Advertisement

Delivering behavior Support in the Foster Care System

  • Kimberly Crosland
  • Glen Dunlap
  • Hewitt B. Clark
  • Bryon Neff
Part of the Issues in Clinical Child Psychology book series (ICCP)

Abstract

Positive behavior support (PBS) emerged in the mid-1980s with a focus on the behavior support needs of individuals with severe intellectual disabilities and problem behavior (Carr et al., 2002; Dunlap & Carr, 2007; Dunlap & Hieneman, 2005). Since then, PBS has been demonstrated with many additional populations in schools, homes, and other community settings. As is evident in chapters throughout the current volume, PBS has been used effectively in an increasing number of human service systems, including early intervention (e.g., Head Start), public schools, and mental health.

One system that has received little attention with respect to systematic behavior support (including PBS) is child welfare. The child welfare system provides care for the many thousands of children who are without a biological family home within the context of an array of settings, such as foster care, therapeutic foster care, group shelters, group homes, and specialized adoptions. Principal reasons for children being placed in the child welfare system are abuse, neglect, and parental incarceration. Such children, of course, are extremely vulnerable to serious problems in social-emotional development and the emergence of problem behaviors.

Keywords

Child Welfare Foster Care Foster Parent Nocturnal Enuresis Behavior Analyst 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act, P.L. 96–272, (1980)Google Scholar
  2. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2005). Facts for families: Foster care. Washington, DC: AuthorGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th Ed., Revised). Washington DC: AuthorGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, C. M., & Freeman, K. A. (2000). Positive behavior support: Expanding the application of applied behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 23, 85–94Google Scholar
  5. Azrin, N.H., Sneed, T.J., & Foxx, R.M. (1974). Dry bed: Rapid elimination of childhood enuresis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 12, 147–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barth, R. P., Landsverk, J., Chamberlain, P., Reid, J. B., Rolls, J. A., Hurlburt, M. S., et al. (2005). Parent-training programs in child welfare services: Planning for a more evidence-based approach to serving biological parents.Research on Social Work Practice, 15, 353–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berridge, D., & Cleaver, H. (1987). Foster home breakdown. Oxford, England: BlackwellGoogle Scholar
  8. Bess, R. (2002). The cost of protecting vulnerable children III: What factors affect states' fiscal decisions? Washington, DC: Urban InstituteGoogle Scholar
  9. Buehler, C., Orme, J. G., Post, J., & Patterson, D. A. (2000). The long-term correlates of family foster care. Children and Youth Services Review, 22, 595–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burns, B. J., Phillips, S. D., Wagner, H. R., Barth, R. P., Kolko, D. J., Campbell, Y., et al. (2004). Mental health need and access to mental health services by youth involved with child welfare: A national survey. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43, 960–970PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carr, E. G., Dunlap, G., Horner, R. H., Koegel, R. L., Turnbull, A. P., Sailor, W., et al. (2002). Positive behavior support. Evolution of an applied science. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 4, 4–16Google Scholar
  12. Center for the Study of Social Policy and Its Center for the Study of Social Policy and Its Center for Community Partnerships in Child Welfare. (2003). Child Welfare Summit: Looking to the future. An examination of the state of child welfare and recommendations for action. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  13. Chapin Hall Center for Children. (2005). Youth who run away from out-of-home care (Issue Brief 103). ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  14. Children's Health Act of 2000 (Public Law 106–310 Section 1004)Google Scholar
  15. Choca, M. J., Minoff, J., Angene, L., Byrnes, M., Kenneally, L., Norris, D., et al. (2004). Can't do it alone: Housing collaborations to improve foster youth outcomes. Child Welfare, 83, 469–492PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Christenson, S. L. (2002, November). Families, educators, and the family-school partnership: Issues or opportunities for promoting children's learning competence? Paper presented at the 2002 Invitational Conference: The Future of School Psychology, Indianapolis, INGoogle Scholar
  17. Christenson, S. L. (2002, November). Families, educators, and the family-school partnership: Issues or opportunities for promoting children's learning competence? Paper presented at the 2002 Invitational Conference: The Future of School Psychology, Indianapolis, INGoogle Scholar
  18. Clark, H. B., & Crosland, K. (in press). Social and life skills development: Preparing and facilitating youth for transition into young adult roles. In B. Kerman, A. Maluccio, & M. Freundlich (Eds.),Achieving permanence for older children and youth in foster care. New York: Columbia University PressGoogle Scholar
  19. Clark, H. B., Crosland, K., Geller, D., Cripe, M., Kenney, T., Neff, B., et al. (2008). A functional approach to reducing runaway behavior and stabilizing placements for adolescents in foster care.Research in Social Work Practice, 18, 429–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cooper, J.O., Heron, T.E., & Heward, W.L. (1987).Applied behavior analysis. Upper Saddle River, NJ: MerrillGoogle Scholar
