Skip to main content

Mindfulness and Psychopathology: Problem Formulation

  • Chapter

Mindfulness-based interventions are currently being used with a variety of populations to treat a wide range of physical and psychological disorders. For example, Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1990) has been used to treat chronic pain and anxiety, among other conditions. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; Segal, Williams, & Teasdale, 2002) has been used for the prevention of relapse in depression. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT; Hayes, Strosahl, & Wilson, 1999) includes elements of mindfulness and has been used with a wide variety of patients. Finally, Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT; Linehan, 1993) incorporates mindfulness as a core skill in the treatment of borderline personality disorder.

Keywords

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

There is no greater impediment to progress in the sciences than the desire to see it take place too quickly.

Georg Christoph Lichtenberg (1742–1799)

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD   189.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD   249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD   249.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Learn about institutional subscriptions

References

  • Aftanas, L.,& Golosheykin, S. (2005). Impact of regular meditation practice on EEG activity at rest and during evoked negative emotions. International Journal of Neuroscience, 115, 893–909.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bach, P.,& Hayes, S. C. (2002). The use of acceptance and commitment therapy to prevent the rehospitalization of psychotic patients: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 1129–1139.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Baer, R. A. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 125–143.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barnhofer, T., Duggan, D., Crane, C., Hepburn, S., Fennell, M. J. V.,& Williams, J. M.G. (2007). Effects of meditation on frontal \(\upalpha\)-asymmetry in previously suicidal individuals. Neuroreport, 18, 709–712.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bögels, S. M., Sijbers, G. F.,& Voncken, M. (2006). Mindfulness and task concentration training for social phobia: A pilot study. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 20, 33–44.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brown, K. W.,& Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: Mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822–848.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Cahn, B. R.,& Polich, J. (2006). Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 180–211.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Carter, O. L., Presti, D. E., Callistemon, A., Ungerer, Y., Lui. G. B.,& Pettigrew, J. D. (2005). Meditation alters perceptual rivalry in Tibetan Buddhist monks. Current Biology, 15, 412–413.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chambers, R., Lo, B. C.,& Allen, N. B. (2008). The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style and affect. Cognitive Therapy and Research,.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cranson, R. W., Orme-Johnson, D. W., Gackenbach, J., Dillbeck, M. C., Jones, C. H.,& Alexander, C.N. (1991). Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence related measures: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences 12, 1105–1116.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Davidson, R. J. (1992). Emotion and affective style: Hemispheric substrates. Psychological Science, 3, 39–43.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Davidson, R. J. (2000). Affective style, psychopathology, and resilience: brain mechanisms and plasticity. American Psychologist, 55, 1196–1214.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Davidson, R. J.,& Irwin, W. (1999). The functional neuroanatomy of emotion and affective style. Trends in Cognitive Neuroscience, 3, 11–21.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Davidson, R. J., Kabat-Zinn, J., Schumacher, J., Rosenkranz, M., Muller, D., Saki, F., et al. (2003). Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 564–570.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dimidjian, S.,& Linehan, M. M. (2003). Defining an agenda for future research on the clinical application of mindfulness practice. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 166–171.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Finucane, A,& Mercer, S. W. (2006). An exploratory mixed methods study of the acceptability and effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for patients with active depression and anxiety in primary care. BMC Psychiatry, 6:14.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gotlib, I. H., Ranganath, C.,& Rosenfeld, J, P. (1998). Frontal EEG alpha asymmetry, depression, and cognitive functioning. Cognition and Emotion, 12, 449–478.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gutierrez, O., Luciano, C.,& Fink, B.C. (2004). Comparison between an acceptance-based and a cognitive-control-based protocol for coping with pain. Behavior Therapy, 35, 767–784.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hankey, A. (2006). Studies of advanced stages of meditation in the Tibetan Buddhist and vedic traditions. I: A comparison of general changes. Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 3, 513–521.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hayes, S. C., Bissett, R. T., Korn, Z., Zettle, R. D., Rosenfarb, I. S., Cooper, L. D., et al. (1999). The impact of acceptance versus control rationales on pain tolerance. The Psychological Record, 49, 33–47.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K.,& Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy. New York: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Heimberg, R. G.,& Becker, R. E. (2002). Cognitive-behavioral group therapy for social phobia: Basic mechanisms and clinical strategies. New York: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoppes, K. (2006). The application of mindfulness-based cognitive interventions in the treatment of co-occurring addictive and mood disorders. CNS Spectrum, 11, 829–851.

