Colocalization and Cotransmission of Classical Neurotransmitters: An Invertebrate Perspective

  • Mark W. Miller


Once considered a curiosity, the notion that individual neurons can contain more than one classical neurotransmitter has gained increasing credibility in recent years. Several contributions to the growing recognition of classical neurotransmitter colocalization and cotransmission originate from studies using invertebrate nervous systems. Some of these model systems contain large identified neurons that contribute to well-understood circuits and networks. They therefore enable investigators to pose questions that are presently beyond the technical limitations of experimental approaches to mammalian brain function. This chapter reviews our current understanding of classical neurotransmitter colocalization and cotransmission in invertebrates. It focuses on identified neurons that could enable assessment of cotransmitter contributions to synaptic signals and neural network function. Major gaps in our present conception of classical neurotransmitter colocalization and cotransmission are emphasized, with an aim toward stimulating further study of their physiological and functional consequences.


High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tyrosine Hydroxylase Central Pattern Generator Buccal Ganglion Cardiac Ganglion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Supported by: the National Institutes of Health: NIGMS MBRS: GM-08224 and NCRR RCMI G12 RR03051; the National Science Foundation: DBI-0115825.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark W. Miller
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Neurobiology and Department of Anatomy & NeurobiologyUniversity of Puerto RicoSan Juan

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