Echinostomes: systematics and life cycles

  • José Guillermo Esteban*
  • Carla Muñoz-Antoli


This chapter provides a review of the most significant literature in the last decade on the systematics and biology of echinostomes and echinostome-like digeneans. This review is primarily concerned with members of the genus Echinostoma, although members of other genera (Echinoparyphium, Echinochasmus, Himasthla, Hypoderaeum, Petasiger, Euparyphium, Stephanoprora, Isthmiophora, and Acanthoparyphium) and echinostome-related genera (Parorchis, Philophthalmus and Ribeiroia) are also considered. The literature on molecular systematics and morphometrics of these trematodes is reviewed. Specific mention is made of the life cycle patterns of echinostome and echinostome-like digeneans along with an overview of recent advances on different topics in the biology of these trematodes; the review covers various aspects of the different stages of these organisms, i.e., free-living stages (miracidia and cercariae), and parasitic stages in the invertebrate hosts (sporocysts, rediae, and metacercariae) and vertebrate hosts (adults).


Intermediate Host Definitive Host Free Sterol Snail Species Snail Host 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Anderson, J.W. and Fried, B. 1987. Experimental infection of Physa heterostropha., Helisoma trivolvis and Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda) with Echinostoma revolutum (Trematoda) cercariae Journal of Parasitology 73: 49–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Ataev, G.L., Dobrovol’skii, A.A., Fournier, A. and Jourdane, J. 1997. Migration and development of mother sporocysts of Echinostoma caproni. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) Journal of Parasitology 83: 444–453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Ataev, G.L., Fournier, A. and Coustau, C. 1998. Comparison of Echinostoma caproni. mother sporocyst development in vivo and in vitro using Biomphalaria glabrata snails and a B. glabrata embryonic cell line Journal of Parasitology 84: 227–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ataev, G.L., Dobrovol’skii, A.A., Avanessian, A.V. and Loker, E.S. 2001. Germinal elements and their development in Echinostoma caproni. and Echinostoma paraensei (Trematoda) miracidia Journal of Parasitology 87: 1160–1164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ataev, G.L., Dobrovol’skii, A.A. and Isakova, N.P. 2005. [Development of the partenitae infrapopulation of Echinostoma caproni. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae)] Parazitologiia 39: 124–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Ataev, G.L., Isakova, N.P. and Dobrovol’skii, A.A. 2006. [Development of mother sporocysts of Echinostoma caproni. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae)] Parazitologiia 40: 47–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beaver, P.C. 1939. The morphology and life history of Psilostomum ondatrae. Price 1931 (Trematoda: Psilostomidae) Journal of Parasitology 25: 383–393.Google Scholar
  8. Behrens, A.C. and Nollen, P.M. 1991. Responses of Echinostoma caproni. miracidia to gravity, light, and chemicals International Journal for Parasitology 22: 673–675.Google Scholar
  9. Bennett, S.C., Irwin, S.W.B. and Fitzpatrick, S.M. 2003. Tributylin and copper effects on encystment and in vitro excystment of Parorchis acanthus. larvae Journal of Helminthology 77: 291–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Chai, J.Y., Han, E.T., Park, Y.K., Guk, S.M. and Lee, S.H. 2001. Acanthoparyphium tyosenense. : the discovery of human infection and identification of its source Journal of Parasitology 87: 794–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Cheng, Y.Z., Zhang, Y.J., Lin, C.X., Zhan, Z.H., Yu, X.Z., Lin, J.X., Cai, M.J. and Che, W.H. 1999. Taxonomic studies on Echinochasmus fujianensis. and the related species by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis and experimental infection Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases 17: 135–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Christensen, N.Ø. 1980. A review of the influence of host- and parasite-related factors and environmental conditions on the host-finding capacity of the trematode miracidium. Acta Tropica 37: 303–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Christensen, N.Ø., Frandsen, F. and Roushdy, M.Z. 1980. The influence of environmental conditions and parasite-intermediate host related factors on the transmission of Echinostoma liei. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde 63: 47–63.Google Scholar
  14. Chung, P.R., Jung, Y. and Park, Y.K. 2001a. Segmentina hemisphaerula. : a new molluscan intermediate host for Echinostoma cinetorchis in Korea Journal of Parasitology 87: 1169–1171.Google Scholar
  15. Chung, P.R., Jung, Y., Park, Y.K., Hwang, M.G. and Soh, C.T. 2001b. Corbicula fluminea. (Bivalvia: Corbiculidae): a possible second molluscan intermediate host of Echinostoma cinetorchis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Korea The Korean Journal of Parasitology 39: 329–332.Google Scholar
