Advertisement

Fundamentals of Raman Amplification in Fibers

  • R. H. Stolen
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 90/1)

Abstract

Raman scattering was discovered independently and almost simultaneously in 1928 by groups in India and Russia [1, 2]. If C.V. Raman had not published first we might know Raman scattering as the Landsberg-Mandelstam Effect. Raman was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize for the discovery, which was not shared with the Russians. Neither group was actually looking for what we now know as the Raman effect [3]. Landsberg and Mandelstahm were looking for a small wavelength shift due to scattering from thermal fluctuations, now called “Brillouin scattering.” Raman was seeking an optical analogue of the Compton effect. It was quickly understood that Raman scattering is a shift in the frequency of scattered light due to interaction of the incident light with high-frequency vibrational modes of a transparent material. It was later pointed out that the correct interpretation had been predicted by A. Smekal in an obscure 1923 theoretical paper [4].

Keywords

Pump Power Raman Scattering Stimulate Raman Scattering Critical Power Nonlinear Refractive Index 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    C.V. Raman and K.S. Krishnan, “A new type of secondary radiation,” Nature 121:501–502, 1928; The optical analogue of the Compton effect, 121:711, 1928.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    G.S. Landsberg and L.I. Mandelstam, Eine neue erscheinung bei der lichtzerstreuung in krystallen, Naturwissenschaften, 16:557–558, 1928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    I.L. Fabilinski, Seventy years of combination (Raman) scattering, Physics-Uspekhi, 41:1229–1247, 1998.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    A. Smekel, Zur quantentheorie der dispersion, Naturwissenschaften 11:873–875, 1923.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    B.P. Stoicheff, Raman effect. inMethods of Experimental Physics, vol. 3, ed. D. Williams, New York: Academic, Ch. 2.3, 111–155, 1962.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    J.R. Ferraro and K. Nakamoto, Introductory Raman Spectroscopy, San Diego: Academic, 1994.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    E.J. Woodbury and W.K. Ng, Ruby laser operation in the near IR, Proc IRE, 50:2367, 1962.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    R.W. Hellwarth, Theory of stimulated Raman scattering, Phys. Rev., 130:1850–1852, 1963.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    R.W. Terhune, Nonlinear optics. Solid State Des., 4:11, (Nov.) 38–46, 1963.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    R.G. Smith, Optical power handling capacity of low loss optical fibers as determined by stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering, Appl. Opt., 11:2489–2494, 1972.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    R.H. Stolen, E.P. Ippen, and A.R. Tynes, Raman oscillaton in glass optical waveguide, Appl. Phys. Lett., 20:62–64, 1972.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    R.H. Stolen and E.P. Ippen, Raman gain in glass optical waveguides, Appl. Phys. Lett., 22: 276–278, 1973.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    W. Heitler, The Quantum Theory of Radiation, 3rd ed., London: Oxford University Press, 192, 1954.zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics, 3d ed., New York: Wiley, 1989.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    G. Placzek, Handbuch der Radiologie VI Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgellschaft, Teil II205, 1934.Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    R.J. Bell, N.F. Bird, and P. Dean, Vibrational modes of AB2 glasses, J. Phys. C (Proc. Phys. Soc.), 1:299, 1968.ADSGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    W.J. Jones and B.P. Stoicheff, Inverse Raman spectra: Induced absorption at optical frequencies, Phys. Rev. Lett., 13:657–659, 1964.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    R.H. Stolen, Relation between the effective area of a single-mode fiber and the capture fraction of spontaneous Raman scattering, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 19:498–501, 2002.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    J. Streckert and F. Wilczewski, Relationship between nonlinear effective core area and backscattering capture fraction for single mode optical fibres, Electron. Lett., 32:760–762, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    G.P. Agrawal, Fiber-Optic Communication Systems, New York: Wiley, 1997.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    K. Mochizuki, N. Edagawa, and Y Iwamoto, Amplified spontaneous Raman scattering in fiber Raman amplifiers, J. Lightwave Technol., LT-4:1328–1333, 1986; Y Aoki, Properties of fiber Raman amplifiers and their applicability to digital optical communication systems, J. Lightwave Technol., 6:1225-1239, 1988.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    J. Ranka, Unpublished notes.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    P.W. Milonni, The Quantum Vacuum, An Introduction to Quantum Electrodynamics, New York: Academic Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    R.H. Stolen, Inverse Raman scattering and the 3 dB noise limit of a fiber Raman amplifier, Can. J. Phys., 78:391–396, 2000.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Y.R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics, New York: Wiley, 1984.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    R.H. Stolen, J.P. Gordon, W.J. Tomlinson, and H.A. Haus, Raman response function of silica-core fibers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 6:1159–1166, 1989.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    R.H. Stolen and W.J. Tomlinson, Effect of the Raman part of the nonlinear refractive index on propagation of ultrashort optical pulses in fibers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 9:565–573, 1992.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    R.H. Stolen, C. Lee, and R.K. Jain, Development of the stimulated Raman spectrum in single-mode fibers, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B, 1:652–657, 1984. The low frequency data include subsequent measurements of scattering at small frequency shift and low temperature. The perpendicular spectrum was compiled from several published sources. Both curves are available as data files from the author.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    S.T. Davey, D.L. Williams, B.J. Ainslie, W.J.M. Rothwell, and B. Wakefield, Optical gain spectrum of GeO2-SiO2 Raman fibre amplifiers, IEEProc. J, 136:301–306, 1989.Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    R.H. Stolen, Polarization effects in fiber Raman and Brillouin Lasers, IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-15:1157, 1979.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    D.J. Dougherty, F.X. Kartner, H.A. Haus, and E.P. Ippen, Measurement of the Raman gain spectrum of optical fibers, Opt. Lett., 20:31–33, 1995.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    A.E. Miller, K. Nassau, B. Lyons, and M.E. Lines, The intensity of Raman scattering in glasses containing heavy metal oxides, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 99:289–307, 1988.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    M.E. Lines, Raman gain estimates for high-gain optical fibers, J. Appl. Phys., 62:4363–4370, 1987.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    E.P. Ippen, Low-power quasi-cw Raman oscillator, Appl. Phys. Lett., 16:303–305, 1970.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    V.I. Karpov, E.M. Dianov, A.S. Kurkov, V.M. Paramonov, V.N. Protopopov, M.P. Bachyn-ski, and W.R.L. Clements, LD-pumped 1.48-μm laser based on Yb-doped double-clad fiber and phosphorosilicate-fiber Raman converter. In Proceedings of OFC’99 (San Diego, Feb. 21–26), paper WM3, 1999.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    A.R. Chraplyvy and J. Stone, Single-pass mode-locked or Q-switched pump operation of D2 gas-in-glass fiber Raman lasers operating at 1.56 μm wavelength, Opt. Lett., 10:344–346, 1985.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Y.R. Shen and N. Bloembergen, Theory of stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering, Phys. Rev., 137A:1787–1805, 1965.CrossRefMathSciNetADSGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    J. AuYeung and A. Yariv, Spontaneous and stimulated Raman scattering in low loss fibers, IEEE J. Quantum Electron, QE-14:347–352, 1978.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    M. Sheik-Bahae, Dispersion of bound electronic nonlinear refraction in solids, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27:1296–1309, 1991.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    N.L. Boling, A.J. Glass, and A. Owyoung, Empirical relationship for predicting nonlinear refractive index changes in optical solids, IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-14:601–608, 1978.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. H. Stolen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations