Advertisement

Maternal Morbidity

  • Melisa M. AdamsEmail author
Chapter

Despite the popular notion that pregnancy is a time of heightened well-being for women, the opposite is often true. The absolute risk of death from pregnancy is low in developed countries. Risks for pregnancy-related mortality, however, continue to be high for women in developing countries, who often have limited ability to control their fertility and limited access to emergency obstetrical services. The persistent loss of productivity as well as the suffering associated with maternal morbidity and mortality justify the study of these problems. Recent clinical and public health focus has been mostly on the infant, rather than on the mother.

This chapter presents pregnancy-related health conditions, which are of interest not only by their own importance, but also because of their repercussions for fetal and infant health. We emphasize the risk of a specific morbidity in each of a woman’s pregnancies, rather than the risk of that morbidity for a woman in any of her pregnancies. We focus...

Keywords

Gestational Diabetes Cesarean Delivery Ectopic Pregnancy Postpartum Depression Maternal Morbidity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

BMI

Body Mass Index

CPD

Cephalopelvic disproportion

CPT

Current procedural terminology

EPDS

Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale

HELLP

Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes

ICD

International Classification of Diseases

NCHS

National Center for Health Statistics

NHDS

National Hospital Discharge Survey

PMSS

Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System

SID

State inpatient databases

UTI

Urinary tract infection

WHO

World Health Organization

References

  1. 1.
    Last JM, SpasoffRA, HarrisSS (eds.). 2001. A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 4th edn. Oxford University Press, New York City:Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Savitz DA, Hertz-Picciotto I, Poole C, Olshan AF. 2002; Epidemiologic measures of the course and outcome of pregnancy. Epidemiol Rev 24(2):91–101.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baskett TF, Sternadel J. 1998; Maternal intensive care and near-miss mortality in obstetrics. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 105(9):981–984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Geller SE, Rosenberg D, Cox SM, Kilpatrick S. 2002; Defining a conceptual framework for near-miss maternal morbidity. J Am Med Womens Assoc 57(3):135–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mantel GD, Buchmann E, Rees H, Pattinson RC. 1998; Severe acute maternal morbidity: a pilot study of a definition for a near-miss. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 105(9):985–990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nasrat HA, Youssef MH, Marzoogi A, Talab F. 1999; “Near miss” obstetric morbidity in an inner city hospital in Saudi Arabia. East Mediterr Health J 5(4):717–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Penny J. 1999; Severe acute maternal morbidity: a pilot study of a definition of a near-miss. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 106(4):397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Geller SE, Rosenberg D, Cox S, Brown M, Simonson L, Kilpatrick S. 2004; A scoring system identified near-miss maternal morbidity during pregnancy. J Clin Epidemiol 57(7):716–720.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Geller SE, Cox SM, Kilpatrick SJ. 2006; A descriptive model of preventability in maternal morbidity and mortality. J Perinatol 26(2):79–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Geller SE, Cox SM, Callaghan WM, Berg CJ. 2006; Morbidity and mortality in pregnancy: laying the groundwork for safe motherhood. Womens Health Issues 16(4):176–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sanderson M, Placek PJ, Keppel KG. 1991; The 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey: design, content, and data availability. Birth 18(1):26–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sanderson M, Gonzalez JF. 1998;1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey: methods and response characteristics. Vital Health Stat 2 (125)::1–39.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lydon-Rochelle MT, Holt VL, Cardenas V, Nelson JC, Easterling TR, Gardella C . et al. 2005; The reporting of pre-existing maternal medical conditions and complications of pregnancy on birth certificates and in hospital discharge data. Am J Obstet Gynecol 193(1):125–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zane SB, Kieke BA Jr, Kendrick JS, Bruce C. 2002; Surveillance in a time of changing health care practices: estimating ectopic pregnancy incidence in the United States. Matern Child Health J 6(4):227–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010. 2nd ed. With Understanding and Improving Health and Objectives for Improving Health. 2 vols. Washington, DC:U.S. Government Printing Office, November 2000.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Gazmararian JA, Petersen R, Jamieson DJ, Schild L, Adams MM, Deshpande AD . et al. 2002; Hospitalizations during pregnancy among managed care enrollees. Obstet Gynecol 100(1):94–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bacak SJ, Callaghan WM, Dietz PM, Crouse C. 2005; Pregnancy-associated hospitalizations in the United States, 1999–2000. Am J Obstet Gynecol 192(2):592–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu S, Heaman M, Sauve R, Liston R, Reyes F, Bartholomew S . et al. 2007; An analysis of antenatal hospitalization in Canada, 1991–2003. Matern Child Health J 11(2):181–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Ectopic pregnancy–United States, 1990–1992. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1995; 44(3):46–48.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Van Den Eeden SK, Shan J, Bruce C, Glasser M. 2005; Ectopic pregnancy rate and treatment utilization in a large managed care organization. Obstet Gynecol 105(5, Part 1):1052–1057.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Irvine LM, Setchell ME. 2001; Declining incidence of ectopic pregnancy in a UK city health district between 1990 and 1999. Hum Reprod 16(10):2230–2234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Coste J, Bouyer J, Germain E, Ughetto S, Pouly JL, Job-Spira N. 2000; Recent declining trend in ectopic pregnancy in France: evidence of two clinicoepidemiologic entities. Fertil Steril 74(5):881–886.