Applying Pedagogy during Game Development to Enhance Game-Based Learning
“Serious games” are emerging as an important outgrowth of the video gaming industry. Entertaining games, such as Flight Simulator and SimCity, are already in use in schools and universities across the country, and the number of serious games designed specifically for training and education is also on the rise. Advances in video game production, however, are far outpacing research on its design and effectiveness. Relatively little is still known about methods for optimizing the game design process or game-based learning.
If educators and instructional designers lead the design process, the resulting game may be neither fun, nor engaging. Games that over-emphasize educational requirements often fall short of realizing the potential of play, game, and story for creating memorable experiences. Perceived learning requirements and traditional teaching practices may be forced onto the game, undermining the dramatic flow of story and disrupting the riveting interactions of game play. The game may be built on sound pedagogical foundations and incorporate proven educational practices, but if it is not fun or otherwise engaging, it will fail to meet the expectations of both producers and consumers. In contrast, if entertaining game designers dominate the design process, the game may fail to apply key pedagogical principles and players may leave entertained, but lack vital skills and knowledge. The importance and depth of content information and vital instructional events can be overlooked, oversimplified or trivialized while striving to uphold compelling goals of interactive entertainment. The game may distract players who may be enamored by the use of high-end graphics and animation, or by competing, scoring and winning, rather than learning.
This chapter posits a systematic process for designing serious games that integrates common instructional systems design (ISD) tasks with a game development process to optimize game-based learning.
KeywordsGame Development Game Design Flight Simulator Educational Requirement Pedagogical Principle
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Aamodt, A. & Plaza, E. (1994). Case-Based Reasoning: Foundational Issues, Methodological Variations, and Systems Approaches. Artificial Intelligence Communications, 7(1), 39-59. Retrieved March 15, 2005 from http://www.lai-cbr.org/theindex.html.
- Barrows, H. S. (1985). How to Design a Problem Based Curriculum for the Preclinical Years. New York: Springer Publishing Co.Google Scholar
- Bates, B. (2004). Game Design (2nd Ed.). Boston: MA: Thomson Course Technology, PTR.Google Scholar
- Blake, J., & Goodman, J. (1999). Computer-based learning: Games as an instructional strategy. The Association of Black Nursing Faculty Journal, 10(2), 43–46.Google Scholar
- BSCS (2006). Learning theory and the BSCS 5E instructional model. Retrieved May 1, 2006 from http://www.bscs.org/library/Learning_Theory_and_the_BSCS_5E_Instructional_Model.pdf.
- Crawford, C. (2003). The Art of Interactive Design. San Francisco, CA: No Starch Press, Inc.Google Scholar
- Cronbach, I. J. (1975). Course improvement through evaluation. Reprinted in Payne, D. A., & McMorris, R. F. (Eds.), Education and Psychological Measurement. Morristown, NH: General Learning Press, 243–256.Google Scholar
- Dempsey, J. V., Lucassen, B. A., Haynes, L. L., & Casey, M. S. (1996). Instructional applications of computer games. New York, NY: Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. (ERIC Document Reprodcution Service No. ED 394 500).Google Scholar
- Dick, W., Carey, L., & Carey, J. O. (2005). The Systematic Design of Instruction (6th edition), New York: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
- Driscoll, M. P. (1994). Psychology of learning for instruction. Needham Heights, MA: Paramount Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
- Egenfeldt-Nielsen, S. (2005). Beyond Edutainment: Exploring the Educational Potential of Computer Games. Retrieved October 15, 2005 from http://www.itu.dk/people/sen/egenfeldt.pdf.
- Gagne, R.M. (1977). The Conditions of Learning (3rd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.Google Scholar
- Hirumi, A. (2002). The design and sequencing of e-learning interactions: A grounded approach. International Journal on E-Learning, 7(1), 19–27.Google Scholar
- Holland, W., Jenkins, H., Squire, K. (2002). Video Game Theory. In B. Perrron & M. Wolf (Eds). Routledge. Retrieved February 15, 2006 from http://www.educationarcade.org/gtt/
- Jonassen, D. (1999). Designing constructivist learning environments. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.). Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory (pp. 215-239). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Jonassen, D. H., Tessmer, M., and Hannum, W.H. (1999). Task Analysis Methods for Instructional Design. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
- Joyce, B., Weil, M., & Showers, B. (1992). Models of Teaching (4th ed.). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
- Kolb, D.A. (1985). Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.Google Scholar
- Leake, D. B. (2000). Case-Based Reasoning: Experiences, Lessons and Future Directions. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Leddo, J. (1996). An intelligent tutoring game to teach scientific reasoning. Journal of Instruction Delivery Systems, 10(4), 22–25.Google Scholar
- Mitchell, A. & Savill-Smith, C. (2004). The use of computer and video games for learning: A review of the literature. London, England: The Learning and Skills Development Agency.Google Scholar
- Nelson, L. (1999). Collaborative Problem-Solving. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed.). Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory (pp. 241-267). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Novak, J. (2005). Game Development Essentials. Clifton Park, NY: Thomson Delmar Learning.Google Scholar
- Pfeiffer, J.W., & Jones, J.E. (1975) Introduction to the structured experiences section. In J.E. Jones & J.W. Pfeiffer (Eds.). The 1975 annual handbook for group facilitators. La Jolla, CA: University Associates.Google Scholar
- Savery, J. R., Duffy, T. M. (1995). Problem-based learning: An instructional model and its constructivist framework. In B. Wilson (Ed.). Constructivist Learning Environments: Case Studies in Instructional Design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.Google Scholar
- Schank, R. C., Berman, T. R., & Macpherson, K. A. (1999). Learning by doing. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed). Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory (pp. 161-179). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Schwartz, Lin, Brophy, S., & Bransford, J. D. (1992). Toward the development of flexibly adaptive instructional designs. In C. M. Reigeluth (Ed). Instructional Design Theories and Models: A New Paradigm of Instructional Theory (pp. 183-213). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- Sklar, M. (n.d.). Mickey’s 10 Commandments. Retrieved May 01, 2006 from http://www.themedattraction.com/mickeys10commandments.htm.
- Smith, P. L. & Ragan, T. J. (2005). Instructional Design (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc.Google Scholar
- Wikipedia (2005). Game development. Retrieved March 04, 2006 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interactiveentertainment.
- Wilson, B. (1995). Constructivist learning environments: Case studies in instructional design. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Educational Technology Publications.Google Scholar