  16. Cribb, T.H., Bray, R.A., Littlewood, D.T.J., Pichelin, S. and Herniou, E.A. 2001. The digenea. Littlewood and D.T.J. Bray R.A. In Interrelationships of the platyhelminthes. Taylor and Francis.London: 168–185.Google Scholar
  17. Davis, N.E. 2005. Storage and incubation of Echinostoma revolutum. eggs recovered from wild Branta canadensis, and their infectivity to Lymnaea tomentosa snails Journal of Helminthology 79: 321–326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Desclaux, C., Russell-Pinto, F., de Montaudouin, X. and Bachelet, G. 2006. First record and description of metacercariae of Curtuteria arguinae. n. sp. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), parasite of cockles Cerastoderma edule (Mollusca: Bivalvia) in Arcachon Bay, France Journal of Parasitology 92: 578–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Díaz, J.I. and Cremonte, F. 2004. Himasthla escamosa. n.sp. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) from the kelp gull, Larus dominicanus (Caradriformes: Laridae), on the Patagonian coast, Argentina Journal of Parasitology 90: 308–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Esteban, J.G., Toledo, R., Sánchez, L. and Muñoz-Antolí, C. 1997. Life-cycle of Euparyphium albuferensis. n. sp. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) from rats in Spain Systematic Parasitology 38: 211–219.Google Scholar
  21. Evans, N.A. 1982. Effects of copper and zinc upon the survival and infectivity of Echinoparyphium recurvatum. cercariae Parasitology 85: 295–303.Google Scholar
  22. Evans, N.A. 1985. The influence of environmental temperature upon transmission of the cercariae of Echinostoma liei. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) Parasitology 90: 269–275.Google Scholar
  23. Ford, D.M., Nollen, P.M. and Romano, M.A. 1998. The effects of salinity, pH and temperature on the half-life and longevity of Echinostoma caproni. miracidia Journal of Helminthology 72: 325–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Frazer, and B.A.Fried, B. 1998. Single-species infections of Echinostoma caproni. cercariae in pulmonate snails and concurrent infections of E. caproni and Echinostoma trivolvis cercariae in Biomphalaria glabrata International Journal for Parasitology 28: 595–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Fried, B. 1994. Metacercarial excystment of trematodes. Advances in Parasitology 33: 91–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Fried, B. 2000. Maintenance, cultivation, and excystation of echinostomes. In Fried and B. Gracyzk T.K. Echinostomes as experimental models for biological research. Kluwer.Dordrecht: 99–118.Google Scholar
  27. Fried, B. 2001. Biology of echinostomes except Echinostoma. Advances in Parasitology 49: 163–210.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Fried, B. and Awatramani, R. 1992. Light and scanning electron microscopic observations of the daughter rediae of Echinostoma trivolvis. (Trematoda) Parasitology Research 78: 257–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Fried, B. and Bandstra, S.R. 2005. Age of adult worms of Echinostoma caproni. does not affect development of miracidia Journal of Parasitology 91: 1220–1221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Fried, B. and Bennett, M.C. 1979. Studies on encystment of Echinostoma revolutum. cercariae Journal of Parasitology 56: 38–40.Google Scholar
  31. Fried, B. and Graczyk, T.K.2000. Echinostomes as experimental models for biological research. Kluwer, Dordrecht: 273.Google Scholar
  32. Fried, B. and Graczyk, T.K. 2004. Recent advances in the biology of Echinostoma. species in the “revolutum” group Advances in Parasitology 58: 139–195.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fried, B. and Huffman, J.E. 1996. The biology of the intestinal trematode Echinostoma caproni. Advances in Parasitology 38: 311–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fried, B. and LaTerra, R. 2002. In vitro and in vivo encystment of the cercariae of Echinostoma caproni. Journal of Parasitology 88: 1124–1129.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Fried, B. and Peoples, R.C. 2007. Effects of various physical and chemical factors on excystation of the encysted metacercariae of Echinostoma caproni. Journal of Parasitology 93: 1388–1391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fried, B. and Ponder, E.L. 2003. Effects of temperature on survival, infectivity and in vitro encystment of the cercariae of Echinostoma caproni. Journal of Helminthology 77: 235–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Fried, B. and Reddy, A. 1999. Effects of snail-conditioned water from Biomphalaria glabrata. on hatching of Echinostoma caproni miracidia Parasitology Research 85: 155–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Fried, B. and Schneck, J.L. 2004. Effects of copper sulphate on in vitro. encystment of the cercariae of Echinostoma caproni Journal of Helminthology 78: 371–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Fried, B. and Toledo, R. 2004. Criteria for species determination in the “revolutum.” group of Echinostoma Journal of Parasitology 90: 917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Fried, B., Frazer, B.A. and Reddy, A. 1997a. Chemoattraction and penetration of Echinostoma trivolvis. and E. caproni cercariae in the presence of Biomphalaria glabrata, Helisoma trivolvis, and Lymnaea elodes dialysate Parasitology Research 83: 193–197.Google Scholar