  21. Cooper, C. S., Peterson, N. L., & Meier, J. H. (1987). Variables associated with disrupted placement in a select sample of abused and neglected children. Child Abuse and Neglect, 11, 75–86PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Courtney, M. E., Skyles, A., Miranda, G., Zinn, A., Howard, E., & Goerge, R. M. (2005). Youth who run away from substitute care (Issue Brief No. 103). Chicago, IL: Chapin Hall Center for Children, University of ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  23. Crosland, K. A., Cigales, M., Dunlap, G., Neff, B., Clark, H. B., Giddings, T., & Blanco, A. (2008). Using staff training to decrease the use of restrictive procedures at two facilities for foster care children. Research on Social Work Practice, 18, 401–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Day, D. M. (2002). Examining the therapeutic utility of restraints and seclusion with children and youth: The role of theory and research in practice.American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 72, 266–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dunlap, G. (2006). The applied behavior analytic heritage of PBS: A dynamic model of action-oriented research. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 8, 58–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dunlap, G., & Carr, E. G. (2007). Positive behavior support and developmental disabilities: A summary and analysis of research. In S. L. Odom, R. H. Horner, M. Snell, & J. Blacher (Eds.), Handbook of developmental disabilities (pp. 469–482). New York: GuilfordGoogle Scholar
  27. Dunlap, G., Carr, E.G., Horner, R.H., Zarcone, J., & Schwartz, I. (2008). Positive behavior support and applied behavior analysis: A familial alliance. Behavior Modification, 32, 682–698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dunlap, G., & Hieneman, M. (2005). Positive behavior support. In G. Sugai & R. Horner (Eds.), Encyclopedia of behavior modification and cognitive behavior therapy. Vol. 3: Educational applications (pp. 1421–1428). Thousand Oaks, CA: SageGoogle Scholar
  29. Eyberg, S.M. & Matarazzo, R.G. (1980). Training parents as therapists: A comparison between individual parent-child interaction training and parent group didactic training. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 492–499PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Fergusson, D.M, & Horwood, L.J. (1994). Nocturnal enuresis and behavioral problems in adolescence: A 15-year longitudinal study. Pediatrics, 94, 662–668PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fletcher, T.B. (2000). Primary nocturnal enuresis: A structural and strategic family systems approach. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 22, 32–44Google Scholar
  32. Florida Statues, Section 393.17 (2001)Google Scholar
  33. Goren, S., Singh, N. N., & Best, A. M. (1993). The aggression-coercion cycle: Use of seclusion and restraint in a child psychiatric hospital. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 2, 61–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hampson, R. B., Schulte, M. A., & Ricks, C. C. (1983). Individual vs. group training for foster parents: Efficiency/effectiveness evaluations. Family Relations, 32, 191–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Honberg, R., & Miller, J. (2003). Seclusion and restraints. The Nation's Voice on Mental Illness (NAMI) Task Force Report. Arlington, VA: Policy Research InstituteGoogle Scholar
  36. Iglehart, A. (1994). Kinship foster care: Placement services and outcome issues. Children and Youth Services Review, 16, 107–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Irwin, M. (1987). Are seclusion rooms needed on child psychiatric units? American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 57, 125–126PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Keiser, A.P., Hemmeter, M.L., Ostrosky, M.M., Alpert, C.L., & Hancock, T.B. (1995). The effects of group training and individual feedback on parent use of Milieu teaching. Journal of Childhood Communication Disorders, 16, 39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kern, L., & Dunlap, G. (1999). Assessment-based interventions for children with emotional and behavioral disorders. In A. C. Repp & R. H. Horner (Eds.), Functional analysis of problem behavior: From effective assessment to effective support (pp. 197–218). Belmont, CA: WadsworthGoogle Scholar
  40. Kessler, M. L., & Greene, B. F. (1999). Behavior analysis in child welfare: Competency training caseworkers to manage visits between parents and their children in foster care. Research on Social Work Practice, 9, 148–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Klee, L., & Halfon, N. (1987). Communicating health information in the California Foster Care System: Problems and recommendations. Children and Youth Services Review, 9, 171–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Landsverk, J., Garland, A. F., & Leslie, L. K. (2002). Mental health services for children reported to child protective services. In J. E. B. Meyers, L. Berliner, J. Briere, C. T. Hendrix, C. Jenny, & T. A. Reid (Eds.), The APSAC handbook on child maltreatment (2nd ed., pp. 487–507). Thousand Oaks, CA: SageGoogle Scholar
  43. Latham, G. I. (1990). The power of positive parenting. North Logan, UT: P & I InkGoogle Scholar
  44. Leathers, S. J. (2002). Foster children's behavioral disturbance and detachment from caregivers and community institutions. Children and Youth Services Review, 24, 239–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lee, J. H., & Holland, T. P. (1991). Evaluating the effectiveness of foster parent training. Research on Social Work Practice, 1, 162–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Litronwnik, A. J., Taussig, H. N., Landsverk, J. A., & Garland, A. F. (1999). Youth entering an emergency shelter care facility: Prior involvement in juvenile justice and mental health systems. Journal of Social Service Review, 25, 5–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lundahl, B. W., Nimer, J., & Parsons, B. (2006). Preventing child abuse: A meta-analysis of parent training programs. Research on Social Work Practice, 16, 251–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lutzker, J. R., Tymchuk, A. J., & Bigelow, K. M. (2001). Applied research in child maltreatment: Practicalities and pitfalls. Children's Services: Social Policy, Research, and Practice, 4, 141–156Google Scholar
