The strength of ADDIE is its ability to be both descriptive and prescriptive. Descriptive because it shows relationships, illustrates what happens during a process, it’s interactive, it explains, provides if–then relationships, and the ADDIE approach can be adapted to practically any development context. Prescriptive because it guides, assigns methods and procedures, generates strategies, is goal oriented, active, and a variety of models can be applied to the ADDIE paradigm. Instructional designers should also consider specific contextual issues that may require the application of additional considerations such as rapid prototyping and concurrent engineering. Successful instructional design practice requires competent professionals with knowledge, skills, and experience about managing multiple complex procedures within defined periods of time. Probably the single most factor that is constant in instructional design is that it is a process devoted almost exclusively to seeking ways to close a performance gap that is caused by a lack of knowledge and skills. However, there is a need for alternative paradigms that has emerged from the advent of new learning theories as well as new instructional theories, the need to respond to rapidly evolving learning environments, flexible educational delivery systems, the growth of distance learning and technological innovations. The growing attention to accountability in training and education and a rising emphasis on return on investment also require a nimble and agile instructional design process, regardless of the supporting framework. ADDIE is an approach to instructional design with a proven record of success.


ADDIE Instructional design Performance gap Concurrent Engineering Rapid prototyping Online learning Learning environments Descriptive Prescriptive 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Educational Psychology and Instructional TechnologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

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