  41. Fried, B., Pane, P.L. and Reddy, A. 1997b. Experimental infection of Rana pipiens. tadpoles with Echinostoma trivolvis cercariae Parasitology Research 83: 666–669.Google Scholar
  42. Fried, B., Schmidt, K.A. and Sorensen, R. 1997. In vivo and ectopic encystment of Echinostoma revolutum. and excystation of the metacercariae Journal of Parasitology 83: 251–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Fried, B., Eyster, L.S. and Pechenik, J.A. 1998. Histochemical glycogen and neutral lipid in Echinostoma trivolvis. cercariae and effects of exogenous glucose on cercarial longevity Journal of Helminthology 72: 83–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Fried, B., LaTerra, R. and Kim, Y. 2002. Emergence of cercariae of Echinostoma caproni. and Schistosoma mansoni from Biomphalaria glabrata under different laboratory conditions Journal of Helminthology 76: 369–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fried, B., Schneck, J.L. and Ponder, E.L. 2004. Effects of tonicity, digestive enzymes and biles salts, and nutrient media on the survival of excysted metacercariae of Echinostoma caproni. Parasitology Research 93: 1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Fujino, T., Takahashi, Y. and Fried, B. 1995. A comparison of Echinostoma trivolvis. and E. caproni using random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis Journal of Helminthology 69: 263–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Fujino, T., Nakano, T., Washioka, H., Tonosaki, A., Ichikawa, H. and Fried, B. 2000. Comparative ultrastructure of eggs in Echinostoma paraensei., E. caproni and E. trivolvis (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) Parasitology Research 86: 427–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Grabda-Kazubska, B., Borsuk, P., Laskowski, Z. and Moné, H. 1998. A phylogenetic analysis of trematodes of the genus Echinoparyphium. and related genera based on sequencing of internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA Acta Parasitologica 43: 116–121.Google Scholar
  49. Graczyk, T.K. and Fried, B. 2007. Human waterborne trematode and protozoan infections. Advances in Parasitology 64: 111–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Haas, W. 2000. The behavioral biology of echinostomes. In Fried and B. Gracyzk T.K. Echinostomes as experimental models for biological research. Kluwer.Dordrecht: 175–197.Google Scholar
  51. Haberl, B., Körner, M., Spengler, Y., Hertel, J., Kalbe, M. and Haas, W. 2000. Host-finding in Echinostoma caproni.: miracidia and cercariae use different signals to identify the same snail species Parasitology 120: 470–496.Google Scholar
  52. Herman, S.M. and Bacha, W.J. Jr.1978. Growth, development, and site location of the trematode Himasthla quissetensis. in the chick following cloacal drop infections with cercariae Journal of Parasitology 64: 827–830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Huffman, J.E. and Fried, B. 1990. Echinostoma. and echinostomiasis Advances in Parasitology 29: 215–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Idris, N. and Fried, B. 1996. Development, hatching and infectivity of Echinostoma caproni. (Trematoda) eggs, and histologic and histochemical observations of the miracidia Parasitology Research 82: 136–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Johnson, P.T.J., Sutherland, D.R., Kinsella, J.M. and Lunde, K.B. 2004. Review of the trematode genus Ribeiroia. (Psilostomidae): ecology, life history and pathogenesis with special emphasis on the amphibian malformation problem Advances in Parasitology 57: 191–253.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kanev, I., Sterner, M., Radev, V. and Fried, B. 2000. An overview of the biology of echinostomes. In Fried and B. Gracyzk T.K. Echinostomes as experimental models for biological research. Kluwer.Dordrecht: 1–29.Google Scholar
  57. Kanev, I., Radev, V. and Fried, B. 2005. Family philophthalmidae looss, 1899. In Jones, A. Bray and R.A. Gibson D.I. Keys to the trematoda, Vol. 2. CABI Publishing and The Natural History Museum.London: 87–97Google Scholar