  49. Model approach to partnerships in parenting: Group preparation and selection of foster and/or adoptive families. (1987). (Available from the Child Welfare Institute, 1430 West Peachtree Street, Suite 570, Atlanta, GA 30309)Google Scholar
  50. Newton, R. R., Litrownik, A. J., & Landsverk, J. A. (2000). Children and youth in foster care: Distangling the relationship between problem behaviors and number of placements. Child Abuse and Neglect, 24, 1363–1374PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pardeck, J. T. (1984). Multiple placement of children in foster family care: An empirical analysis. Social Work, 29, 506–509Google Scholar
  52. Pardeck, J. T., Murphy, J. W., & Fitzwater, L. (1985). Profile of the foster child likely to experience unstable care: A re-examination. Early Child Development and Care, 22, 137–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Pasztor, E. M. (1989). The influence of foster parent ownership of permanency planning tasks on role retention and permanent placements. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Catholic University, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  54. Piazza, C. C., Hanley, G. P., Bowman, L. G., Ruyter, J. M., Lindauer, S. E., & Saiontz, D. M. (1997). Functional analysis and treatment of elopement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30, 653–672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Prevent Child Abuse America. (2001). Total estimated cost of child abuse and neglect in the United States. Retrieved December 15, 2007, from http://member.preventch-ildabuse.org/site/DocServer/cost_analysis.pdf?docID=144 (PDF-44 KB) - NOTE: must register to view document Google Scholar
  56. Proch, K., & Taber, M. (1985). Placement disruption: A review of research. Children and Youth Services Review, 7, 309–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rowe, J., Hundleby, M., & Garnett, L. (1989). Child care now: A survey of placement patterns. London: British Agencies for Fostering and AdoptionGoogle Scholar
  58. Runyan, A., & Fullerton, S. (1981). Foster care provider training: A preventative program.Children and Youth Services Review, 3, 127–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Smagner, J. P., & Sullivan, M. H. (2005). Investigating the effectiveness of behavioral parent training with involuntary clients in child welfare settings. Research on Social Work Practice, 15, 431–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Stein, T. J., Gambrill, E. D., & Wiltse, K. T. (1978). Children in foster homes: Achieving continuity of care. New York: PraegerGoogle Scholar
  61. Stone, N. M., & Stone, S. F. (1983). The prediction of successful foster placement. The Journal of Contemporary Social Work, 1, 11–17Google Scholar
  62. Stoutimore, M.R., Williams, C.E., Neff, B., Foster, M. (2008). The Florida child welfare Behavior Analysis Services Program. Research on Social Work Practice, 18, 367–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Stover, A. C., Dunlap, G., & Neff, B. (2008). The effects of a contingency contracting program on the nocturnal enuresis of three children. Research on Social Work Practice, 18, 421–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tarbox, R. S. F., Wallace, M. D., & Williams, L. (2003). Assessment and treatment of elopement: A replication and extension. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 239–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Timothy Roche (2000, November 13). The crisis of foster care. Time Magazine, 156, 5Google Scholar
  66. Ullom-Minnich, M.R. (1996). Diagnosis and management of nocturnal enuresis, American Family Physician, 54, 2259–2266PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2006). The Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/stats_ research/afcars/tar/report13.htm, Nov. 21st, 2007Google Scholar
  68. U.S. General Accounting Office. (1997). Parental substance abuse: Implications for children, the child welfare system, and foster care outcomes. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  69. Walsh, J. A., & Walsh, R. A. (1990). Quality care for tough kids. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of AmericaGoogle Scholar
  70. Webster, D., Barth, R. P., & Needell, B. (2000). Placement stability for children in out-of-home care: A longitudinal analysis. Child Welfare, 79, 614–632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Wechsler, D. (1991). Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children — Third Edition. San Antonio, TX; The Psychological CorporationGoogle Scholar
  72. Weiss, E. (1998, October 11–15). Deadly restraint: A nationwide pattern. The Hartford Courant. pp. A1 and A12Google Scholar
  73. Weisz, J. R., Donenberg, G. R., Han, S. S., & Kauneckis, D. (1995). Child and adolescent psychotherapy outcomes in experiments versus clinics: Why the disparity? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 83–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Widom, C. S. (1991). The role of placement experiences in mediating the criminal consequences of early childhood victimization. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 61, 195–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Williams, C. (2003). History of the behavior analysis services program. Personal communication received by Crosland, K.AGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media B.V 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kimberly Crosland
  • Glen Dunlap
  • Hewitt B. Clark
  • Bryon Neff

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations