Advertisement

Plague

  • David T. Dennis
  • J. Erin Staples
Chapter

Historical epidemics of plague spread rapidly. Attack rates and fatality ratios were high: 50–60% of bubonic patients died; pneumonic and septicemic patients almost invariably experienced a fulminant, fatal course. Prevention measures seemed futile, and epidemics understandably caused panic and upheaval. Even today, despite the availability of curative antibiotics and effective control measures, plague provokes alarm and irrational responses. The increasing concern with bioterrorism and the designation of Y. pestis as a Category A select agent have led to renewed concerns about the disease.(1,2)

Keywords

Ground Squirrel Yersinia Pestis Flea Species Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Neutrophilic Phagocytosis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Inglesby, T. V., Dennis, D. T., Henderson, D. A., et al., Plague as a biological weapon. Medical and public health management, JAMA. 283:2281–2290 (2000).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dennis, D. T., Plague as a biological weapon. In: Fong, I. W., Alibek, K. (eds) Bioterrorism and infectious agents: A new dilemma for the 21st century. Springer. 2005, pp. 37–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Eli, S. R., Three days in October of 1630: Detailed examination of mortality during an early modern plague epidemic in Venice, Rev. Infect. Dis. 11:128–141 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tuchman, B. W., A Distant Mirror, Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1978.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Hirst, L. F., The Conquest of Plague, Oxford University Press, London (1953).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wu Lien-Teh, A Treatise on Pneumonic Plague, League of Nations Health Organization, Geneva (1926).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zinsser, H., Rats, Lice and History, Little, Brown, Boston (1934).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pollitzer, R., Plague, World Health Organization, Geneva (1954).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Butler, T., Yersinia infections: Centennial of the discovery of the plague bacillus, Clin. Infect. Dis. 19:655–663 (1994).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Meyer, K. F., Cavanaugh, D. C., Bartelloni, P. J., and Marshall, J. D., Jr., Plague immunization. I. Past and present trends, J. Infect. Dis. 129:S13–S18 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    McCrumb, F. R., Jr., Mercier, S., Robic, J., et al., Chloramphenicol and terramycin in the treatment of pneumonic plague, Am. J. Med. 14:284–293 (1953).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lewin, W., Becker, B. J. P., Horwitz, B., Two cases of pneumonic plague: Recovery of one case treated with streptomycin, S. Afr. Med. J. 22:699–703 (1948).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Marshall, J. D., Jr., Joy, R. J. T., Ai, N. V., et al., Plague in Vietnam 1965–1966, Am. J. Epidemiol. 86:603–616 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Trong, R., Nhu, T. Q., and Marshall, J. D., Jr., A mixed pneumonic and bubonic plague outbreak in Vietnam, Mil. Med. 132:93–97 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cavanaugh, D. C., Dangerfield, H. G., Hunter, D. H., et al., Some observations on the current plague outbreak in the Republic of Vietnam, Am. J. Public Health 58:742–752 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Butler, T., Plague and Other Yersinia Infections, Plenum Press, New York (1983).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chanteau, S., Ratsifasoamanana, L., Rasoamanana, B., et al. Plague, a reemerging disease in Madagascar, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4:101–104 (1998).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    World Health Organization, Notification and other reporting requirements under the IHR (2005), IHR Brief No. 2, http://www.who.int/csr/ihr/ihr_brief_no_2_en.pdf.
  19. 19.
    Mavalankar, D. V., India “plague” epidemic: Unanswered questions and key lessons, J. R. Soc. Med. 88:547–551 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gage, K. L., and Quan, T. J., Plague and other yersinioses, in: Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, Vol. 3–Bacterial Infections, 9th ed. (L. Collier et al., eds.), pp. 885–904, Edward Arnold, London (1998).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gratz, N. G., Rodent reservoirs and flea vectors of natural foci of plague. In: Plague manual: epidemiology, distribution, surveillance and control. World Health Organization, Geneva, pp. 63–96.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barnes, A. M., Surveillance and control of bubonic plague in the United States, Symp. Zool. Soc. Lond. 50:237–270 (1982).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    World Health Organization, Technical guide for a system of plague surveillance, Week. Epidemiol. Rec. 14:149–160 (1973).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Achtman, M., Zurth, K., Morelli, G., et al., Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, is a recently emerged clone of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 24:14043–14048 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Parkhill, J., Wren, B. W., Thompson, N. R., Titball, R. W., et al., Genome sequence of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, Nature 413:523–527 (2001).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Perry, R. D., Fetherston, J. D., Yersinia pestis -- etiologic agent of plague, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 10:35–66 (1997).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brubaker, R. R., Factors promoting acute and chronic diseases caused by yersiniae, Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 4:309–324 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hinnebusch, B. J., Rudolph, A. E., Cherepenov, P., et al., Role of murine toxin in survival of Yersinia pestis in the midgut of the flea vector, Science 296:733–737 (2002).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Williams, J. E., Harrison, D. N., Quan, T. J., et al., Atypical plague bacilli isolated from rodents, fleas, and man, Am. J. Public Health 68:262–264 (1978).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Devignat, R., Varieties de l’espece Pastuerella pestis. Nouvelle hypothese, Bull. WHO 4:247–263 (1951).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Guiyoule, A., Grimont, F., et al., Plague pandemics investigated by ribotyping of Yersinia pestis strains, J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:634–641 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wiechmann, I., Grupe, G., Detection of Yersinia pestis DNA in two early medieval skeletal finds from Aschheim (Upper Bavaria, 6th century A.D.), Am J Phys Anthropol. 126:48–55 (2005).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Achtman, M., Morelli, G., Zhu, P., Wirth, T., et al., Microevolution and history of the plague bacillus, Yersinia pestis, Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 101:17837–42 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cavanaugh, D. C., The specific effect of temperature upon the transmission of the plague bacillus by the oriental rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis), Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 20:264–273 (1971).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Eisen, R. J., Wilder, A. P., Bearden, S. W., Montenieri, J. A., Gage, K. L.., Early-phase transmission of Yersinia pestis by unblocked Xenopsylla cheopis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) is as efficient as transmission by blocked fleas, J Med Entomol. 44: 678–682 (2007)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Eisen, R. J., Bearden, S. W., Wilder, A. P., Montenieri, J. A., Antolin, M. F., Gage, K. L., Early-phase transmission of Yersinia pestis by unblocked fleas as a mechanism explaining rapidly spreading plague epizootics, Proc Natl Acad Sci. 103: 15380–15385 (2006).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kartman, L., and Prince, F. M., Studies on Pasteurella pestis in fleas. V. The experimental plague-vector efficiency of wild rodent fleas compared with Xenopsylla cheopis together with observations on the influence of temperature, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 5:1058–1070 (1956).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gage, K. L., Kosoy, M. Y. Natural history of plague: perspectives from more than a century of research. Annu Rev Entomol. 50:505–528 (2005).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    World Health Organization. Human plague in 2002 and 2003, Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 79:301–306 (2004).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Campbell, G. L., and Hughes, J. M., Plague in India: A new warning from an old nemesis, Ann. Intern. Med. 122:151–153 (1995).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Centers Disease Control and Prevention, Human plague—United States, 1993–1994, Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 43:242–246 (1994).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gage, K. L., Lance, S. E., Dennis, D. T., and Montenieri, J., Human plague in the United States: A review of cases from 1988–1992 with comments on the likelihood of increased plague activity, Border Epidemiol. Bull. 19:1–10 (1992).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Marshall, J. D., Jr., Quy, D. V., and Gibson, F. L., Asymptomatic pharyngeal plague infection in Vietnam, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 16:175–177 (1967).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cavanaugh, D. C., and Marshall, J. D., Jr., The influence of climate on the seasonal prevalence of plague in the Republic of Vietnam, J. Wildl. Dis. 8:85–94 (1972).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Link, V. B., A History of Plague in the United States of America, Public Health Monograph No. 26, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1955).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Craven, R. B., Maupin, G. O., Beard, M. L., et al., Reported cases of human plague infections in the United States, 1979–1991, J. Med. Entomol. 30:758–761 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mann, J. M., Martone, W. J., Boyce, J. M., et al., Endemic human plague in New Mexico: Risk factors associated with infection, J. Infect. Dis. 140:397–401 (1979).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Barnes, A. M., Quan, T. J., Beard, M., and Maupin, G. O., Plague in American Indians, 1956–1987, Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. CDC Surv. Summary 37:11–16 (1988).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Centers for Disease Control, Plague—United States, 1992, Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 41:787–790 (1992).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Mann, J. M., Schmid, G. P., Stoetz, P. A., Skinner, M. D., and Kaufmann, A. F., Peripatetic plague, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 247:46–47 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Centers for Disease Control, Plague—South Carolina, Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 32:417–419 (1983).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Centers for Disease Control, Imported Plague—New York City, 2002, Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 52:725–728 (2003).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Meyer, K. F., Pneumonic plague, Bacteriol. Rev. 25:249–261 (1961).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Kool, J. L., Risk of person-to-person transmission of pneumonic plague, Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:1166–1172 (2005).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Legters, L. J., Cottingham, A. J., and Hunter, D. H., Clinical and epidemiological notes on a defined outbreak of plague in Vietnam, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 19:639–652 (1970).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Druett, H. A., Robinson, J. M., Henderson, D. W., et al., Studies on respiratory infection. II. The influence of aerosol particle size on infection of guinea pigs with Pasteurella pestis, J. Hyg. 54:37–48 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gasper, P. W., Barnes, A. M., Quan, T. J., et al., Plague (Yersinia pestis) in cats: Description of experimentally induced disease, J. Med. Entomol. 30:20–26 (1993).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Eidson, M., Thilsted, J. P., and Rollag, O. J., Clinical, clinicopathologic, and pathologic features of plague in cats: 119 cases (1977–1988), J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 199:1191–1197 (1991).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Christie, A. B., Chen, T. C., and Elberg, S. S., Plague in camels and goats: Their role in human epidemics, J. Infect. Dis. 141:724–726 (1980).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Dennis, D., Meier, F. Plague. In: Horsburgh, C. R., Nelson, A. M. (eds), Pathology of emerging infections. ASM Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 21–47 (1997).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Burmeister, R. W., Tigertt, W. D., and Overholt, E. L., Laboratory-acquired pneumonic plague, Ann. Intern. Med. 56:789–800 (1962).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Chen, T. H., and Meyer, K. F., Susceptibility and antibody response of Rattus species to experimental plague, J. Infect. Dis. 129:S62–S71 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Butler, T., and Hudson, B. W., The serologic response to Yersinia pestis infection, Bull. WHO 55:39–42 (1977).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Payne, F. E., Smadel, J. E., and Courdurier, J., Immunologic studies on persons residing in a plague endemic area, J. Immunol. 77:24–33 (1956).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Poland, J. D., and Barnes, A. M., Plague, in: CRC Handbook Series in Zoonoses, Section A: Bacterial, Rickettsial, and Mycotic Diseases, Vol. 2 (J. H. Steele, ed.), pp. 523–540, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL (1979).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cavanaugh, D. C., Elisberg, B. L., Llewellyn, C. H., et al., Plague immunization. V. Indirect evidence for the efficacy of plague vaccination, J. Infect. Dis. 129:S37–S49 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Titball, R. W., Williamson, E. D., Dennis, D. T., Plague. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA (eds): Vaccines, 4th ed. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, pp. 999–1010 (2004).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Butler, T., A clinical study of bubonic plague: Observations of the 1970 Vietnam epidemic with emphasis on coagulation studies, skin histology, and electrocardiograms, Am. J. Med. 53:268–276 (1972).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hull, H. F., Montes, J. M., and Mann, J. M., Septicemic plague in New Mexico, J. Infect. Dis. 155:113–118 (1987).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Welty, T. K., Grabman, J., Kompare, E., et al., Nineteen cases of plague in Arizona. A spectrum including ecthyma gangrenosum due to plague and plague in pregnancy, West. J. Med. 142:641–646 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Crook, L. D., and Tempest, B., Plague—A clinical review of 27 cases, Arch. Intern. Med. 152:1253–1256 (1992).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Finegold, M. J., Pathogenesis of plague. A review of plague deaths in the United States during the last decade, Am. J. Med. 45:549–554 (1968).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Sites, V. R., Poland, J. D., and Hudson, B. W., Bubonic plague misdiagnosed as tularemia: Retrospective serologic diagnosis, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 222:1642–1643 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Doll, J. M., Zeitz, P. S., Ettestad, P., et al., Cat-transmitted fatal pneumonic plague in a person who traveled from Colorado to Arizona, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 51:109–114 (1994).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Werner, S. B., Weidmer, C. E., Nelson, B. C., et al., Primary plague pneumonia contracted from a domestic cat at South Lake Tahoe, Calif, J. Am. Med. Assoc. 251:929–931 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Chu, M. C. Laboratory manual of plague diagnostic tests. Atlanta, GA, USPHS Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2000).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Williams, J. E., Arntzen, L., Tyndal, G. L., and Isaacson, M., Application of enzyme immunoassays for the confirmation of clinically suspect plague in Namibia, Bull. WHO 64:745–752 (1982).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Chanteau, S., Rahalison, L., Ralafiarisoa, L., et al. Development and testing of a rapid diagnostic test for bubonic and pneumonic plague, Lancet 361:211–215 (2003).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    World Health Organization, International meeting on preventing and controlling plague: the old calamity still has a future, WHO Week. Epidemiol. Rec. 81:278–284 (2006).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    World Health Assembly. Revision of the International Health Regulations, WHA58.3. 2005. Available from http://www.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA58-REC1/english/Resolutions.pdf
  81. 81.
    World Health Organization, International Health Regulations (1969), World Health Organization, Geneva (1983).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    World Health Organization, Plague, India, WHO Week. Epidemiol. Rec. 40:295–299 (1994).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Dennis, D. T., Campbell, G. L. Plague and other Yersinia. In: Fauci, A. S., et al. (eds). Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 15th ed. pp. 921–926, McGraw-Hill, New York (2005).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Butler, T., Dennis, D. T. Yersinia infections, including plague. In: Mandell, Bennett, and Dolin (eds). Principles and Practices of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed. pp. 2691–2700, Elsevier, New York (2005).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Boulanger, L. L., Ettestad, P., Fogarty, J. D., et al., Gentamicin and tetracyclines for the treatment of human plague: review of 75 cases in New Mexico, 1985–1999. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:663–669 (2004).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Mwengee, W., Butler, T., Mgema, S., et al., Treatment of plague with gentamicin or doxycycline in a randomized clinical trial in Tanzania, Clin. Infect. Dis. 42:614–621 (2006).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Galimand, M., Guiyole, A., Gerbaud, G., et al., Multidrug resistance in Yersinia pestis mediated by a transferable plasmid, N. Engl. J. Med. 337:677–680 (1997).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Meyer, K. F., Smith, G., Foster, L., et al., Live, attenuated Yersinia pestis vaccine: Virulent in nonhuman primates, harmless to guinea pigs, J. Infect. Dis. 129:S85–S120 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Marshall, J. D., Jr., Bartelloni, P. J., Cavanaugh, D. C., et al., Plague immunization. II. Relation of adverse clinical reactions to multiple immunizations with killed vaccine, J. Infect. Dis. 129:S19–S25 (1974).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Powell, B. S., Andrews, G. P., Enama, J. T., Jendrek, S., et al., Design and testing for a nontagged F1-V fusion protein as vaccine antigen against bubonic and pneumonic plague, Biotechnol Prog. 21:1490–1510 (2005).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Simpson, W. J., Thomas, R. E., and Schwann, T. G., Recombinant capsular antigen (fraction 1) from Yersinia pestis induces a protective antibody response in BALB/C mice, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 43:389–396 (1990).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Williamson, E. D., Flick-Smith, H. C., Lebutt, C., Rowland, C. A., et al., Human immune response to a plague vaccine comprising recombinant F1 and V antigens, Infect Immun. 73:3598–3608 (2005).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Butler, T., Plague and Other Yersinia Infections, Plenum Press, New York (1983). (A review of human plague by an author who has had considerable firsthand experience in the diagnosis and treatment of plague and study of the pathophysiological mechanisms of infection with Yersinia pestis. The book includes fascinating material on the history of Alexandre Yersin and his discovery of the plague bacillus. Other yersinioses are also reviewed.)Google Scholar
  2. Centers Disease Control and Prevention, Prevention of plague. Recommendations of the Advisory Committees on Immunization Practices (ACIP), Morbid. Mortal. Week. Rep. 45(RR-14):1–15 (1996). (Reviews information on plague control, with general background information on plague, and a focus on the formalin killed plague vaccine, USP.)Google Scholar
  3. Dennis, D. T., Gage, K. L., Gratz, N., Poland, J., Tikhomirov, E., Plague manual: epidemiology, distribution, surveillance and control. Geneva: World Health Organization (1999). General plague reference with guidelines on plague prevention and control.Google Scholar
  4. Eskey, C. R., Haas, V. H., Plague in the western part of the United States, Public Health Bull. 254:1–82 (1940). (The classic description of the ecology of plague in the United States.)Google Scholar
  5. Gregg, C. T., Plague, an Ancient Disease in the Twentieth Century, rev. ed., University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1985. (Interesting overview of some epidemiological aspects of plague in the United States, with selected case histories.)Google Scholar
  6. Inglesby, T. V., Dennis, D. T., Henderson, D. A., et al., Plague as a Biologic Weapon: Medical and Public Health Management, JAMA 283(17): 2281–2290. (Consensus statement including a concise review of the various aspect of plague disease and recommendations following the use of plague as a biologic weapon.)Google Scholar
  7. Link, V. B., A History of Plague in the United States of America, Public Health Monograph No. 26, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1955). (Excellent history of the introduction and spread of plague in the United States in the early part of the 20th century, with fascinating descriptions of human plague outbreaks in California.)Google Scholar
  8. Pollitzer, R., Plague, WHO Monogr. Ser. 22 (1954). (Outdated, but still the most comprehensive plague reference book, with details on the history of plague and documented descriptions of the clinical, epidemiological, ecological prevention and control aspects of plague in the 20th century up until about 1950.)Google Scholar
  9. Wu Lien-Teh, A Treatise on Pneumonic Plague, League of Nations Health Organization, Geneva (1926). (A compendium of all information known on pneumonic plague at the time of writing, with descriptions of occurrences throughout the world, and especially the extraordinary Manchurian epidemics of 1910 and 1920.)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • David T. Dennis
    • 1
  • J. Erin Staples
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Vector-Borne DiseasesNational Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human ServicesFort CollinsUSA
  2. 2.Division of Vector-Borne DiseasesNational Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human ServicesFort CollinsUSA

Personalised recommendations