Advertisement

Intensification and Protohistoric Agropastoral Systems in East Africa

  • Sibel B. Kusimba
  • Chapurukha M. Kusimba
Part of the Studies in Human Ecology and Adaptation book series (STHE, volume 3)

Abstract

Agricultural systems can become complex in many different ways; nor do they necessarily intensify. In local histories, people employ varying agricultural strategies over time. In East Africa, the archaeological and ethnographic records demonstrate considerable variation in the use of extensive and intensive agricultural methods. After defining our terms, we will review some African examples of intensive agricultural systems and their comparative value in studying intensification. We will present an archaeological and ethnographic example of intensive agropastoral production from Mount Kasigau in the Taita Hills of southwestern Kenya.

Keywords

Labor Input Irrigation Canal Agricultural Intensification Furrow Irrigation Intensive System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allan, W., 1965, The African Husbandman. Oiver and Boyd, Edinburgh.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, W. M., 1989, Definition and Development in African Indigenous Irrigation. Azania 24:21–27.Google Scholar
  3. Adams, W., T. Potkanski, and J. E. G. Sutton, 1994, Indigenous farmer-managed irrigation in Sonjo. Geographical Journal 160:17–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adderley, W. P., I. A. Simpson, M. Lockheart, R. Evershed, and D. Davidson, 2000, Modeling Tradi tional Manuring Practice: Soil Organic Matter Sustainability of an Early Shetland Community? Human Ecology 28:415–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Amborn, H., 1989, Agricultural Intensification in the Burji-Konso Cluster of South-western Ethiopia. Azania 24:71–84.Google Scholar
  6. Anderson, D., 1989, Agriculture and Irrigation Technology at Lake Baringo. Azana 24: 85–98. Azania 24: 21–27.Google Scholar
  7. Boserup, E., 1965, The Conditions of Agricultural Growth. Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  8. Brandt, S., E. Spring, C. Hiebsch, J. McCabe, E. Tabogie, M. Diro, G. Wolde-Micahle, G. Ynitso, M. Shiget, and S. Tesfaye, 1997, The Tree Against Hunger: Enset-Based Agricultural Systems in Ethiopia. American Association for the Advancement of Scientce, Washington, DC. http://www.aaas.org/international/africa/enset.Google Scholar
  9. Cleveland, D., Agricultural Intensification and Women’s Work. American Anthropologist: 405–407.Google Scholar
  10. Conelly, W. T., and M. Chaiken, 2000, Intensive Farming, Agro-Diversity, and Food Security under Conditions of Extreme Population Pressure in Western Kenya. Human Ecology 28:19–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crowley, E. L., and S. E. Carter, 2000, Agrarian Change and the Changing Relationships between Toil and Soil in Maragoli, Western Kenya (1900–1994). Human Ecology 28:383–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. di Lernia, S., 1997, Cultural control over wild animals during the early Holocene: The Case of Barbary Sheep in Central Sahara. In Before Food Production in North Africa, edited by Savino di Lernia and Giorgio Manzi. pp. 113–126. Forli, ABACO.Google Scholar
  13. Fall, P., S. Falconer, and L. Lines., 2002, Agricultural Intensification and the Secondary Products Revolution along the Jordan Rift. Human Ecology 30:445–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fleuret, P., 1985, The Social Organization of Water Control in the Taita Hills, Kenya. American Ethnologist 12(1): 103–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Geertz, C., 1963, Agricultural Involution. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  16. Grove, A. T., and J. E. G. Sutton, 1989, Agricultural Terracing South of the Sahara. Azania 24:114–122.Google Scholar
  17. Hakansson, T., 1989, Social and Political Aspects of Intensive Agriculture in East Africa: Some Models from Cultural Anthropology. Azania 24:12–20.Google Scholar
  18. Hayden, B., 1984, Research and Development in the Pleistocene. Current Anthropology.Google Scholar
  19. Heald, S., 1991, Tobacco, Time, and the Household Economy in Two Kenyan Societies: The Teso and the Kuria. Comparative Studies in Society and History 33:130–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Heald, S., 1999, Agricultural Intensification and the Decline of Pastoralism: A Case Study from Kenya. Africa: Journal of the International African Institute 69: 213–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hobley, C. W., (1895). Upon a visit to Tsavo and the Taita highland. Geographical Journal 5: 545–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Holl, A., 2000, Metals and Prehistoric African Society. In Ancient African Metallurgy, edited by Joseph O. Vogel. AltaMira, Walnut Creek, pp. 1–82.Google Scholar
  23. Iliffe, J., 1995, Africans: A History of the Continent. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Kipkorir, B. E., 1983, Historical Perspectives on Development of the Kerio Valley. Kerio Valley: Past, present and future Nairobi: Institute of African Studies.Google Scholar
  25. Klein, R., and K. Cruz-Uribe, 2000, Middle and Later Stone Age large mammal and Tortoise remains from Die Kelders Cave 1, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Journal of Human Evolution 38:169–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kusimba, S. B., 2003, African Foragers: Environment, Technology, Interactions AltaMira Press, Walnut Creek, CAGoogle Scholar
  27. Kusimba, C., and S. Kusimba, 2005, Mosaics and Interactions: East Africa, 2000 b.p. to the Present. In A. Stahl (ed), African Archaeology: A Critical Introduction, pp. 392–419. Blackwell Publishing, New York.Google Scholar
  28. Kusimba, C. M., Kusimba, S. B., and Wright, D. K., 2005, The development and collapse of precolonial ethnic mosaics in Tsavo, Kenya. Journal of African Archaeology.Google Scholar
  29. Lawi, Y., 1999, Where Physical and Ideological Landscapes Meet: Landscape Use and Ecological Knowledge in Iraqw, Northern Tanzania. International Journal of African Historical Studies 32.Google Scholar
  30. Leach, H., 1999, Intensification in the Pacific: A Critique of the Archaeological Criteria and their Application. Current Anthropology 40:311–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Little, Peter D., 1996, Pastoralism, Biodiversity, and the Shaping of Savanna Landscapes in East Africa Africa: Journal of the International African Institute, Vol. 66, No. 1, The Social Shaping of Biodiversity: Perspectives on the Management of Biological Variety in Africa. pp. 37–51.Google Scholar
  32. Ludwig, H. D., 1967, Ukara: Ein Sonderfall tropischer Bodennutzung im Raum des Victoria-Sees. Eine wirtschaftsgeiographische Entwicklungsstudie. Weltforum Verlag, Munich.Google Scholar
  33. Ludwig, H. D., 1968, Permanent farming on Ukara: Impact of Land Shortage on Husbandry Practices. In H. Ruthenberg, Smallholder Farming and Smallholder Development in Tanzania: Ten Case Studies, pp. 88–135. Munich, Weltforum Verlag.Google Scholar
  34. Netting, R., 1968, Hill Farmers of Nigeria: Cultural Ecology of the Kofyar of the Jos Plateau. University of Washington Press, Seattle.Google Scholar
  35. Netting, R. and P. Stone, 1996, Agro-diversity on a Farming Frontier: Kofyar Smallholders on the Benue Plains of Central Nigeria. Africa 66:52–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nurse, D. and F. Rottland, 1993, The history of Sonjo and Engaruka: A linguist’s view. Azania 28:1–5.Google Scholar
  37. Patten, S., and G. Kukunya, 1982, Organizational Responses to Agricultural Intensification in Anloga, Ghana. African Studies Review 25:67–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Reader, J., 1997, Africa: Biography of a Continent. New York, Knopf.Google Scholar
  39. Riddell, J., and D. Campbell, 1986, Agricultural Intensification and Rural Development: The Mandara Mountains of North Cameroon. African Studies Review 29: 89–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Smith, M., and T. Price, 1994, Aztec-period Agricultural Terraces in Morelos, Mexico: Evidence for Household-Level Agricultural Intensification. Journal of Field Archaeology:169–179.Google Scholar
  41. Stone, G., 1991, Agricultural Territories in a Dispersed Settlement System. Current Anthropology 32:343–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stone, G., 1994, Agricultural Intensification and Perimetrics: Ethnoarchaeological Evidence from Nigeria. Current Anthropology 35:317–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stone, G., 1997, “Predatory Sedentism”: Intimidation and Intensification in the Nigerian Savanna. Human Ecology 25:223–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Stone, G., R. Netting, and M. P. Stone, 1990, Seasonality, Labor Scheduling, and Agricultural Intensification in the Nigerian Savanna. American Anthropologist 7–23. Sutton, J. E. G. 1978. Engaruka and its Waters. Azania 13:37–70.Google Scholar
  45. Sutton, J. E. G., 1986, The Irrigation and Manuring of the Engaruka field system. Azania 21:27–51.Google Scholar
  46. Sutton, J. E. G., 1998, Engaruka: Irrigation Agriculture in the northern Tanzanian Rift Valley before the Maasai Era. Azania 33:1–37.Google Scholar
  47. Sutton, J. E.G., 1989, Fields, Farming, and History in Africa. Azania 24:6–11.Google Scholar
  48. Swindell, K., and M.A. Iliya, 1989, Field Systems, Cultivation Techniques and Non-farm Incomes in Hausaland. Azania 24:28–37.Google Scholar
  49. Vogel, J. O., 1989, Savanna Farmers on the Sandveldt: Patterns of Land-Use and Organisational Behavior of some Shifting Cultivators in South-Central Africa. Azania 24: 38–50.Google Scholar
  50. Wiegers, E., R. Hijmans, D. Herve, and L. Fresco, 1999, Land Use Intensification and Disintensification in the Upper Canete Valley, Peru. Human Ecology 27:319–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sibel B. Kusimba
  • Chapurukha M. Kusimba
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalb
  2. 2.Department of Anthropol ogyField Museum of Natural HistoryChicago

Personalised recommendations