry 43 (1986): 831–838, and W. I. Fraser, K. M. King, P. Thomas, and R. E. Kendell, “The Diagnosis of Schizophrenia by Language Analysis,” British Journal of Psychiatry 148 (1986); 275–278.
E. von Domarus, “The Specific Laws of Logic in Schizophrenia,” in J. S. Kasanin, ed., Language and Thought in Schizophrenia (New York: Norton, 1964), pp. 104–114.
E. Hanfmann and J. Kasanin, “A Method for the Study of Concept Formation,” Journal of Psychology 3 (1936), 521–540.
Conceptions of Modern Psychiatry (New York: William Alanson White Psychiatric Foundation, 1940).
See the appropriate papers in her Psychoanalysis and Psychotherapy: Selected Papers (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1959). On her see the essay by R. C. Powell and S. G. Hoff in Notable American Women: The Modern Period (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press at Harvard University Press, 1980), Vol. 4, pp. 252–255, and Alfred H. Stanton, “Frieda Fromm-Reichmann, M.D.: Her Impact on American Psychiatry,” Psychiatry 45 (1982), 121–127.
Hannah Green, I Never Promised You a Rose Garden (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1964). See “Frieda Fromm-Reichmann discusses the ‘Rose Garden’ Case,” Psychiatry 45 (1982), 128–136.
See the appropriate essays in her Contributions to Psychoanalysis, 1921–1945 (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964). The best overview of this entire school is Jay R. Greenberg and Stephen A. Mitchell, Object Relations in Psychoanalytic Theory (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1983). See also P. H. King, “The Life and Work of Melanie Klein in the British Psycho-Analytic Society,” International Journal of Psycho-Analysis 64 (1983), 251–260.
See his Steps to an Ecology of Mind (San Francisco: Chandler, 1972).
See the appropriate essays in his An Object-Relations Theory of the Personality (New York: Basic Books, 1952).
See the appropriate essays in his Through Paediatrics to Psycho-Analysis (London: Hogarth, 1958) and The Maturational Process and the Facilitating Environment (New York: International Universities Press, 1965).
The Divided Self: An Existential Study in Sanity and Madness (Hammondsworth: Penguin, 1981 ).
On Laing see Elaine Showalter, The Female Malady: Women, Madness, and English Culture, 1830–1980 (New York: Pantheon, 1985), pp. 220–247, as well as Robert Boyers and Robert Orrill, eds., Laing and Anti-Psychiatry (Hammondsworth: Penguin, 1972).
Mary Barnes and Joe Berke, Mary Barnes: Two Accounts of a Journey Through Madness (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1971).
Uwe Henrik Peters, “Mary Barnes. Psychopathologische Literaturinterpretation am Beispiel einer literarischen Gattung: Psychose-Fiktion,” in Bernd Urban and Winfried Kudszus, eds., Psychoanalytische und Psychopathologische Literaturinterpretation (Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1981), pp. 280–299.
Theodore Lidz, The Origin and Treatment of Schizophrenic Disorders (New York: Basic Books, 1973).
All of the basic papers (including the later work of Laing and Wynne) are collected in Carlos E. Sluzki and Donald C. Ransom, eds., Double Bind: The Foundation of the Communicational Approach to the Family (New York: Grune & Stratton, 1976).
Typical for this early stage is the paper by L. C. Wynne, I. M. Ryckoff, J. Day, and S. Hirsch, “Pseudomutuality in the Family Relations of Schizophrenics,” Psychiatry 21 (1958), 205–220. See Wynne’s overview, “Current Concepts about Schizophrenics and Family Relationships,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 169 (1981), 82–89.
See L. C. Wynne, M. Singer, and J. J. Bartko, “Schizophrenics and Their Families: Recent Research on Parental Communication,” in J. M. Tanner, ed., Psychiatric Research: The Widening Perspective (New York: International Universities Press, 1975), 7–91.
L. C. Wynne, R. L. Cromwell, and S. Matthysse, eds., The Nature of Schizophrenia: New Approaches to Research and Treatment (New York: Wiley, 1978), 77–91.
See Table 4, “Chronology of Major Psychoanalytic and Family Works on Schizophrenia,” in Shapiro, Contemporary Theories, pp. 84–85 (note 1).