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Boufous S, Quartararo M, Mohsin M, Parker J. 2001; Trends in the incidence of ectopic pregnancy in New South Wales between 1990–1998. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 41(4):436–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Egger M, Low N, Smith GD, Lindblom B, Herrmann B. 1998; Screening for chlamydial infections and the risk of ectopic pregnancy in a county in Sweden: ecological analysis. BMJ 316(7147):1776–1780.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Coste J, Bouyer J, Ughetto S, Gerbaud L, Fernandez H, Pouly JL et al. 2004; Ectopic pregnancy is again on the increase. Recent trends in the incidence of ectopic pregnancies in France (1992–2002). Hum Reprod 19(9):2014–2018.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Peterson HB, Xia Z, Hughes JM, Wilcox LS, Tylor LR, Trussell J. 1997; The risk of ectopic pregnancy after tubal sterilization. U.S. Collaborative Review of Sterilization Working Group. N Engl J Med 336(11):762–767.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bouyer J, Coste J, Shojaei T, Pouly JL, Fernandez H, Gerbaud L . et al. 2003; Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy: a comprehensive analysis based on a large case-control, population-based study in France. Am J Epidemiol 157(3):185–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Coste J, Bouyer J, Job-Spira N. 1996; [Epidemiology of ectopic pregnancy: incidence and risk factors]. Contracept Fertil Sex 24(2):135–139.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Goldberg JM, Falcone T. 1999; Effect of diethylstilbestrol on reproductive function. Fertil Steril 72(1):1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Pisarska MD, Carson SA. 1999; Incidence and risk factors for ectopic pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol 42(1):2–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhang J, Thomas AG, Leybovich E. 1997; Vaginal douching and adverse health effects: a meta-analysis. Am J Public Health 87(7):1207–1211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kendrick JS, Atrash HK, Strauss LT, Gargiullo PM, Ahn YW. 1997; Vaginal douching and the risk of ectopic pregnancy among black women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 176(5):991–997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Strategies for reducing exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, increase tobacco-use cessation, and reducing initiation in communities and health care systems: a report on recommendations of the Task Force on Community Preventive Services. MMWR Recomm Rep 2000; 49(RR-12):1–12.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bauer JE, Hyland A, Li Q, Steger C, Cummings KM. 2005; A longitudinal assessment of the impact of smoke-free worksite policies on tobacco use. Am J Public Health 95(6):1024–1029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Preemptive state smoke-free indoor air laws – United States, 1999–2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2005; 54:(10)250–253.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lacroix R, Eason E, Melzack R. 2000; Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: a prospective study of its frequency, intensity, and patterns of change. Am J Obstet Gynecol 182(4):931–937.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Quinlan JD. 2003; HDA. Nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Am Fam Physician 98(1):121–128.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kallen B, Lundberg G, Aberg A. 2003; Relationship between vitamin use, smoking, and nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 82(10):916–920.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fell DB, Dodds L, Joseph KS, Allen VM, Butler B. 2006; Risk factors for hyperemesis gravidarum requiring hospital admission during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 107(2, Part 1):277–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mar Melero-Montes M, Jick H. 2001; Hyperemesis gravidarum and the sex of the offspring. Epidemiology 12(1):123–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Vilming B, Nesheim BI. 2000; Hyperemesis gravidarum in a contemporary population in Oslo. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 79(8):640–643.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Anderson BL, Simhan HN, Simons KM, Wiesenfeld HC. 2007; Untreated asymptomatic group B streptococcal bacteriuria early in pregnancy and chorioamnionitis at delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 196(6):524–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pastore LM, Savitz DA, Thorp JM Jr. 1999; Predictors of urinary tract infection at the first prenatal visit. Epidemiology 10(3):282–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    McIsaac W, Carroll JC, Biringer A, Bernstein P, Lyons E, Low DE . et al. 2005; Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 27(1):20–24.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dempsey C, Harrison RF, Moloney A, Darling M, Walshe J. 1992; Characteristics of bacteriuria in a homogeneous maternity hospital population. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 44(3):189–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pastore LM, Savitz DA, Thorp JM Jr, Koch GG, Hertz-Picciotto I, Irwin DE. 1999; Predictors of symptomatic urinary tract infection after 20 weeks’ gestation. J Perinatol 19(7):488–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hsu CD, Witter FR. 1995; Urogenital infection in preeclampsia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 49(3):271–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Ochoa-Brust GJ, Fernandez AR, Villanueva-Ruiz GJ, Velasco R, Trujillo-Hernandez B, Vasquez C. 2007; Daily intake of 100 mg ascorbic acid as urinary tract infection prophylactic agent during pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 86(7):783–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Englund JA. 2003; Maternal immunization with inactivated influenza vaccine: rationale and experience. Vaccine 21(24):3460–3464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Neuzil KM, Reed GW, Mitchel EF, Simonsen L, Griffin MR. 1998; Impact of influenza on acute cardiopulmonary hospitalizations in pregnant women. Am J Epidemiol 148(11):1094–1102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fiore AE, Shay DK, Haber P, Iskander JK, Uyeki TM, Mootrey G et al. 2007; Prevention and control of influenza. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2007. MMWR Recomm Rep 56(RR-6):1–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    American Diabetes Association. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2004; 27 Suppl 1:S88–S90.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Vidaeff AC, Yeomans ER, Ramin SM. 2003; Gestational diabetes: a field of controversy. Obstet Gynecol Surv 58(11):759–769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus: recommendation and rationale. Am Fam Physician 2003; 68(2):331–335.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Screening for gestational diabetes mellitus: recommendations and rationale. Obstet Gynecol 2003; 101(2):393–395.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Brody SC, Harris R, Lohr K. 2003; Screening for gestational diabetes: a summary of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Obstet Gynecol 101(2):380–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 2000; 23 Suppl 1:S77–S79.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ferrara A, Hedderson MM, Quesenberry CP, Selby JV. 2002; Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus detected by the national diabetes data group or the carpenter and coustan plasma glucose thresholds. Diabetes Care 25(9):1625–1630.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Xiong X, Saunders LD, Wang FL, Demianczuk NN. 2001; Gestational diabetes mellitus: prevalence, risk factors, maternal and infant outcomes. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 75(3):221–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Cundy T, Gamble G, Townend K, Henley PG, MacPherson P, Roberts AB. 2000; Perinatal mortality in Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Med 17(1):33–39.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kim C, Newton KM, Knopp RH. 2002; Gestational diabetes and the incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Diabetes Care 25(10):1862–1868.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ferrara A, Kahn HS, Quesenberry CP, Riley C, Hedderson MM. 2004; An increase in the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus: Northern California, 1991–2000. Obstet Gynecol 103(3):526–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Dabelea D, Snell-Bergeon JK, Hartsfield CL, Bischoff KJ, Hamman RF, McDuffie RS. 2005; Increasing prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) over time and by birth cohort: Kaiser Permanente of Colorado GDM Screening Program. Diabetes Care 28(3):579–584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gregory KD, Korst LM. 2003; Age and racial/ethnic differences in maternal, fetal, and placental conditions in laboring patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol 188(6):1602–1606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Berkowitz GS, Roman SH, Lapinski RH, Alvarez M. 1992; Maternal characteristics, neonatal outcome, and the time of diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 167(4, Part 1):976–982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dornhorst A, Paterson CM, Nicholls JS, Wadsworth J, Chiu DC, Elkeles RS . et al. 1992; High prevalence of gestational diabetes in women from ethnic minority groups. Diabet Med 9(9):820–825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Engelgau MM, Herman WH, Smith PJ, German RR, Aubert RE. 1995; The epidemiology of diabetes and pregnancy in the U.S., 1988. Diabetes Care 18(7):1029–1033.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Benjamin E, Winters D, Mayfield J, Gohdes D. 1993; Diabetes in pregnancy in Zuni Indian women. Prevalence and subsequent development of clinical diabetes after gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care 16(9):1231–1235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Rodrigues S, Robinson EJ, Ghezzo H, Gray-Donald K. 1999; Interaction of body weight and ethnicity on risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. Am J Clin Nutr 70(6):1083–1089.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Dyck R, Klomp H, Tan LK, Turnell RW, Boctor MA. 2002; A comparison of rates, risk factors, and outcomes of gestational diabetes between aboriginal and non-aboriginal women in the Saskatoon health district. Diabetes Care 25(3):487–493.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    MacNeill S,DoddsLHamilton DC, Armson BA, VandenHof M. 2001; Rates and risk factors for recurrence of gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care 24(4):659–662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    MacNeill S, Dodds L, Hamilton DC, Armson BA, VandenHof M. 2001; Rate and risk factors for recurrence of gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care 24(4):663–665.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Michlin R, Oettinger M, Odeh M, Khoury S, Ophir E, Barak M . et al. 2000; Maternal obesity and pregnancy outcome. Isr Med Assoc J 2(1):10–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Myles TD, Gooch J, Santolaya J. 2002; Obesity as an independent risk factor for infectious morbidity in patients who undergo cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 100(5, Part 1):959–964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Carroll CS Sr, Magann EF, Chauhan SP, Klauser CK, Morrison JC. 2003; Vaginal birth after cesarean section versus elective repeat cesarean delivery: weight-based outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 188(6):1516–1520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Rosenberg TJ, Garbers S, Chavkin W, Chiasson MA. 2003; Prepregnancy weight and adverse perinatal outcomes in an ethnically diverse population. Obstet Gynecol 102(5, Part 1):1022–1027.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Jensen DM, Damm P, Sorensen B, Molsted-Pedersen L, Westergaard JG, Ovesen P . et al. 2003; Pregnancy outcome and prepregnancy body mass index in 2459 glucose-tolerant Danish women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189(1):239–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Nager CW, Helliwell JP. 2001; Episiotomy increases perineal laceration length in primiparous women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 185(2):444–450.