    Google Scholar 

  • Jain, S., Shapiro, S. L., Swanick, S., Roesch, S. C., Mills, P. J., Bell, I. et al. (2007). A randomized controlled trial of mindfulness meditation versus relaxation training: Effects on distress, positive states of mind, rumination, and distraction. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 33, 11–21.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Jha, A. P., Krompinger, J.,& Baime, M. J. (2007). Mindfulness training modifies subsystems of attention. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioural Neuroscience, 7, 109–119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: Theoretical considerations and preliminary results. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4, 33–47.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain and illness. New York: Dell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kenny, M. A.,& Williams, J. M. G. (2007). Treatment-resistant depressed patients show a good response to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 617–625.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kocovski, N. L., Fleming, J.,& Rector, N. A. (2007). Mindfulness and acceptance-based group therapy for social anxiety disorder: Preliminary evidence from four pilot groups. Poster accepted for presentation at the 41st Annual Convention of the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies (ABCT), Philadelphia, November 15–18, 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kocovski, N. L.,& Rector, N. A. (2007). Predictors of post-event rumination related to social anxiety. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 36, 112–122.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kocovski, N. L., Vorstenbosch, V.,& Rogojanski, J. (2007). Mindfulness and social anxiety: An examination of mediating variables. Poster presented at the 68th Annual Convention of the Canadian Psychological Association, Ottawa, June 7–9, 2007.

    Google Scholar 

  • Koszycki, D., Benger, M., Shlik, J.,& Bradwejn, J. (2007). Randomized trial of a meditation-based stress reduction program and cognitive behavior therapy in generalized social anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 2518–2526.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kraemer, H. C., Stice, E., Kazdin, A., Offord, D.,& Kupfer, D. (2001). How do risk factors work together? Mediators, moderators, and independent, overlapping, and proxy risk factors. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 848–856.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Lau, M. A.,& McMain, S. F. (2005). Integrating mindfulness meditation with cognitive and behavioural therapies: The challenge of combining acceptance- and change-based strategies. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 50, 863–869.

    Google Scholar 

  • Levitt, J. T., Brown, T. A., Orsillo, S. M.,& Barlow, D. H. (2004). The effects of acceptance versus suppression of emotion on subjective and psychophysiological response to carbon dioxide challenge in patients with panic disorder. Behavior Therapy, 35, 747–766.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ma, S. H.,& Teasdale, J. D. (2004). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: Replication and exploration of differential relapse prevention effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72, 31–40.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mason, M. F., Norton, M. I., Van Horn, J. D., Wegner, D. M., Grafton, S. T.,& Macrae, N. (2007). Wandering minds: The default network and stimulus-independent thought. Science, 315, 393–395.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Melbourne Academic Mindfulness Interest Group. (2006). Mindfulness-based psychotherapies: A review of conceptual foundations, empirical evidence and practical considerations. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 285–294.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Newberg, A. B.,& Iversen, J. (2003). The neural basis of the complex mental task of meditation: Neurotransmitter and neurochemical considerations. Medical Hypotheses, 61, 282–291.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 569–582.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Orme-Johnson, D. W.,& Haynes, C. T. (1981). EEG phase coherence, pure consciousness, creativity, and TM-Sidhi experiences. The International Journal of Neuroscience, 13, 23–29.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Orme-Johnson, D. W., Schneider, R. H., Son, Y. D., Nidich, S., & Cho, Z. (2006). Neuroimaging of meditation’s effect on brain reactivity to pain. Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology, 17, 1359–1363.

    Google Scholar 

  • Orme-Johnson, D. W.,& Walton, K. (1998). All approaches to preventing or reversing effects of stress are not the same. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12, 297–299.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Ramel, W., Goldin, P. R., Carmona, P. E.,& McQuaid, J. R. (2004). The effects of mindfulness meditation on cognitive processes and affect in patients with past depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28, 433–455.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roemer, L.,& Orsillo, S. M. (2007). An open trial of an acceptance-based behavior therapy for generalized anxiety disorder. Behavior Therapy, 38, 72–85.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G.,& Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. New York: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A.,& Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62, 373–386.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Teasdale, J. D., Moore, R. G., Hyhurst, H., Pope, M., Williams, S.,& Segal, Z. V. (2002). Metacognitive awareness and prevention of relapse in depression: Empirical evidence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 275–287.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z. V.,& Williams, J. M. G. (2003). Mindfulness training and problem formulation. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 157–160.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M., Ridgeway, V. A., Soulsby, J. M., & Lau, M. A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 615–623.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Travis, F.,& Arenander, A. (2006). Cross-sectional and longitudinal study of effects of transcendental meditation practice on interhemispheric frontal asymmetry and frontal coherence. International Journal of Neuroscience, 116, 1519–1538.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wallace, R. K., Dillbeck, M., Jacobe, E.,& Harrington, B. (1982). The effects of transcendental meditation and TM-Sidhi program on the aging process. International Journal of Neuroscience, 16, 53–58.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Walsh, R.,& Roche, L. (1979). Precipitation of acute psychotic episodes by intensive meditation in individuals with a history of schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 1085–1086.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Kocovski, N.L., Segal, Z.V., Battista, S.R. (2009). Mindfulness and Psychopathology: Problem Formulation. In: Didonna, F. (eds) Clinical Handbook of Mindfulness. Springer, New York, NY. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-09593-6_6

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics