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Synaptic Co-Release of ATP and GABA

Functional Characteristics, Modulation and Physiological Implications
  • S. Hugel
  • Y.H. Jo
  • R. Schlichter
Chapter

Abstract

Over the last 30 years, adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP) has been clearly established as a cotransmitter with noradrenaline and acetylcholine in the peripheral nervous system. More recently, ATP was also identified as a cotransmitter in the central nervous system. In neuronal cultures from postnatal rat spinal cord dorsal horn or embryonic chick and postnatal mouse lateral hypothalamus, ATP was surprisingly found to be synaptically coreleased with the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA, but not with glutamate. In these preparations, ATP activates excitatory cation-permeable receptors (P2X receptors), whereas GABA stimulates anion-permeable inhibitory GABAA receptors. The corelease of ATP and GABA therefore results in a fast mixed excitatory/inhibitory ATP/GABA cotransmission. Here we review the current knowledge on ATP/GABA cotransmission, the possible interactions of synaptically released ATP and GABA at pre- and postsynaptic sites and discuss the issues related to the role of this mixed cotransmission in the context of physiological and pathological situations.

Keywords

Dorsal Horn GABAA Receptor Synaptic Cleft GABAB Receptor Lateral Hypothalamus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of abbreviations

ACh

Acetylcholine

ADP

adenosine 5’-diphosphate

AMP

adenosine 5’-monophosphate

ATP

adenosine 5’-triphosphate

CNQX

6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione

D-APV

D-amino-phosphonovaleric acid

ECl

equilibrium potential for Cl- ions

Ecations

equilibrium potential for cations

ePSC

electrically-evoked postsynaptic current

eEPSC

electrically-evoked excitatory postsynaptic current

eIPSC

electrically-evoked inhibitory postsynaptic current

DHEA

dehydroepiandrosterone

DPCPX

8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine

GABA

γ-aminobutyric acid

HP

holding potential

mPSC

miniature postsynaptic current

mEPSC

miniature excitatory postsynaptic current

mIPSC

miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current

NA

noradrenaline

NMDA

N-methyl-D-Aspartic acid

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge financial support from Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), French Ministry of Education and Research, University Louis Pasteur, Institut UPSA de la Douleur, DRTC and American Diabetes Association.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Université Louis Pasteur, Institut des Neurosciences Cellulaires et Intégratives (INCI), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)F-67084France

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