Traumatic Brain Injury: Risk Assessment and Perioperative Management

Chapter

Abstract

Traumatic injury is the third leading cause of death in the USA. For traumatic brain injury (TBI), approximately 1.4 million cases are reported in the USA each year, among which roughly 50,000 patients die and 235,000 are hospitalized. For spinal cord injury (SCI), the incidence has remained stable over the past 30 years in North America, ranging between 27 and 47 cases per million, 55% of which are cervical spine (C-spine) injuries – the most common anatomic region for SCI. In a polytrauma patient, TBI or SCI is often involved. Indeed, approximately one-third of the fatalities after multisystem traumatic injury (150,000 deaths) each year is due to fatal head injuries; C-spine injuries occur in 1.5 to 3% of all major trauma patients.

Suggested Reading

  1. Dutton RP, McCunn M, and Grissom TE. Anesthesia for trauma. In: Miller R, editor. Miller’s anesthesia. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2010. p. 2277–2311.Google Scholar
  2. Furlan JC, Fehlings MG. Cardiovascular complications after acute spinal cord injury: pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. Neurosurg Focus. 2008;25:1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Harris MB, Sethi RK. The initial assessment and management of the multiple-trauma patient with an associated spine injury. Spine. 2006;31:S9–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Lim HB, Smith M. Systemic complications after head injury: a clinical review. Anaesthesia. 2007;62:474–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Matjasko MJ, Stier GR, Schell RM, Cole DJ. Multisystem sequelae of severe head injury. Spinal cord injury. In: Cottrell JE, Smith DS, editors. Anesthesia and Neurosurgery. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2001. p. 693–747.Google Scholar
  6. Moppett IK. Traumatic brain injury: assessment, resuscitation and early management. Br J Anaesth. 2007;99:18–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Anesthesiology & Perioperative CareUniversity of California Irvine Medical CenterOrangeUSA

Personalised recommendations