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Freedman DS, Khan LK, Serdula MK, Galuska DA, Dietz WH. 2002; Trends and correlates of class 3 obesity in the United States from 1990 through 2000. JAMA 288(14):1758–1761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ogden CL, Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Johnson CL. 2002; Prevalence and trends in overweight among US children and adolescents, 1999–2000. JAMA 288(14):1728–1732.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL. 2002; Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2000. JAMA 288(14):1723–1727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    von Dadelszen P, Magee LA, Roberts JM. 2003; Subclassification of preeclampsia. Hypertens Pregnancy 22(2):143–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rasmussen S, Irgens LM. 2003; Fetal growth and body proportion in preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol 101(3):575–583.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Zhang J, Meikle S, Trumble A. 2003; Severe maternal morbidity associated with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in the United States. Hypertens Pregnancy 22(2):203–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Hauth JC, Ewell MG, Levine RJ, Esterlitz JR, Sibai B, Curet LB et al. 2000; Pregnancy outcomes in healthy nulliparas who developed hypertension. Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention Study Group. Obstet Gynecol 95(1):24–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    van Walraven C, Mamdani M, Cohn A, Katib Y, Walker M, Rodger MA. 2003; Risk of subsequent thromboembolism for patients with pre-eclampsia. BMJ 326(7393):791–792.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wilson ML, Goodwin TM, Pan VL, Ingles SA. 2003; Molecular epidemiology of preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol Surv 58(1):39–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Samuels-Kalow ME, Funai EF, Buhimschi C, Norwitz E, Perrin M, Calderon-Margalit R . et al. 2007; Prepregnancy body mass index, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and long-term maternal mortality. Am J Obstet Gynecol 197(5):490–496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Bellamy L, Casas JP, Hingorani AD, Williams DJ. 2007; Pre-eclampsia and risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in later life: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ 335(7627):974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Levine RJ, Esterlitz JR, Raymond EG, DerSimonian R, Hauth JC, Ben Curet L . et al. 1996; Trial of calcium for preeclampsia prevention (CPEP): rationale, design, and methods. Control Clin Trials 17(5):442–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Skjaerven R, Wilcox AJ, Lie RT. 2002; The interval between pregnancies and the risk of preeclampsia. N Engl J Med 346(1):33–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Kullberg G, Lindeberg S, Hanson U. 2002; Eclampsia in Sweden. Hypertens Pregnancy 21(1):13–21.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Waterstone M, Bewley S, Wolfe C. 2001; Incidence and predictors of severe obstetric morbidity: case-control study. BMJ 322(7294):1089–1093.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Knight M. 2007; Eclampsia in the United Kingdom 2005. BJOG 114(9):1072–1078.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mostello D, Catlin TK, Roman L, Holcomb WL Jr, Leet T. 2002; Preeclampsia in the parous woman: who is at risk? Am J Obstet Gynecol 187(2):425–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Pridjian G, Puschett JB. 2002; Preeclampsia, Part 2: experimental and genetic considerations. Obstet Gynecol Surv 57(9):619–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Roberts JM, Lain KY. 2002; Recent Insights into the pathogenesis of pre-eclampsia. Placenta 23(5):359–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hibbard JU. 2002; Hypertensive disease and pregnancy. J Hypertens 20 Suppl 2::S29–S33.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Wong CA, Scavone BM, Dugan S, Smith JC, Prather H, Ganchiff JN . et al. 2003; Incidence of postpartum lumbosacral spine and lower extremity nerve injuries. Obstet Gynecol 101(2):279–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lanska DJ, Kryscio RJ. 2000; Risk factors for peripartum and postpartum stroke and intracranial venous thrombosis. Stroke 31(6):1274–1282.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Wen SW, Huang L, Liston R, Heaman M, Baskett T, Rusen ID . et al. 2005; Severe maternal morbidity in Canada, 1991–2001. CMAJ 173(7):759–764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Gazmararian JA, Petersen R, Jamieson DJ, Schild L, Adams MM, Deshpande AD . et al. 2002; Hospitalizations during pregnancy among managed care enrollees. Obstet Gynecol 100(1):94–100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Babinszki A, Kerenyi T, Torok O, Grazi V, Lapinski RH, Berkowitz RL. 1999; Perinatal outcome in grand and great-grand multiparity: effects of parity on obstetric risk factors. Am J Obstet Gynecol 181(3):669–674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ananth CV, Savitz DA, Luther ER. 1996; Maternal cigarette smoking as a risk factor for placental abruption, placenta previa, and uterine bleeding in pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol 144(9):881–889.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hauth JC, Ewell MG, Levine RJ, Esterlitz JR, Sibai B, Curet LB et al. 2000; Pregnancy outcomes in healthy nulliparas who developed hypertension. Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention Study Group. Obstet Gynecol 95(1):24–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rachana C, Suraiya K, Hisham AS, Abdulaziz AM, Hai A. 2002; Prevalence and complications of physical violence during pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 103(1):26–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sheiner E, Shoham-Vardi I, Hallak M, Hadar A, Gortzak-Uzan L, Katz M . et al. 2003; Placental abruption in term pregnancies: clinical significance and obstetric risk factors. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 13(1):45–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Sibai BM, Ramadan MK, Usta I, Salama M, Mercer BM, Friedman SA. 1993; Maternal morbidity and mortality in 442 pregnancies with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP syndrome). Am J Obstet Gynecol 169(4):1000–1006.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Schiff MA, Holt VL. 2002; The injury severity score in pregnant trauma patients: predicting placental abruption and fetal death. J Trauma 53(5):946–949.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Chen LH, Tan KH, Yeo GS. 1995; A ten-year review of uterine rupture in modern obstetric practice. Ann Acad Med Singapore 24(6):830–835.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Delaney T, Young DC. 2003; Spontaneous versus induced labor after a previous cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 102(1):39–44.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Stamilio DM, DeFranco E, Pare E, Odibo AO, Peipert JF, Allsworth JE . et al. 2007; Short interpregnancy interval: risk of uterine rupture and complications of vaginal birth after cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 110(5):1075–1082.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sebire NJ, Jolly M, Harris JP, Wadsworth J, Joffe M, Beard RW . et al. 2001; Maternal obesity and pregnancy outcome: a study of 287,213 pregnancies in London. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 25(8):1175–1182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Myles TD, Santolaya J. 2003; Maternal and neonatal outcomes in patients with a prolonged second stage of labor. Obstet Gynecol 102(1):52–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ohkuchi A, Onagawa T, Usui R, Koike T, Hiratsuka M, Izumi A . et al. 2003; Effect of maternal age on blood loss during parturition: a retrospective multivariate analysis of 10,053 cases. J Perinat Med 31(3):209–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Olesen AW, Westergaard JG, Olsen J. 2003; Perinatal and maternal complications related to postterm delivery: a national register-based study, 1978–1993. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189(1):222–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Dunne F, Brydon P, Smith K, Gee H. 2003; Pregnancy in women with Type 2 diabetes: 12 years outcome data 1990–2002. Diabetes Med 20(9):734–738.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lydon-Rochelle M, Holt VL, Martin DP, Easterling TR. 2000; Association between method of delivery and maternal rehospitalization. JAMA 283(18):2411–2416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, Ventura SJ, Menacker F, Munson ML. 2003; Births: final data for 2002. Natl Vital Stat Rep 52(10):1–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Ventura SJ, Menacker F, Park MM. 2002; Births: final data for 2000. Natl Vital Stat Rep 50(5):1–101.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Ventura SJ, Menacker F, Park MM, Sutton PD. 2002; Births: final data for 2001. Natl Vital Stat Rep 51(2):1–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, Ventura SJ, Menacker F, Kirmeyer S. 2006; Births: final data for 2004. Natl Vital Stat Rep 55(1):1–101.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hall W, McCracken K, Osterweil P, Guise JM. 2003; Frequency and predictors for postpartum fecal incontinence. Am J Obstet Gynecol 188(5):1205–1207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Eason E, Labrecque M, Marcoux S, Mondor M. 2002; Anal incontinence after childbirth. CMAJ 166(3):326–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Elkadry E, Kenton K, White P, Creech S, Brubaker L. 2003; Do mothers remember key events during labor? Am J Obstet Gynecol 189(1):195–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Weeks JD, Kozak LJ. 2001; Trends in the use of episiotomy in the United States: 1980–1998. Birth 28(3):152–160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Angioli R, Gomez-Marin O, Cantuaria G, O’sullivan MJ. 2000; Severe perineal lacerations during vaginal delivery: the University of Miami experience. Am J Obstet Gynecol 182(5):1083–1085.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Howard D, Davies PS, DeLancey JO, Small Y. 2000; Differences in perineal lacerations in black and white primiparas. Obstet Gynecol 96(4):622–624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Carroll TG, Engelken M, Mosier MC, Nazir N. 2003; Epidural analgesia and severe perineal laceration in a community-based obstetric practice. J Am Board Fam Pract 16(1):1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Webb DA, Culhane J. 2002; Hospital variation in episiotomy use and the risk of perineal trauma during childbirth. Birth 29(2):132–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    McLeod NL, Gilmour DT, Joseph KS, Farrell SA, Luther ER. 2003; Trends in major risk factors for anal sphincter lacerations: a 10-year study. J Obstet Gynaecol Can 25(7):586–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Peleg D, Kennedy CM, Merrill D, Zlatnik FJ. 1999; Risk of repetition of a severe perineal laceration. Obstet Gynecol 93(6):1021–1024.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Payne TN, Carey JC, Rayburn WF. 1999; Prior third- or fourth-degree perineal tears and recurrence risks. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 64(1):55–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Oakley D, Murray ME, Murtland T, Hayashi R, Andersen HF, Mayes F . et al. 1996; Comparisons of outcomes of maternity care by obstetricians and certified nurse-midwives. Obstet Gynecol 88(5):823–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kabiru WN, Jamieson D, Graves W, Lindsay M. 2001; Trends in operative vaginal delivery rates and associated maternal complication rates in an inner-city hospital. Am J Obstet Gynecol 184(6):1112–1114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Larsen U, Okonofua FE. 2002; Female circumcision and obstetric complications. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 77(3):255–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Williams A. 2003; Third-degree perineal tears: risk factors and outcome after primary repair. J Obstet Gynaecol 23(6):611–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Richter HE, Brumfield CG, Cliver SP, Burgio KL, Neely CL, Varner RE. 2002; Risk factors associated with anal sphincter tear: a comparison of primiparous patients, vaginal births after cesarean deliveries, and patients with previous vaginal delivery. Am J Obstet Gynecol 187(5):1194–1198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Handa VL, Danielsen BH, Gilbert WM. 2001; Obstetric anal sphincter lacerations. Obstet Gynecol 98(2):225–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Sheiner E, Shoham-Vardi I, Silberstein T, Hallak M, Katz M, Mazor M. 2001; Failed vacuum extraction. Maternal risk factors and pregnancy outcome. J Reprod Med 46(9):819–824.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Kozak LJ, Weeks JD. 2002; U.S. trends in obstetric procedures, 1990–2000. Birth 29(3):157–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Weber AM, Meyn L. 2002; Episiotomy use in the United States, 1979–1997. Obstet Gynecol 100(6):1177–1182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Jackson N, Paterson-Brown S. 2001; Physical sequelae of caesarean section. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 15(1):49–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Lydon-Rochelle M, Holt VL, Easterling TR, Martin DP. 2001; Cesarean delivery and postpartum mortality among primiparas in Washington State, 1987–1996(1). Obstet Gynecol 97(2):169–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Schuitemaker N, van Roosmalen J, Dekker G, van Dongen P, van Geijn H, Gravenhorst JB. 1997; Maternal mortality after cesarean section in The Netherlands. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 76(4):332–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Brown S, Lumley J. 1998; Maternal health after childbirth: results of an Australian population based survey. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 105(2):156–161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Lydon-Rochelle MT, Holt VL, Martin DP. 2001; Delivery method and self-reported postpartum general health status among primiparous women. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 15(3):232–240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    MacArthur C, Bick DE, Keighley MR. 1997; Faecal incontinence after childbirth. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 104(1):46–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Johanson RB, Menon BK. Vacuum extraction versus forceps for assisted vaginal delivery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 2:CD000224.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Allen VM, O’Connell CM, Liston RM, Baskett TF. 2003; Maternal morbidity associated with cesarean delivery without labor compared with spontaneous onset of labor at term. Obstet Gynecol 102(3):477–482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Couto RC, Pedrosa TM, Nogueira JM, Gomes DL, Neto MF, Rezende NA. 1998; Post-discharge surveillance and infection rates in obstetric patients. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 61(3):227–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Edwards DR, Porter SA, Stein GS. 1994; A pilot study of postnatal depression following caesarean section using two retrospective self-rating instruments. J Psychosom Res 38(2):111–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Joseph KS, Young DC, Dodds L, O’Connell CM, Allen VM, Chandra S . et al. 2003; Changes in maternal characteristics and obstetric practice and recent increases in primary cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 102(4):791–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Lydon-Rochelle M, Holt VL, Easterling TR, Martin DP. 2001; Risk of uterine rupture during labor among women with a prior cesarean delivery. N Engl J Med 345(1):3–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Hibbard JU, Ismail MA, Wang Y, Te C, Karrison T, Ismail MA. 2001; Failed vaginal birth after a cesarean section: how risky is it? I. Maternal morbidity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 184(7):1365–1371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Gregory KD, Korst LM, Cane P, Platt LD, Kahn K. 1999; Vaginal birth after cesarean and uterine rupture rates in California. Obstet Gynecol 94(6):985–989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Green DC, Moore JM, Adams MM, Berg CJ, Wilcox LS, McCarthy BJ. 1998; Are we underestimating rates of vaginal birth after previous cesarean birth? The validity of delivery methods from birth certificates. Am J Epidemiol 147(6):581–586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Learman LA. 1998; Regional differences in operative obstetrics: a look to the South. Obstet Gynecol 92(4, Part 1):514–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Roberts CL, Algert CS, Carnegie M, Peat B. 2002; Operative delivery during labour: trends and predictive factors. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 16(2):115–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    O’Connell MP, Lindow W. 2000; Caesarean section controversy. Further research is needed on why rates of caesarean section are increasing. BMJ 320(7241):1074.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Rasmussen OB, Pedersen BL, Wilken-Jensen C, Vejerslev LO. 2000; Stratified rates of cesarean sections and spontaneous vaginal deliveries. Data from five labor wards in Denmark – 1996. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 79(3):227–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Odlind V, Haglund B, Pakkanen M, Otterblad OP. 2003; Deliveries, mothers and newborn infants in Sweden, 1973–2000. Trends in obstetrics as reported to the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 82(6):516–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Zanetta G, Tampieri A, Currado I, Regalia A, Nespoli A, Midwife T . et al. 1999; Changes in cesarean delivery in an Italian university hospital, 1982–1996: a comparison with the national trend. Birth 26(3):144–148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Lin HC, Xirasagar S. 2004; Institutional factors in cesarean delivery rates: policy and research implications. Obstet Gynecol 103(1):128–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Roberts CL, Tracy S, Peat B. 2000; Rates for obstetric intervention among private and public patients in Australia: population based descriptive study. BMJ 321(7254):137–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Belizan JM, Althabe F, Barros FC, Alexander S, Showalter E, Griffin A . et al. 1999; Rates and implications of caesarean sections in Latin America: ecological study ò Commentary: all women should have a choice ò Commentary: increase in caesarean sections may reflect medical control not women’s choice ò Commentary: “health has become secondary to a sexually attractive body”. BMJ 319(7222):1397–1402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Baskett TF. 1978; Cesarean section: what is an acceptable rate? Can Med Assoc J 118(9):1019–1020.