  58. Keeler, S.P., Fried, B. and Huffman, J.E. 2007. Association of bacteria with metacercarial cysts of Echinostoma caproni. Parasitology Research 101: 1131–1133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Kim, Y.G., Yu, J.E., Chung, E.Y. and Chung, P.R. 2004. Acanthoparyphium tyosenense. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae): experimental confirmation of the cercaria and its complete life history in Korea Journal of Parasitology 90: 97–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. King, P.H. and Van As, J.G. 2000. Morphology and life history of Petasiger variospinosus. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in the Free State, South Africa Journal of Parasitology 86: 312–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Koprivnikar, J., Forbes, M.R. and Baker, R.L. 2006. Effects of Atrazine on cercarial longevity, activity, and infectivity. Journal of Parasitology 92: 306–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kostadinova, A. 1999. Cercarial chaetotaxy of Echinostoma miyagawai. Ishii, 1932 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), with a review of the sensory patterns in the “revolutum” group Systematic Parasitology 44: 201–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kostadinova, A. 2005a. Family echinostomatidae looss, 1899. In Jones, A. Bray and R.A. Gibson D.I. Keys to the trematoda, Vol. 2. CABI Publishing and The Natural History Museum.London: 9–64Google Scholar
  64. Kostadinova, A. 2005b. Family psilostomidae looss, 1900. In Jones, A. Bray and R.A. Gibson D.I. Keys to the trematoda, Vol. 2. CABI Publishing and The Natural History Museum.London: 99–118Google Scholar
  65. Kostadinova, A. and Gibson, D.I. 2000. The systematics of the echinostomes. In Fried and B. Gracyzk T.K. Echinostomes as experimental models for biological research. Kluwer.Dordrecht: 31–57.Google Scholar
  66. Kostadinova, A. and Gibson, D.I. 2001a. A redescription of Uroproctepisthmium bursicola. (Creplin, 1837) n. comb. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), and re-evaluations of the genera Episthmium Lühe, 1909 and Uroproctepisthmium Fischthal & Kuntz, 1976 Systematic Parasitology 50: 63–67.Google Scholar
  67. Kostadinova, A. and Gibson, D.I. 2001b. Redescription of two echinotomes from freshwater fishes, with comments on Singhia. Yamaguti, 1958 and Caballerotrema Prudhoe, 1960 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) Systematic Parasitology 49: 195–204.Google Scholar
  68. Kostadinova, A. and Gibson, D.I. 2002. Isthmiophora. Lühe, 1909 and Euparyphium Dietz, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) re-defined, with comments on their nominal species Systematic Parasitology 52: 205–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Kostadinova, A. and Jones, A. 2005. Superfamily echinostomatoidea looss, 1899. In Jones, A. Bray and R.A. Gibson D.I. Keys to the trematoda, Vol. 2. CABI Publishing and The Natural History Museum.London: 5–8Google Scholar
  70. Kostadinova, A. and Skirnisson, K. 2007. Petasiger islandicus. n.sp. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) in the horned grebe Podices auritus (L.) (Aves: Podicipedidae) from Iceland Systematic Parasitology 68: 217–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kostadinova, A., Gibson, D.I., Biserkov, V. and Ivanova, R. 2000a. A quantitative approach to the evaluation of the morphological variability of two echinostomes, Echinostoma miyagawai. Ishii, 1932 and E. revolutum (Frölich, 1802) from Europe Systematic Parasitology 45: 1–15.Google Scholar
  72. Kostadinova, A., Gibson, D.I., Biserkov, V. and Chipev, N. 2000b. Re-validation of Echinostoma miyagawai. Ishii, 1932 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) on the basis of the experimental completion of its cycle Systematic Parasitology 45: 81–108.Google Scholar
  73. Kostadinova, A., Vaucher, C. and Gibson, D.I. 2002. Redescription of two echinostomes from birds in Paraguay, with comments on Drepanocephalus. Dietz, 1909 and Paryphostomum Dietz, 1909 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) Systematic Parasitology 53: 147–158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Kostadinova, A., Herniou, E.A., Barret, J. and Littlewood, D.T.J. 2003. Phylogenetic relationships of Echinostoma. Rudolphi, 1809 (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) and related genera re-assessed via DNA and morphological analyses Systematic Parasitology 54: 159–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Laurie, J.S. 1974. Himasthla quissetensis. : induced in vitro encystment of cercariae and ultrastructure of the cyst Experimental Parasitology 35: 350–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Loker, E.S., Coustau, C., Ataev, G.L. and Jourdane, J. 1999. In vitro culture of rediae of Echinostoma caproni. Parasite 6: 169–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Loy, Ch., Motzel, W. and Haas, W. 2001. Photo- and geo-orientation by echinostome cercariae results in habitat selection. Journal of Parasitology 87: 505–509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Maldonado, A. Jr., Loker, E.S., Morgan, J.A., Rey, L. and Lanfredi, R.M. 2001a. Description of the adult worms of a new Brazilian isolate of Echinostoma paraensei. (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) from its natural vertebrate host Nectomys squamipes by light and scanning electron microscopy and molecular analysis Parasitology Research 87: 840–848.Google Scholar
  79. Maldonado, A. Jr., Vieria, G.O., Garcia, J.S., Rey, L. and Lanfredi, R.M. 2001b. Biological aspects of a new isolate of Echinostoma paraensei. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae): susceptibility of sympatric snails and the natural vertebrate host Parasitology Research 87: 853–859.Google Scholar
  80. Maldonado, A. Jr., Vieira, G.O. and Lanfredi, R.M. 2003. Echinostoma luisreyi. n.sp. (Platyhelminthes: Digenea) by light and scanning electron microscopy Journal of Parasitology 89: 800–808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Marsit, C.J., Fried, B. and Sherma, J. 2000. Neutral lipids in cercariae, encysted metacercariae, and rediae of Echinostoma caproni. Journal of Helminthology 74: 365–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Martorelli, S.R., Poulin, R. and Mouritsen, K.N. 2006. A new cercaria and metacercaria of Acanthoparyphium. (Echinostomatidae) found in an intertidal snail Zeacumantus subcarinatus (Batillaridae) from New Zealand Parasitology International 55: 163–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. McCarthy, A.M. 1999a. Phototactic responses of the cercaria of Echinoparyphium recurvatun. during phases of sub-maximal and maximal infectivity Journal of Helminthology 73: 63–65.Google Scholar
  84. McCarthy, A.M. 1999b. The influence of temperature on the survival and infectivity of the cercariae of Echinoparyphium recurvatun. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) Parasitology 118: 383–388.Google Scholar
  85. McCarthy, A.M. 1999c. Photoperiodic cercarial emergence patterns of the digeneans Echinoparyphium recurvatun. and Plagiorchis sp. from a mixed infection in Lymnaea peregra Journal of Helminthology 73: 63–65.Google Scholar
  86. McCarthy, A.M. 1999d. The influence of second intermediate host species on the infectivity of metacercarial cysts of Echinoparyphium recurvatun. Journal of Helminthology 73: 143–145.Google Scholar
  87. McFarland, L.H., Mouritsen, K.N. and Poulin, R. 2003. From first to second and back to first intermediate host: the unusual transmission route of Curtuteria australis. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) Journal of Parasitology 89: 625–628.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Morgan, J.A.T. and Blair, D. 1995. Nuclear rDNA ITS sequence variation in the trematode genus Echinostoma.: an aid to establishing relationships within the 37-collar-spine group Parasitology 111: 609–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Morgan, J.A.T. and Blair, D. 1998a. Mitochondrial ND1 gene sequence used to identify echinostome isolates from Australia and New Zealand. International Journal for Parasitology 28: 493–502.Google Scholar
  90. Morgan, J.A.T. and Blair, D. 1998b. Relative merits of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers and mitochondrial CO1 and ND1 genes for distinguishing among Echinostoma. species (Trematoda) Parasitology 116: 289–297.Google Scholar
  91. Morgan, J.A.T. and Blair, D. 2000. Molecular biology of echinostomes. In Fried and B. Gracyzk T.K. Echinostomes as experimental models for biological research. Kluwer.Dordrecht: 245–266.Google Scholar
  92. Morley, N.J., Crane, M. and Lewis, J.W. 2002. Toxic effects of cadmium and zinc on the transmission of Echinoparyphium recurvatum. cercariae Journal of Helminthology 76: 157–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Morley, N.J., Leung, K.M.Y., Morritt, D. and Crane, M. 2004a. Toxicity of anti-fouling biocides to encysted metacercariae of Echinoparyphium recurvatum. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) and their snail hosts Chemosphere 56: 353–358.Google Scholar
  94. Morley, N.J., Lewis, J.W. and Adam, M.E. 2004b. Metacercarial utilization of a naturally infected single species (Lymnaea peregra.) snail community by Echinoparyphium recurvatum Journal of Helminthology 78: 51–56.Google Scholar
  95. Muñoz-Antolí, C., Toledo, R. and Esteban, J. 2000. The life cycle and transmission dynamics of the larval stages of Hypoderaeum conoideum. Journal of Helminthology 74: 165–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Muñoz-Antolí, C., Trelis, M., Espert, A., Toledo, R. and Esteban, J.G. 2002. Survival and infectivity of Echinostoma friedi. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) miracidia and cercariae under experimental conditions Helminthologia 39: 149–154.Google Scholar
  97. Muñoz-Antolí, C., Trelis, M., Gozalbo, M., Toledo, R., Haberl, B. and Esteban, J.G. 2003. Interactions related to non-host snails in the host-finding process of Euparyphium albuferensis. and Echinostoma friedi (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) miracidia Parasitology Research 91: 353–356.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Muñoz-Antolí, C., Trelis, M., Toledo, R. and Esteban, J.G. 2006. Infectivity of Echinostoma friedi. miracidia to different snail species under experimental conditions Journal of Helminthology 80: 323–325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Muñoz-Antolí, C., Marin, A., Toledo, R. and Esteban, J.G. 2007. Effect of Echinostoma friedi. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) experimental infection on longevity, growth and fecundity of juvenile Radix peregra (Gastropoda: Lymnaeidae) and Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) snails Parasitology Research 101: 1663–1670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Nakano, T., Fujino, T., Washioka, H., Tonosaki, A., Goto, K. and Fried, B. 2003. Tegumentary papillae of Echinostoma caproni. cercariae (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) Parasitology Research 89: 446–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Nolan, M.J. and Cribb, T.H. 2005. The use and implications of ribosomal DNA sequencing for the discrimination of digenean species. Advances in Parasitology 60: 101–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Nollen, P.M. 1994. The hatching behavior of Echinostoma trivolvis. miracidia and their responses to gravity, light, and chemicals International Journal for Parasitology 24: 637–642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Nollen, P.M. 1997. Reproductive physiology and behavior of digenetic trematodes. In Fried and B. Gracyzk T.K. Advances in trematode biology. CRC Press.Boca Raton, Florida: 117–147.Google Scholar
  104. Nollen, P.M. and Kanev, I. 1995. The taxonomy and biology of philophthalmid eyeflukes. Advances in Parasitology 36: 205–269.Google Scholar
  105. Ostrowski de Núñez, M. 2007. Life cycle of Stephanoprora uruguayense. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) in Argentina Journal of Parasitology 93: 1090–1096.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Ostrowski de Núñez, M. and Quintana, M.G. 2007. The life cycle of Stephanoprora aylacostoma. n.sp. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae), parasite of the threatened snail Aylacostoma chloroticum (Prosobranchia, Thiaridae), in Argentina Parasitology Research 102: 647–655.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Park, Y.K., Hwang, M.K. and Chung, P.R. 2006. Encystment and metacercariae development of Echinostoma cinetorchis. cercariae in an in vitro culture system Journal of Parasitology 92: 1010–1013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Petrie, J.L., Burg, E.F. and Cain, G.D. 1996. Molecular characterization of Echinostoma caproni. and E. paraensei by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis Journal of Parasitology 82: 360–362.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Pinheiro, J., Maldonado, A. and Lanfredi, R.M. 2004a. Light and scanning electron microscopy of the miracidium of Echinostoma paraensei. (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae) Veterinary Parasitology 121: 265–275.Google Scholar
  110. Pinheiro, J., Maldonado, A. Jr., Atias, M. and Lanfredi, R.M. 2004b. Morphology of the rediae of Echinostoma paraensei. (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae) from its intermediate host Lymnaea columella (Mollusca, Gastropoda) Parasitology Research 93: 171–177.Google Scholar
  111. Pinheiro, J., Maldonado, A., Atias, M. and Lanfredi, R.M. 2005. Ultrastructure of the miracidium of Echinostoma paraensei. Lie and Basch, 1967 (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae) Parasitology Research 97: 367–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Pisciotta, J.M., Ponder, E.L., Fried, B. and Sullivan, D. 2005. Hemozoin formation in Echinostoma trivolvis. rediae International Journal for Parasitology 35: 1037–1042.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Ponder, E.L. and Fried, B. 2004a. Effects of glucose on survival, infectivity and linear movement of the cercariae of Echinostoma caproni. Journal of Helminthology 78: 185–187.Google Scholar
  114. Ponder, E.L. and Fried, B. 2004b. Effects of snail size and diet on encystment of Echinostoma caproni. cercariae in juvenile Helisoma trivolvis (Colorado strain) and observations on survival of infected snails Journal of Parasitology 90: 422–424.Google Scholar
  115. Prepelitchi, L. and Ostrowski de Nuñez, M. 2007. Echinostomatid larval stages in Lymnaea viatrix. (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) from Southwest Patagonia, Argentina Journal of Parasitology 93: 323–327.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Radev, V., Kanev, I., Nollen, P.M. and Gold, D. 1999. Life history and identification of Philophthalmus lucipetus. from Israel Journal of Parasitology 85: 291–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Radev, V., Kanev, I. and Gold, D. 2000. Life cycle and identification of an eyefluke from Israel transmitted by Melanoides tuberculata. (Müller, 1774) Journal of Parasitology 86: 773–776.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Reddy, A. and Fried, B. 1996. In vitro studies on intraspecific and interspecific chemical attraction in daughter rediae on Echinostoma trivolvis. and E. caproni International Journal for Parasitology 26: 1081–1085.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Reddy, A., Frazer, B.A., Fried, B. and Sherma, J. 1997. Chemoattraction of Echinostoma trivolvis. (Trematoda) rediae to lipophilic excretory-secretory products and thin layer-chromatographic analysis of redial lipids Parasite 4: 37–40.Google Scholar