In general on this question see Hilary Putnam, “The Impact of Science on Modem Conceptions of Rationality,” in his Reason, Truth and History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981), pp. 174–200. Also see Chapter 23 for an analysis of the metaphysical suppositions of the medical model in psychiatry, especially as it relates to the concept of schizophrenia.
I am indebted to the overviews of Shapiro, Contemporary Theories (note 1), and Neale and Oltmanns, Schizophrenia (note 1), for this segment. I, however, do not always agree with their interpretation of the data.
Ernst Rüdin, Zur Vererbung und Neuentstehung der Dementia Praecox (Berlin: Springer, 1916).
For a much more detailed critique of Kallmann’s work see J. Richard Marshall, “The Genetics of Schizophrenia Revisited,” Bulletin of the British Psychological Society 37 (1984), 177–181.
Cited by Marshall, “The Genetics of Schizophrenia,” p. 177 (note 70).
Reported in Franz Kallmann, The Genetics of Schizophrenia (New York: J. J. Augustin, 1938).
“The Genetic Theory of Schizophrenia,” American Journal of Psychiatry 103 (1946), 309–322.
R. C. Lewontin, Steven Rose and Leon J. Kamin, Not in Our Genes: Biology: Ideology and Human Nature (NewYork: Pantheon, 1984), pp. 197–231.
Cited from The Genetics of Schizophrenia, p. 3.
J. A. Böök, “A Genetic and Neuropsychiatric Investigation of a North-Swedish Population with Special Regard to Schizophrenia and Mental Deficiency,” Acta Genetica 4 (1953),1:139; S. S. Kety et al., “The Types and Prevalence of Mental lllness in the Biological and Adoptive Families of Adopted Schizophrenics,” in D. Rosenthal and S. S. Kety, eds., The Transmission of Schizophrenia (New York: Pergamon, 1968), 345–362. On the background see Kety, “The Syndrome of Schizophrenia,” cited in note 1.
See the critique in Lewontin et al., Not in Our Genes, pp. 221–226 (note 74).
P. E. Meehl, “Schizotaxia, Schizotypy, Schizophrenia,” American Psychologist 17 (1962), 827–838.
S. S. Kety, “Biochemical Hypotheses and Studies,” in L. Bellak and L. Loeb, eds., The Schizophrenic Syndrome (New York: Grune & Stratton, 1969), 155–171.
E. Kretschmer, Physique and Character, trans. W. J. H. Sprott (London: Kegan Paul, Trench & Trubner, 1925); W. H. Sheldon, The Varieties of Temperament (New York: Harper, 1942). In this context see especially Davydd J. Greenwood, The Taming of Evolution: The Persistence of Nonevolutionary Views in the Study of Humans (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1985), 86–96.
H. Osmond and J. Smythies, “Schizophrenia: A New Approach,” Journal of Mental Science 98 (1952), 309–315.
J. E. Cooper, F. E. Bloom, and R. H. Roth, The Biochemical Basis of Neuropharmacology (New York: Oxford University Press, 1974).
A. J. Friedhoff, S. Park, S. Schweitzer, E. I. Burdock, and M. Armour, “Excretion of 3, 4-dimethoxphenylethylamine (DMPEA) by acute schizophrenics and controls,” Biological Psychiatry 12 (1977), 643–654.
A. J. Friedhoff, S. Park, S. Schweitzer, E.I. Burdock, and M. Armour, “Excretion of 3,4-dimethoxphenylethylamine (DMPEA) by acute schizophrenics and controls,” Biological Psychiatry 12 (1977), 643–654.
W. Pollin, P. V. Cardon, and S. S. Kety, “Effects of Amino Acid Feedings in Schizophrenic Patients Treated with Iproniazid,” Science 133 (1961), 104–105.
D. L. Murphy and R. J. Wyatt, “Reduced Monoamine Oxidase Activity in Blood Platelets from Schizophrenic Patients,” Nature 238 (1972), 225–226; R. G. Heath and I. M. Krupp, “Schizophrenia as an Immunologic Disorder,” Archives of General Psychiatry 16 (1967), 1–9.
Manfred Bleuler, “What Is Schizophrenia?” Schizophrenia Bulletin 10 (1984), 8.
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Gilman, S.L. (2008). Constructing Schizophrenia as a Category of Mental Illness. In: Wallace, E.R., Gach, J. (eds) History of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-34708-0_15
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