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GABA, Glycine, and Glutamate Co-Release at Developing Inhibitory Synapses

  • Deda C. Gillespie
  • Karl Kandler
Chapter

Abstract

Neurobiologists have long classified synaptic phenotype by a single neurotransmitter released at that synapse. Research over the past two decades has made it clear, however, that the classification of neurons and synapses as purely GABAergic, or even as purely inhibitory or excitatory, is no longer valid. In this chapter we review evidence showing that inhibitory synapses co-release multiple inhibitory neurotransmitters, and that some classical inhibitory synapses also release excitatory neurotransmitters. As multiple transmitter release is particularly prevalent at immature synapses, we pay special attention to developmental plasticity in considering possible mechanisms and functions for release of these seemingly antagonistic neurotransmitters.

Keywords

Synaptic Vesicle Glutamate Release Amacrine Cell Inhibitory Synapse Interaural Level Difference 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations

ACh

acetylcholine

AMPAR

amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor

ATP

adenosine triphosphate

CN

cochlear nucleus

GABA

gamma-aminobutyric acid

GABAAR

GABA (A) receptor

GABABR

GABA (B) receptor

GAD

glutamic acid decarboxylase

GlyR

glycine receptor

GLYT2

glycine transporter 2

IPSC

inhibitory postsynaptic current

LSO

lateral superior olive

mIPSC

miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current

MNTB

medial nucleus of the trapezoid body

mPSC

miniature postsynaptic current

MSO

medial superior olive

NMDAR

N-methyl D-aspartic acid receptor

Pn

postnatal day n

SPN

superior paraolivary nucleus

VGAT

vesicular GABA transporter

VGLUT2

vesicular glutamate transporter 2

VGLUT3

vesicular glutamate transporter 3

VIAAT

vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyNeuroscience & Behaviour, McMaster UniversityHamiltonCanada
  2. 2.Department of Otolaryngology and NeurobiologySchool of Medicine, University of PittsburghPittsburghUSA

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