Advertisement

Toward an Ecological Unit of Analysis in Behavioral Assessment and Intervention With Families of Children With Developmental Disabilities

Chapter
Part of the Issues in Clinical Child Psychology book series (ICCP)

Abstract

The purpose of this chapter is to present our work and that of colleagues in the field of positive behavior support (PBS) (Carr et al., 2002; Koegel, Koegel, Dunlap, 1996) on the development of an empirically grounded ecological unit of analysis for behavioral assessment and intervention with families of children with developmental disabilities and severe problem behavior. Our aim is to provide practitioners and families with an empirical foundation for the design of comprehensive PBS plans in family contexts that are likely to be acceptable to family members, implemented by family members with fidelity, effective at improving the behavior and quality of life of the child and family, sustainable within the family ecology, and durable across a long period of time.

This work has been guided by one central question: What are the necessary and sufficient conditions for the design of survivable positive behavior interventions in family contexts? In collaboration with parents of children with developmental disabilities and severe problem behavior, we have empirically investigated a unit of analysis—coercive processes in family routines—that has served as the organizing center of our research and practice with families. In the first half of the chapter, we define the problem and need; describe an ecological unit of analysis that integrates child behavior, parent-child interaction, and family activity settings (routines); and summarize assessment and intervention research that validates key components of the ecological model. In the second half of the chapter, we briefly summarize our current longitudinal research with families of children with developmental disabilities in which we have been investigating the validity of the ecological unit of analysis for transforming coercive processes in family routines. Following this summary, we discuss five implications of our research for assessment and intervention in natural family contexts in collaboration with family members.

Keywords

Problem Behavior Developmental Disability Child Problem Behavior Apply Behavior Analysis Behavior Support 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Albin, R. W., Lucyshyn, J. M., Horner, R. H., & Flannery, K. B. (1996). Contextual-fit for behavioral support plans: A model for “goodness-of-fit.” In L. K. Koegel, R. L. Koegel, & G. Dunlap (Eds.), Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community (pp. 81–98). Baltimore: BrookesGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen, K. D., & Warzak, W. J. (2000). The problem of parental nonadherence in clinical behavior analysis: Effective treatment is not enough. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33, 373–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baer, D. M. (1986). “Exemplary services to what outcome?” Review of education of learners with severe handicaps: Exemplary service strategies. The Journal of the Association for the Severely Handicapped, 11, 145–147Google Scholar
  4. Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 91–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baer, D. M., Wolf, M. M., & Risley, T. R. (1987). Some still current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 313–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bakeman, R., & Quera, V. (1995). Analyzing interaction: Sequential analysis with SDIS and GSEQ. New York: Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker, B. L., Blacher, J., Crnic, K., & Edelbrock, C. (2002). Behavior problems and parenting stress in families of 3-year old children with and without developmental disabilities. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 107, 433–444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bijou, S. W., & Baer, D. M. (1961). Child development: Vol. 1. A systematic and empirical theory. New York: Appleton-Century-CroftsGoogle Scholar
  9. Binnendyk, L., & Lucyshyn, J. M. (2008). A family-centered positive behavior support approach to the amelioration of food refusal behavior: A case study analysis. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions Google Scholar
  10. Briesmeister, J. M., & Schaefer, C. E. (1998). Handbook of parent training: Parents as co-therapists for children's problem behavior. New York: WileyGoogle Scholar
  11. Bristol, M. M., Cohen, D. J., Costello, E. J., Denckla, M., Eckberg, T. J., Kallen, R., et al. (1996). State of the science in autism: Report to the National Institute of Health. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 26, 121–154PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bromley, B. E., & Blacher, J. (1991). Parental reasons for out-of-home placement of children with severe handicaps, Mental Retardation, 29, 275–280PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1986). Ecology of the family as a context for human development:Research perspectives, Developmental Psychology, 22, 723–742CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Buschbacher, P., Fox, L., Clarke, S. (2004). Capturing desired family routines: A parent-professional behavioral collaboration. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 29, 25–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Capaldi, D. M., DeGarmo, D. S., Patterson, G. R., & Forgatch, M. S. (2002). Contextual risk across the early life span and association with antisocial behavior. In J. B. Reid, G. R. Patterson, & J. Snyder (Eds.), Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents:A developmental analysis and model for intervention (pp. 123–145). Washington, DC: American Psychological AssociationCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carr, E. G. (2007). The expanding vision of positive behavior support: Research perspectives on happiness, helpfulness, and hopefulness. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9, 3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carr, E. G., Dunlap, G., Horner, R. H., Koegel, R. L., Turnbull, A., Sailor, W., et al.(2002). Positive behavior support: Evolution of an applied science. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4, 4–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carr, E. G., & Durand, V. M. (1985). Reducing of severe behavior problems in the community through a multicomponent intervention approach. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26, 157–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carr, E. G., Horner, R. H., Turnbull, A. Marquis, J., Magito-McLaughlin, D., McAtee, M., et al. (1999). Positive behavior support for people with developmental disa bilities: A research synthesis. Washington, DC: American Association on Mental RetardationGoogle Scholar
  20. Carr, E. G., Taylor, J. C., & Robinson, S. (1991). The effects of severe problem behaviors in children on the teaching behavior of adults. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,24, 523–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chen, D., Downing, J. E., & Peckman-Hardin, K. D. (2002). Working with families of diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds: Considerations for culturally responsive positive behavior support. In J. M. Lucyshyn, G. Dunlap, & R. W. Albin, (Eds.),Families and positive behavior support: Addressing problem behavior in family contexts (pp. 133–154). Baltimore: BrookesGoogle Scholar
  22. Clarke, S., Dunlap, G., & Vaughn, B. (1999). Family-centered, assessment-based intervention to improve behavior during an early morning routine. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1, 235–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (2007). Applied behavior analysis (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: PearsonGoogle Scholar
  24. Cusinato, M. (1994). Parenting over the family lifecycle. In L. L'Abate (Ed.), Handbook of developmental family psychology and psychopathology (pp. 83–115). New York:WileyGoogle Scholar
  25. Davenport, S. L., Hefner, M. A., & Mitchell, J. A. (1986). The spectrum of clinical features in CHARGE syndrome. Clinical Genetics, 29, 298–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Derby, K. M., Wacker, D. P., Peck, S., Sasso, G., DeRaad, A., Berg, W., et al. (1994). Functional analysis of separate topographies of aberrant behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27, 267–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Durand, V. M., & Hieneman, M. (2008). Helping parents with challenging children: Positive family intervention. New York: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  28. Dumas, J. E. (2005). Mindfulness-based parent training: Strategies to lessen the grip of automaticity in families with disruptive children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 34, 779–791PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2004). Clinical supervision: A competency-based approach. Washington, DC: American Psychological AssociationGoogle Scholar
