Forward, Bidirectional, and Higher-Order Raman Amplification

  • Stojan Radic
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 90/1)


Distributed Raman amplification can be achieved by optical pumping at either end of the fiber. In the copumped Raman configuration, the pump is launched at the front end and copropagates with the optical signal along the transmission span. In the counter-pumped architecture that is widely deployed, the optical pump and signal launch at the opposite ends. Finally, Raman pumping at both ends of the transmission span characterizes the bidirectional scheme. The latter term is also used for optical links that support two-way signal traffic and often leads to confusion. To avoid this ambiguity, we designate optical transmission as unidirectional or bidirectional, independently of any amplification considerations. In unidirectional transmission lines, all signals travel in the same direction. Bidirectional network functionality is supported by a separate fiber that carries signal traffic propagating in the opposite direction. In contrast, bidirectional transmission can be used to realize two-way traffic within a single fiber line: counterpropagating signal traffic is launched and received at the opposite ends of the optical link. A bidirectionally pumped fiber span can support both uni- and bidirectional signal transmission. A unidirectionally pumped span, however, almost exclusively supports unidirectional signal traffic.


Pump Power Optical Link Raman Gain Relative Intensity Noise Variable Optical Attenuator 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2004

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  • Stojan Radic

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