  120. Reddy, A., Ponder, E.L. and Fried, B. 2004. Effects of copper sulfate toxicity on cercariae and metacercariae of Echinostoma caproni. and Echinostoma trivolvis and on the survival of Biomphalaria glabrata snails Journal of Parasitology 90: 1332–1337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Rees, G. 1966. Light and electron microscope studies of the redia of Parorchis acanthus. Nicoll Parasitology 56: 589–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Rossi, M.L., Balfour, C.D. and Fried, B. 2001. Excystation and infectivity of Echinostoma caproni. metacercariae after prolonged storage Comparative Parasitology 68: 126–129.Google Scholar
  123. Sandland, G.J. and Minchella, D.J. 2003. Effects of diet and Echinostoma revolutum. infection on energy allocation patterns in juvenile Lymnaea elodes snails Oecologia 134: 479–486.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Sapp, K., Meyer, K.A. and Loker, E.S. 1998. Intramolluscan development of the digenean Echinostoma paraensei.: rapid production of a unique mother redia that adversely affects development of conspecific parasites Invertebrate Biology 117: 20–28.Google Scholar
  125. Schmidt, K.A. and Fried, B. 1996. Emergence of cercariae of Echinostoma trivolvis. from Helisoma trivolvis under different conditions Journal of Parasitology 82: 674–676.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Schmidt, K.A., Fried, B. and Reddy, A. 1996. Maintenance of Helisoma trivolvis. naturally infected with Echinostoma trivolvis in spring water at 4°C for 300 days Journal of Helminthology 72: 91–92.Google Scholar
  127. Schneck, J.L. and Fried, B. 2004. Effects of snail size on encystment of Echinostoma caproni. in juvenile Biomphalaria glabrata (NMRI strain) and observations on survival of infected snails Journal of Helminthology 78: 277–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Schotthoefer, A.M., Cole, R.A. and Beasley, V.R. 2003. Relationship of tadpole stage to location of echinostome cercariae encystment and the consequences for tadpole survival. Journal of Parasitology 89: 475–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Sebelová, S., Stewart, M.T., Mousley, A., Fried, B., Marks, N.J. and Halton, D.W. 2004. The musculature and associated innervation of adult and intramolluscan stages of Echinostoma caproni. (Trematoda) visualised by confocal microscopy Parasitology Research 93: 196–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Semenas, L., Brugni, N. and de Nuñez, M.O. 1999. Metacercariae of echinostomatidae in Diplodon chilensis. (Unionacea, Pelecypoda) and description of Echinoparyphium megacirrus sp.n. in Patagonia (Argentina) Acta Parasitologica 44: 63–67.Google Scholar
  131. Sohn, W.M. 1998. Life history of Echinoparyphium recurvatum. (trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Korea Korean Journal of Parasitology 36: 91–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Sorensen, R.E., Curtis, J. and Minchella, D.J. 1998. Intraspecific variation in the rDNA ITS loci of 37-collar-spined echinostomes from North America: implications for sequence-based diagnoses and phylogenetics. Journal of Parasitology 84: 992–997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Stein, P.C. and Basch, P.F. 1977. Metacercarial cyst formation in vitro of Echinostoma paraensei. Journal of Parasitology 63: 1031–1040.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Suhardono, X., Roberts, J.A. and Copeman, D.B. 2006. Biological control of Fasciola gigantica. with Echinostoma revolutum Veterinary Parasitology 140: 166–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Théron, A. and Moné, H. 1986. Shedding patterns of Schistosoma mansoni. and Ribeiroia marini cercariae from a mixed infection of Biomphalaria glabrata Journal of Helminthology 60: 255–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Thiemann, G.W. and Wassersug, R.J. 2000. Biased distribution of trematode metacercariae in the nephric system of Rana. tadpoles Journal of Zoology 252: 534–538.Google Scholar
  137. Toledo, R. and Fried, B. 2005. Echinostomes as experimental models for interactions between adult parasites and vertebrate hosts. Trends in Parasitology 21: 251–254.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Toledo, R., Muñoz-Antolí, C. and Esteban, J.G. 1998a. Cercarial chaetotaxy differences among Hypoderaeum conoideum. (Bloch, 1782) (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) from various European localities Research and Reviews in Parasitology 58: 83–89.Google Scholar
  139. Toledo, R., Muñoz-Antolí, C., Sánchez, L., Bayssade-Dufour, Ch. and Esteban, J.G. 1998b. Cercarial chaetotaxy of Euparyphium albuferensis. Esteban et al., 1997 (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae), with a review of some genera of the Echinostomatinae Systematic Parasitology 39: 35–44.Google Scholar
