Measures of Ethnicity, Ethnic Identification, Acculturation, and Immigration Status

  • Sana Loue


Numerous systems exist for the classification of race and ethnicity and for the assessment of ethnic and racial identification. A number of the classification systems have been discussed in chapter 3 in conjunction with the classification systems that have been used in the past by the United States government for census purposes, and that discussion will not be repeated here.


Immigration Status Acculturation Scale Southeast Asian Refugee Mexican American Youth Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Anderson, J., Moeschberger, M., Chen, M.S., Jr., Kunn, P., Wewers, M.E., Guthrie, R. (1993). An acculturation scale for Southeast Asians. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 28: 134–141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aroian, K. (1993). Mental health risks and problems encountered by illegal immigrants. Issues in Mental Health Nursing 14: 379–397.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aroian, K. (1992). Sources of social support and conflict for Polish immigrants. Qualitative Health Research 2: 278–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Asch, S., Leake, B., Gelberg, L. (1994). Does fear of immigration authorities deter tuberculosis patients from seeking care? Western Journal of Medicine 161: 373–376.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Banks, W. (1996). The evolution of the EILS Ethnicity and Intellectual Life Survey. In R.L. Jones (Ed.), Handbook of Tests and Measurements for Black Populations (pp. 605–612). Hampton, Virginia: Cobb & Henry Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. Corcoran, K.J. (Ed.). (2000). Measures for Clinical Practice: A Sourcebook, 3rd ed. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  7. Cornelius, W.A., Chavez, L.R., Jones, O.W. (1984). Mexican Immigration and Access to Health Care. La Jolla, California: Center for U.S.-Mexican Studies, University of California San Diego.Google Scholar
  8. Coronado, G.D., Thompson, B., McLerran, D., Schwartz, S.M., Koepsell, T.D. (2005). A short acculturation scale for Mexican-American populations. Ethnicity & Disease 15: 53–62.Google Scholar
  9. Cortés, D.E., Rogler, L.H., Malgady, R.G. (1994). Biculturality among Puerto Rican adults in the United States. American Journal of Community Psychology 22(5): 707–721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cuellar, I., Harris, L., Jasso, R. (1980). An acculturation scale for Mexican American normal and clinical populations. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 2: 199–217.Google Scholar
  11. Curiel, H., Baker, D., Mata, J. et al. (1993). A Needs Assessment Survey of Hispanic Oklahoma City Residents in High Density Areas: A Report of Findings. Oklahoma City: Latino Community Development Agency.Google Scholar
  12. Dawson, J., Crano, W.D., Burgoon, M. (1996). Refining the meaning and measurement of acculturation: A novel methodological approach. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 20(1): 97–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dumka, L.E., Roosa, M.W., Jackson, K.M. (1997). Risk, conflict, mothers' parenting and children's adjustment in low-income, Mexican immigrant and Mexican American families. Journal of Marriage and the Family 59: 309–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heer, D.M., Falasco, D. (1982). The socioeconomic status of recent mothers of Mexican origin in Los Angeles County: A comparison of undocumented migrants, legal migrants, and native citizens. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the Pacific Sociological Association, San Diego, California, April 24.Google Scholar
  15. Hubbell, F.A., Chavez, L.R., Mishra, S.I., Magaña, J.R., Burciaga Valdez, R. (1995). From ethnography to intervention: Developing a breast cancer control program for Latinas. Journal of the National Cancer Institute Monographs 18: 109–115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hubbell, F.A., Waitzkin, H., Mishra, S.I., Dombrink, J., Chavez, L.R. (1991). Access to medical care for documented and undocumented Latinos in a Southern California county. Western Journal of Medicine 154(4): 414–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kester, K., Marshall, S.K. (2003). Intergenerational similitude of ethnic identification and ethnic identity: A brief report on immigrant Chinese mother-adolescent dyads in Canada. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research 3(4): 367–373.Google Scholar
  18. Lambert, R.G., Lambert, M.J. (1984). The effects of role preparation for psychotherapy on immigrant clients seeking mental health services in Hawaii. Journal of Community Psychology 12: 263–275.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lee, M., Crittenden, K.S., Yu, E. (1996). Social support and depression among elderly Korean immigrants in the United States. International Journal of Aging and Human Development 42: 313–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Loue, S. (1998). Defining the immigrant. In S. Loue (Ed.), Handbook of Immigrant Health (pp. 19–36). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  21. Loue, S., Bunce, A. (1999). The Assessment of Immigration Status in Health Research. [National Center for Health Statistics, Vital Health Statistics 2(127)]. Hyattsville, Maryland: United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  22. Loue, S., Faust, M., Bunce, A. (2000). The effect of immigration and welfare reform legislation on immigrants' access to health care, Cuyahoga and Lorain Counties. Journal of Immigrant Health 2: 23–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Loue, S., Foerstel, J. (1996). Assessing immigration status and eligibility for publicly funded medical care: A questionnaire for public health professionals. American Journal of Public Health 86: 1623–1625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Marin, G., Gamba, R.J. (1996). A new measurement of acculturation for Hispanics: The Bidimensional Acculturation Scale for Hispanics (BAS). Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 18(3): 297–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Marin, G., Sabogal, F., Marin, B.V., Otero-Sabogal, R., Perez-Stable, E.J. (1987). Development of a short acculturation scale for Hispanics. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 9(2): 183–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mehta, S. (1998). Relationship between acculturation and mental health for Asian Indian immigrants in the United States. Geriatric, Social, and General Psychology Monographs 124: 61–78.Google Scholar
  27. Oetting, E.R., Swaim, R.C., Chiarella, M.C. (1998). Factor structure and invariance of the orthogonal cultural identification scale among American Indian and Mexican American youth. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences 20(2): 131–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Office for National Statistics. (2002). Social Focus in Brief: Ethnicity. London: Office for National Statistics.Google Scholar
  29. Perilla, J.L., Bakeman, R., Norris, F.H. (1994). Culture and domestic violence: The ecology of abused Latinas. Violence and Victims 4: 325–329.Google Scholar
  30. Phinney, J.S. (1992). The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure: A new scale for use with diverse groups. Journal of Adolescent Research 7: 156–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Resnicow, K., Soler, R.E., Braithwaite, R.L., Selassie, M.B., Smith, M. (1999). Development of a racial and ethnic identity scale for African American adolescents: The Survey of Black Life. Journal of Black Psychology 25(2): 171–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rissel, C. (1997). The development and application of a scale of acculturation. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health 21(6): 606–613.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Robinson, B.E. (1985). Evaluating mental health services for Southeast Asian refugees: Cross-cultural methodological issues. Presented at the Pacific Asian Research Method Workshop and the Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, Ann Arbor, Michigan.Google Scholar
  34. Satia, J.A., Patterson, R.E., Kristal, A.R., Hislop, T.G., Yasui, Y., Taylor, V.M. (2001). Development of scales to measure dietary acculturation among Chinese-Americans and Chinese-Canadians. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 101(5): 548– 553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Schilit, J., Nimnicht, G. (1990). The Florida Survey of Newly Legalized Persons. Tallahassee: Florida State Department of Health and Rehabilitative Services.Google Scholar
  36. Sherraden, M.S., Barrera, R.E. (1996). Family support and birth outcomes among second-generation Mexican immigrants. Social Service Review 71(4): 607–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shiang, J. (1998). Measurement of culture change: Psychometric properties of the Cultural Beliefs, Behaviors, and Adaptation Profile (CBBAP). Paper presented at the 14th Meeting of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, August. Bellingham, Washington.Google Scholar
  38. Tropp, L.R., Erkut, S., Garcia Coll, C., Alarcón, O., Vázquez-García, H.A. (1999). Psychological acculturation: Development of a new measure for Puerto Ricans on the U.S. mainland. Educational and Psychological Measurement 59(2): 351–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tsia, J.L., Ying, Y.W., Lee, P.A. (1998). The meaning of ‘being Chinese’ and ‘being American: Differences among Chinese American young adults. Summary available at Last accessed March 20, 2003.Google Scholar
  40. Umaña-Taylor, A.J., Yazedjian, A., Bámaca-Gómez, M. (2004). Developing the Ethnic Identity Scale Using Eriksonian and Social Identity Perspectives. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research 4(1): 9–38.Google Scholar
  41. Undocumented Workers Policy Research Project. (1984). The Use of Public Services by Undocumented Aliens in Texas. Austin, Texas: Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sana Loue
    • 1
  1. 1.Case Western Reserve UniversityClevelandOhio

Personalised recommendations