Dip-Pen Technologies for Biomolecular Devices
Since the 1950s, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) has been commercially available and used to measure feature sizes below1 micron. Modified SEMs have been employed since the 1960s to perform sub-micron lithography, which then made rapid advances in the 1990s to a process, known as electron beam lithography (EBL). Since the 1980s, Surface Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) have ushered the era of nanotechnology where it is possible to measure and control the manipulation of matter on the 100nm scale and below. These techniques are broadly classified as “Scanning Probe Microscopy (SPM)”. The earliest forms of nanofabrication using STM based approaches were used to pattern “hard” materials (such as silicon-dioxide; as opposed to “soft” materials such as polymers or biological materials) and restricted to single layer processing. These methods were initially motivated by applications in the semi-conductor industry.
KeywordsAmerican Chemical Society Electron Beam Lithography Gold Substrate Atomic Force Microscopy Topography Image Lateral Force Microscopy
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- D. Banerjee, N. Amro, and J. Fragala. Optimizing Microfluidic Ink Delivery Apparatus for Dip Pen Nanolithography. Proceedings of the SPIE Vol. 5345, PhotonicWest 2004 Symposium on Microfluidics, BioMEMS and Medical Microsystems II, Paper No. 5345-28, Jan 24–29, San Jose, CA, 2004.Google Scholar
- L.M. Demers and G. della Cioppa. Nanotechnology to advance discovery r&d—tutorial: Dip pen nanolithography as a next-generation, massively parallel nanoarray platform. Genet. Eng. News, 23(15), 2003.Google Scholar
- J. Hyun, S.J. Ahn, W.K. Lee, A. Chilkoti, and S. Zauscher. Molecular recognition-mediated fabrication of protein nanostructures by dip-pen lithography. Nano Letters, 2(11):1203–1207, 2002.  A. Ivanisevic, J.M. Im, K.B. Lee, S.J. Park, L.M. Demers, K.J. Watson, and C.A. Mirkin. Redox-controlled orthogonal assembly of charged nanostructures. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 123:12424–12425, 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- K.-H. Kim, N.M. Ke, and H.D. Espinosa. “Massively Parallel Multi-tip Nanoscle Writer with Fluidic Capabilities—Fountain Pen Nanolithography (FPN)”, Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on MEMSand Nanotechnology, the 2003SEMAnnual Conference and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, June 2–4, Charlotte, North Carolina, Session 52, Paper 191, pp. 235–238, 2003.Google Scholar
- B. Rosner, T. Duenas, D. Banerjee, R. Shile, N. Amro, and J. Rendlen. Active Probes and Microfluidic Ink Delivery for Dip Pen Nanolithography, Proceedings of SPIE Symposium on Microelectronics, MEMS and Nanotechnology, Paper # Perth, Australia, 5275-33,10–12 December, 2003.Google Scholar