Traumatic Brain Injury: Risk Assessment and Perioperative Management
- First Online:
Traumatic injury is the third leading cause of death in the USA. For traumatic brain injury (TBI), approximately 1.4 million cases are reported in the USA each year, among which roughly 50,000 patients die and 235,000 are hospitalized. For spinal cord injury (SCI), the incidence has remained stable over the past 30 years in North America, ranging between 27 and 47 cases per million, 55% of which are cervical spine (C-spine) injuries – the most common anatomic region for SCI. In a polytrauma patient, TBI or SCI is often involved. Indeed, approximately one-third of the fatalities after multisystem traumatic injury (150,000 deaths) each year is due to fatal head injuries; C-spine injuries occur in 1.5 to 3% of all major trauma patients.
- Dutton RP, McCunn M, and Grissom TE. Anesthesia for trauma. In: Miller R, editor. Miller’s anesthesia. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2010. p. 2277–2311.Google Scholar
- Matjasko MJ, Stier GR, Schell RM, Cole DJ. Multisystem sequelae of severe head injury. Spinal cord injury. In: Cottrell JE, Smith DS, editors. Anesthesia and Neurosurgery. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2001. p. 693–747.Google Scholar