  140. Toledo, R., Muñoz-Antolí, C., Pérez, M. and Esteban, J.G. 1999a. Miracidial infectivity of Hypoderaeum conoideum. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae): differential susceptibility of two lymnaeid species Parasitology Research 85: 212–215.Google Scholar
  141. Toledo, R., Muñoz-Antolí, C., Pérez, M. and Esteban, J.G. 1999b. Survival and infectivity of Hypoderaeum conoideum. and Euparyphium albuferensis cercariae under laboratory conditions Journal of Helminthology 73: 177–182.Google Scholar
  142. Toledo, R., Muñoz-Antolí, C., Pérez, M. and Esteban, J.G. 1999c. Encystment sites of metacercariae of Hypoderaeum conoideum. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in freshwater gastropods Folia Parasitologica 46: 157–158.Google Scholar
  143. Toledo, R., Muñoz-Antolí, C. and Esteban, J.G. 1999d. Production and chronobiology of emergence of the cercariae of Euparyphium albuferensis. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) Journal of Parasitology 85: 263–267.Google Scholar
  144. Toledo, R., Muñoz-Antolí, C. and Esteban, J.G. 2000. The life-cycle of Echinostoma friedi. n.sp. (Trematoda: Echinostomatidae) in Spain and a discussion on the relationships within the “revolutum” group based on cercarial chaetotaxy Systematic Parasitology 45: 199–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Toledo, R., Espert, A., Carpena, I., Trelis, M., Muñoz-Antolí, C. and Esteban, J.G. 2004. Echinostoma friedi. : the effect of age of adult worms on the infectivity of miracidia Journal of Helminthology 78: 91–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Toledo, R., Esteban, J.G. and Fried, B. 2006. Immunology and pathology of intestinal trematodes in their definitive hosts. Advances in Parasitology 63: 285–365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Toledo, R., Muñoz-Antolí, C. and Fried, B. 2007. The use of echinostomes to study host-parasite relationships between larval trematodes and invertebrate and cold-blooded vertebrate hosts. Parasitology Research 100: 1177–1185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Vayrynen, T., Siddall, R., Valtonen, E.T. and Taskinen, J. 2000. Patterns of trematode parasitism in lymnaeids snails from northern and central Finland. Annales Zoologici Fennici 37: 189–199.Google Scholar
  149. Vilas, R., Criscione, C.D. and Blouin, M.S. 2005. A comparison between mitochondrial DNA and the ribosomal internal transcribed regions in prospecting for cryptic species of plathyhelminth parasites. Parasitology 131: 839–846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Viozzi, G., Flores, V. and Rauque, C. 2005. An ectosymbiotic flatworm, Temnocephala chilensis., as second intermediate host for Echinoparyphium megacirrus (Digenea: Echinostomatidae) in Patagonia (Argentina) Journal of Parasitology 91: 229–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Wilson, W.D., Johnson, P.T.J., Sutherland, D.R., Moné, H. and Loker, E.S. 2005. A molecular phylogenetic study of the genus Ribeiroia. (Digenea): trematodes known to cause limb malformations in amphibians Journal of Parasitology 91: 1040–1045.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Xiao, X., Wang, T.P. and Lu, D.B. 1992. The first record of human natural infection of Echinochasmus liliputanus. Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases 10: 132–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Xiao, X., Lu, D., Wang, T.P., Gao, J., Zhu, C., Zhang, B., An, J., Pong, H., Xu, M. and Wu, W. 1995. Studies on the mode of human infection with Echinochasmus liliputanus. Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases 13: 197–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Xiao, X., Wang, T., Zheng, X., Shen, G. and Tian, Z. 2005. In vivo and in vitro encystment of Echinochasmus liliputanus. cercariae and biological activity of the metacercariae Journal of Parasitology 91: 492–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Yamaguti, S. 1971. Synopsis of digenetic trematodes of vertebrates, Vol. I. Keigaku Publishing Company, Tokyo: 1074Google Scholar
  156. Yamaguti, S. 1975. A synoptical review of life histories of digenetic trematodes of vertebrates with special reference to the morphology of their larval forms. Keigaku Publishing Company, Tokyo: 590 p.+219 pls.Google Scholar
  157. Zamparo, D., Overstreet, R.M. and Brooks, D.R. 2005. A new species of Petasiger. (Digenea: Echinostomiformes: Echinostomatidae) in the brown pelican, Pelecanus occidentalis, (Aves: Pelecaniformes: Pelecanidae), from the area of conservation Guanacaste, Costa Rica Journal of Parasitology 91: 1465–1467.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Guillermo Esteban*
    • 1
  • Carla Muñoz-Antoli
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Biología Celular y ParasitologíaFacultad de Farmacia, Universidad de ValenciaBurjassot-ValenciaSpain

Personalised recommendations