  30. Feldman, M. A., Condillac, R. A., Tough, S., Hunt, S., & Griffiths, D. (2002). Effectiveness of community positive behavioral intervention for persons with developmental disabilities and severe behavioral challenges. Behavior Therapy, 33, 377–398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Floyd, F. J., & Gallagher, E. M. (1997). Parental stress, care demands, and use of support services for school-aged children with disabilities and problem behavior. Family Relations, 40, 359–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Floyd, F. J., & Phillippe, K. A. (1993). Parental interactions with children with and without mental retardation: Behavior management, coerciveness, and positive exchanges. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 97, 673–684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Forehand, R., & Kotchick, B. A., (2002). Behavioral parent training: Current challenges and potential solutions. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 11, 377–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gallimore, R. (2005). Behavior change in the natural environment: Everyday activity settings as a workshop of change. In C. R. O'Donnell & L. A. Yamauchi (Eds.), Cul-ture and context in human behavior change: Theory, research, and applications, New york, Peter Lang, 207–231Google Scholar
  35. Gallimore, R., Goldenberg, C. N., & Weisner, T. S. (1993). The social construction and subjective reality of activity settings: Implications for community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 21, 537–559PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gallimore, R., Coots, J., Weisner, T., Garnier, H., & Guthrie, D. (1996). Family responses to children with early developmental delays II: Accommodation intensity and activity in early and middle childhood. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 101,215–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Gallimore, R., Weisner, T. S., Kaufman, S. Z. & Bernheimer, L. P. (1989). The social construction of ecocultural niches: Family accommodation of developmentally delayed children. American Journal of Mental Retardation, 94, 216–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Goldstein, A. P., & Martens, B. K. (2000) Lasting change. Champaign, IL: Research PressGoogle Scholar
  39. Gottman, J. M., & Silver, N. (1999). The seven principles for making marriage work.New York: CrownGoogle Scholar
  40. Griest, D. L., & Forehand, K. C. (1982). How can I get any parent training done with all these other problems going on? The role of family variables in child behavior therapy. Child and Behavior Therapy, 14, 37–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hayes, S. C. (2004). Acceptance and commitment therapy, relational frame theory, and the third wave of behavior therapy. Behavior Therapy, 35, 639–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Helm, D. T., & Kozloff, M. A. (1986). Research on parent training: Shortcomings and remedies. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 16, 1–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hieneman, M., Childs, K., & Sergay, J. (2006). Parenting and positive behavior support:A practical guide to resolving your child & s difficult behavior. Baltimore: BrookesGoogle Scholar
  44. Horner, R. D., & Baer, D. M. (1978). Multiple-probe technique: A variation of the multiple baseline. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 186–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Iwata, B. A., Dorsey, M. F., Slifer, K. J., Bauman, K. E., & Richman, G. S. (1982) Toward a functional analysis of self-injury. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 2, 3–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jacobson, J. (1990). Do some mental disorders occur less frequently among persons with mental retardation? American Journal on Mental Retardation, 94, 596–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kanfer, F. H., & Grimm, L. G. (1980). Managing clinical change. Behavior Modification,4, 419–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kazdin, A. E., & Weisz, M. K. (2003). Treatment of parental stress to enhance therapeutic change among children referred for aggressive and antisocial behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 504–514PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kennedy, C. H. (2005). Single-case designs for educational research. Boston: Allyn & BaconGoogle Scholar
  50. Kern, L., Gallagher, P., Starosta, K., Hickman, W., & George, M. (2006). Longitudinal outcomes of functional assessment-based intervention. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8, 67–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., Boettcher, M., & Brookman-Frazee, L. (2005). Extending behavior support in home and community settings. In L. M. Bambara & L. Kern (Eds.), Individualized supports for students with problem behaviors: Designing positive behavior support plans (pp. 334–358). New York: GuilfordGoogle Scholar
  52. Koegel, L. K., Koegel, R. L., & Dunlap, G. (Eds.). (1996). Positive behavioral support: Including people with difficult behavior in the community. Baltimore: BrookesGoogle Scholar
  53. Koegel, L. K., Steibel, D., & Koegel, R. L. (1998). Reducing aggression in children with autism toward infant or toddler siblings. The Journal of the Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps, 23, 111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lucyshyn, J. M., & Albin, R. W. (1993). Comprehensive support to families of children with disabilities and problem behaviors: Keeping it “friendly.” In G. H. S. Singer & L. E. Powers (Eds.), Families, disability, and empowerment: Active coping skills and strategies for family interventions(pp. 365–407). Baltimore: BrookesGoogle Scholar
  55. Lucyshyn, J. M., Albin, R. W., Horner, R., Mann, J., Mann, J., & Wadsworth, G. (2007).Family implementation of positive behavior support with a child with autism: A longitudinal, single case experimental and descriptive replication and extension.Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 9, 131–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lucyshyn, J. M., Albin, R. W., & Nixon, C. D. (1997). Embedding comprehensive behavioral support in family ecology: An experimental, single-case analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 65, 241–251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lucyshyn, J. M., Dunlap, G., & Albin, R. W. (Eds.). (2002). Families, and positive behavioral support: Addressing problem behaviors in family contexts. Baltimore: BrookesGoogle Scholar
  58. Lucyshyn, J. M., Horner, R. H., Dunlap, G., Albin, R. W., & Ben, K. R. (2002). Positive behavioral support with families. In J. M. Lucyshyn, G. Dunlap, & R. W. Albin (Eds.), Families, and positive behavioral support: Addressing problem behaviors in family contexts(pp. 3–43). Baltimore: BrookesGoogle Scholar
  59. Lucyshyn, J. M., Irvin, L. K., Blumberg, E. R., Laverty, R., Horner, R. H., & Sprague, J. R.(2004). Validating the construct of coercion in family routines: Expanding the unit of analysis in behavioral assessment with families of children with developmental disabilities. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Handicaps, 29, 104–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lucyshyn, J. M., Kayser, A. T., Irvin, L. R., & Blumberg, E. R. (2002). Functional assessment and positive behavior support plan development at home with families: Defining effective and contextually-appropriate plans. In J. M. Lucyshyn, G. Dunlap, & R. W.Albin (Eds.), Families, and positive behavioral support: Addressing problem behaviors in family contexts (pp. 97–132). Baltimore: BrookesGoogle Scholar
  61. Lynch, E. W., & Hanson, M. J. (2004). Developing cross-cultural competence: A guide for working with children and their families (3rd ed.). Baltimore: BrookesGoogle Scholar
  62. Mackintosh, N. J. (1975). A theory of attention: Variations in the associability of stimulus and reinforcement. Psychological Review, 82, 276–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Messick, S. (1988). The once and future issues of validity: Assessing the meaning and consequences of measurement. In H. Wainer & H. I. Braun (Eds.), Test validity (pp.33–45). Hillsdale, NJ: ErlbaumGoogle Scholar
  64. Minuchin, S. (1974). Families and family therapy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University PressGoogle Scholar
  65. Moes, D. R., & Frea, W.D. (2002). Contextualized behavioral support in early intervention for children with autism and their families. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 23, 521–534Google Scholar
  66. Noldus, L. P. J. J., Trienes, R. J. H., Hendriksen, A. H. M., Jansen, H., & Jansen, R. G.,(2000). The Observer Video Pro: New software for the collection, management, and presentation of time-structured data from videotapes and digital media files. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 32, 197–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. O'Donnell, C. R., Tharp, R. G., & Wilson, K. (1993). Activity settings as the unit of analysis: a theoretical basis for community intervention and development. American Journal of Community Psychology, 21, 501–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. O'Neill, R. E., Horner, R. H., Albin, R. W., Sprague, J. R., Storey, K., & Newton, J. S. (1997). Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior:A practical handbook. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/ColeGoogle Scholar
  69. Patterson, G. R. (1978). Families: Applications of social learning to family life. Champaign, IL: Research PressGoogle Scholar
  70. Patterson, G. R. (1982). Coercive family processes. Eugene, OR: CastaliaGoogle Scholar
  71. Patterson, G. R., & Forgatch, M. S. (1985). Therapist behavior as a determinant for client non-compliance: A paradox for the behavior modifier. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 6, 846–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Patterson, G. R., Forgatch, M. S., Yoerger, K., & Stoolmiller, M. (1998). Variables that initiate and maintain an early-onset trajectory for juvenile offending. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 531–547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Patterson, J. E., Miller, R. B., Carnes, S., & Wilson, S. (2004). Evidence-based practice for marriage and family therapists. Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 30,183–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Patterson, G. R., Reid, J. B., & Dishion, T. J. (1992). Antisocial boys. Eugene, OR: CastaliaGoogle Scholar
  75. Peters, R. D., & McMahon, R. J. (1989). Social learning and systems approaches to marriage and the family. New York: Brunner/MazelGoogle Scholar
  76. Reid, J. B., Patterson, G. R., & Snyder, J. J. (2002). Antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A developmental analysis and the Oregon model for intervention.Washington, DC: American Psychological AssociationGoogle Scholar
  77. Repp, A., & Horner, R. H. (Eds.). (1999). Functional analysis of problem behavior: From effective assessment to effective support. Belmont, CA: WadsworthGoogle Scholar
  78. Risdal, & Singer, G. H. S. (2004). Marital adjustment in parents of children with disabilities: A historical review and meta-analysis. Research and Practice for Persons With Severe Disabilities, 29, 95–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Roberts, C., Mazzucchelli, T., Studman, L., & Sanders, M. R. (2006). Behavioral family intervention for children with developmental disabilities and behavioral problems. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35, 180–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rocco, S., Metzger, J., Zangerele, A., & Skouge, J. R. (2002). Three families' perspectives on assessment, intervention, and parent-professional partnerships. In J. M. Lucy-shyn, G. Dunlap, & R. W. Albin (Eds.), Families, and positive behavioral support:Addressing problem behaviors in family contexts (pp. 75–91). Baltimore: BrookesGoogle Scholar
  81. Scotti, J. R., & Meyer, L. H. (Eds.). (1999) Behavioral intervention: Principals, models, and practices. Baltimore: BrookesGoogle Scholar
  82. Seligman, M. E. P., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions. American Psychologist, 60, 410–421PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Singer, G. H., Goldberg-Hamblin, S. E., Peckham-Hardin, K. D., Barry, L., & Santarelli, G. E. (2002). Toward a synthesis of family support practices and positive behavior support. In J. M. Lucyshyn, G. Dunlap, & R. W. Albin (Eds.), Families and positive behavior support: Addressing problem behavior in family contexts (pp. 155–183).Baltimore: BrookesGoogle Scholar
  84. Singh, N. N., Lancioni, G. E., Winton, A. S. W., Fisher, B. C., Wahler, R. G., McAleavey, K., et al. (2006). Mindful parenting decreases aggression, noncompliance and self-injury in children with autism. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 14,169–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Skinner, B. F. (1953). Science and human behavior. New York: MacmillanGoogle Scholar
  86. Stoltenberg, C. D., & Delworth, U. (1987) Supervising counselors and therapists. San Francisco: Jossey-BassGoogle Scholar
  87. Turnbull, A. P., & Turnbull, H. R. (1991). Family assessment and family empowerment: An ethical analysis. In L. H. Meyer, C. A. Peck, & L. Brown (Eds.), Critical issues in the lives of people with severe disabilities (pp. 485–488). Baltimore: BrookesGoogle Scholar
  88. Turnbull, A. P., & Ruef, M. B. (1996). Family perspectives on problem behavior. Mental Retardation, 34, 280–293PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Turnbull, A. P., Turnbull, H. R., Erwin, E., & Soodak, L. (2006). Families, professionals, and exceptionality: Positive outcomes through partnerships and trust. Columbus, OH, and Upper Saddle River, NJ. Pearson/Merrill-Prentice HallGoogle Scholar
  90. Vaughn, B. J., Clarke, S., & Dunlap, G. (1997). Assessment-based intervention for severe behavior problems in a natural family context. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 713–716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Vaughn, B. J., Wilson, D., & Dunlap, G. (2002). Family-centered intervention to resolve problem behaviors in a fast-food restaurant. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4, 38–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wahler, R. G., & Fox, J. J. (1981). Setting events in social networks: Ally or enemy in child behavior therapy? Behavior Therapy, 14, 19–36Google Scholar
  93. Webster-Stratton, C., & Herbert, M. (1993). What really happens in parent training? Behavior Modification, 17, 407–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Werle, M. A., Murphy, T. B., & Budd, K. S. (1993). Treating chronic food refusal in young children: Home-based parent training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis,26, 421–433PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2009

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations