Male Primates: “Time-Minimizers” in Heterogeneous Regimes
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As the sex with the lowest initial investment in reproduction (Trivers, 1972; Queller, 1997), the higher potential for lifetime reproductive success, and the higher variance in reproductive success, males are expected to be “time minimizers” (Schoener, 1971; Tolkamp et al., 2002; Newton-Fisher, 2002), factors that are likely to influence decision-making by males in the face of environmental unpredictability, uncertainty, and/or risk. A major source of environmental uncertainty, unpredictability, error, and risk for males will depend upon their differential ability to discriminate their own offspring, their full-sibs, their fathers, and the mothers of their offspring, although males are expected to be able to discriminate their mothers and their mother’s offspring with greater confidence (see West-Eberhard, 1975).
KeywordsDominance Rank Howler Monkey Subadult Male Male Primate Cycling Female
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