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Ash AK, Okoh D. 1997What is the right number of caesarean sections? Lancet; 349(9064):1557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Li T, Rhoads GG, Smulian J, Demissie K, Wartenberg D, Kruse L. 2003; Physician cesarean delivery rates and risk-adjusted perinatal outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 101(6):1204–1212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Hofmeyr GJ, Hannah ME. Planned caesarean section for term breech delivery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2003; 3:CD000166.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Brocklehurst P. Interventions for reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002; 1:CD000102.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Grant A, Glazener CM. Elective caesarean section versus expectant management for delivery of the small baby. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; 2:CD000078.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Boulvain M, Stan C, Irion O. Elective delivery in diabetic pregnant women. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 2:CD001997.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Hofmeyr GJ, Kulier R. Operative versus conservative management for ‘fetal distress’ in labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 2:CD001065.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Crowther CA. Caesarean delivery for the second twin. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2000; 2:CD000047.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Lagrew DC Jr, Adashek JA. 1998; Lowering the cesarean section rate in a private hospital: comparison of individual physicians’ rates, risk factors, and outcomes. Am J Obstet Gynecol 178(6):1207–1214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Gregory KD, Korst LM, Platt LD. 2001; Variation in elective primary cesarean delivery by patient and hospital factors. Am J Obstet Gynecol 184(7):1521–1532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Walker R, Turnbull D, Wilkinson C. 2002; Strategies to address global cesarean section rates: a review of the evidence. Birth 29(1):28–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Flamm BL, Berwick DM, Kabcenell A. 1998; Reducing cesarean section rates safely: lessons from a “breakthrough series” collaborative. Birth 25(2):117–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Mehta A, Apers L, Verstraelen H, Temmerman M. 2001; Trends in caesarean section rates at a maternity hospital in Mumbai, India. J Health Popul Nutr 19(4):306–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Naiden J, Deshpande P. 2001; Using active management of labor and vaginal birth after previous cesarean delivery to lower cesarean delivery rates: a 10-year experience. Am J Obstet Gynecol 184(7):1535–1541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Heffner LJ, Elkin E, Fretts RC. 2003; Impact of labor induction, gestational age, and maternal age on cesarean delivery rates. Obstet Gynecol 102(2):287–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Heinberg EM, Wood RA, Chambers RB. 2002; Elective induction of labor in multiparous women. Does it increase the risk of cesarean section? J Reprod Med 47(5):399–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Leighton BL, Halpern SH. 2002; Epidural analgesia: effects on labor progress and maternal and neonatal outcome. Semin Perinatol 26(2):122–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Zhang J, Yancey MK, Henderson CE. 2002; U.S. national trends in labor induction, 1989–1998. J Reprod Med 47(2):120–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Zhan C, Miller MR. 2003; Excess length of stay, charges, and mortality attributable to medical injuries during hospitalization. JAMA 290(14):1868–1874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Johantgen M, Elixhauser A, Bali JK, Goldfarb M, Harris DR. 1998; Quality indicators using hospital discharge data: state and national applications. Jt Comm J Qual Improv 24(2):88–105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Hebert PR, Reed G, Entman SS, Mitchel EF Jr, Berg C, Griffin MR. 1999; Serious maternal morbidity after childbirth: prolonged hospital stays and readmissions. Obstet Gynecol 94(6):942–947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Liu S, Heaman M, Kramer MS, Demissie K, Wen SW, Marcoux S. 2002; Length of hospital stay, obstetric conditions at childbirth, and maternal readmission: a population-based cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 187(3):681–687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Lee DT, Yip AS, Leung TY, Chung TK. 2000; Identifying women at risk of postnatal depression: prospective longitudinal study. Hong Kong Med J 6(4):349–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    McGill H, Burrows VL, Holland LA, Langer HJ, Sweet MA. 1995; Postnatal depression: a Christchurch study. N Z Med J 108(999):162–165.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Johanson R, Chapman G, Murray D, Johnson I, Cox J. 2000; The North Staffordshire Maternity Hospital prospective study of pregnancy-associated depression. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 21(2):93–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Andersson L, Sundstrom-Poromaa I, Bixo M, Wulff M, Bondestam K, aStrom M. 2003; Point prevalence of psychiatric disorders during the second trimester of pregnancy: a population-based study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 189(1):148–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Parsons LH, Harper MA. 1999; Violent maternal deaths in North Carolina. Obstet Gynecol 94(6):990–993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Ross LE, Gilbert Evans SE, Sellers EM, Romach MK. 2003; Measurement issues in postpartum depression, Part 1: anxiety as a feature of postpartum depression. Arch Women Ment Health 6(1):51–57.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Bryan TL, Georgiopoulos AM, Harms RW, Huxsahl JE, Larson DR, Yawn BP. 1999; Incidence of postpartum depression in Olmsted County, Minnesota. A population-based, retrospective study. J Reprod Med 44(4):351–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Dankner R, Goldberg RP, Fisch RZ, Crum RM. 2000; Cultural elements of postpartum depression. A study of 327 Jewish Jerusalem women. J Reprod Med 45(2):97–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Johnstone SJ, Boyce PM, Hickey AR, Morris-Yatees AD, Harris MG. 2001; Obstetric risk factors for postnatal depression in urban and rural community samples. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 35(1):69–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    O’Hara MW, Zekoski EM, Philipps LH, Wright EJ. 1990; Controlled prospective study of postpartum mood disorders: comparison of childbearing and nonchildbearing women. J Abnorm Psychol 99(1):3–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Cox JL, Murray D, Chapman G. 1993; A controlled study of the onset, duration and prevalence of postnatal depression. Br J Psychiatry 163:27–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Orr ST, James SA, Blackmore PC. 2002; Maternal prenatal depressive symptoms and spontaneous preterm births among African-American women in Baltimore, Maryland. Am J Epidemiol 156(9):797–802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Hoffman S, Hatch MC. 2000; Depressive symptomatology during pregnancy: evidence for an association with decreased fetal growth in pregnancies of lower social class women. Health Psychol 19(6):535–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Orr ST, Miller CA. 1995; Maternal depressive symptoms and the risk of poor pregnancy outcome. Review of the literature and preliminary findings. Epidemiol Rev 17(1):165–171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Cox JL, Holden JM, Sagovsky R. 1987; Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Br J Psychiatry 150:782–786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Gilbody SM, House AO, Sheldon TA. 2001; Routinely administered questionnaires for depression and anxiety: systematic review. BMJ 322(7283):406–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Roberts RE, Vernon SW. 1983; The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: its use in a community sample. Am J Psychiatry 140(1):41–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ, Thorpe K. 1996; Changes in depression during and following pregnancy. ALSPAC Study Team. Study of pregnancy and children. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 10(3):279–293.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Pop VJ, Essed GG, de Geus CA, van Son MM, Komproe IH. 1993; Prevalence of post partum depression – or is it post-puerperium depression? Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 72(5):354–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Verdoux H, Sutter AL, Glatigny-Dallay E, Minisini A. 2002; Obstetrical complications and the development of postpartum depressive symptoms: a prospective survey of the MATQUID cohort. Acta Psychiatr Scand 106(3):212–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Waterstone M, Wolfe C, Hooper R, Bewley S. 2003; Postnatal morbidity after childbirth and severe obstetric morbidity. BJOG 110(2):128–133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Harris B, Oretti R, Lazarus J, Parkes A, John R, Richards C . et al. 2002; Randomised trial of thyroxine to prevent postnatal depression in thyroid-antibody-positive women. Br J Psychiatry 180:327–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Villar J, Merialdi M, Gulmezoglu AM, Abalos E, Carroli G, Kulier R et al. 2003; Nutritional interventions during pregnancy for the prevention or treatment of maternal morbidity and preterm delivery: an overview of randomized controlled trials. J Nutr 133(5 Suppl 2):1606S–1625S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Carroli G, Rooney C, Villar J. 2001; How effective is antenatal care in preventing maternal mortality and serious morbidity? An overview of the evidence. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 15 Suppl 1::1–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Tomkins A. 2001; Nutrition and maternal morbidity and mortality. Br J Nutr 85 Suppl 2::S93–S99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Baker H, DeAngelis B, Holland B, Gittens-Williams L, Barrett T Jr. 2002; Vitamin profile of 563 gravidas during trimesters of pregnancy. J Am Coll Nutr 21(1):33–37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Ballew C, Bowman BA, Sowell AL, Gillespie C. 2001; Serum retinol distributions in residents of the United States: third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Am J Clin Nutr 73(3):586–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Brabin BJ, Hakimi M, Pelletier D. 2001; An analysis of anemia and pregnancy-related maternal mortality. J Nutr 131(2S-2):604S–614S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Rush D. 2000; Nutrition and maternal mortality in the developing world. Am J Clin Nutr 72(1 Suppl):212S–240S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Benagiano G, Thomas B. 2003; Saving mothers’ lives: the FIGO Save the Mothers Initiative. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 80(2):198–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Jones KD. 2000; Incidence and risk factors for third degree perineal tears. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 71(3):227–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Samuelsson E, Ladfors L, Lindblom BG, Hagberg H. 2002; A prospective observational study on tears during vaginal delivery: occurrences and risk factors. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 81(1):44–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Bodner K, Bodner-Adler B, Wagenbichler P, Kaider A, Leodolter S, Husslein P . et al. 2001; Perineal lacerations during spontaneous vaginal delivery. Wien Klin Wochenschr 113(19):743–746.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    O’Brien TE, Ray JG, Chan WS. 2003; Maternal body mass index and the risk of preeclampsia: a systematic overview. Epidemiology 14(3):368–374.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Lockshin MD, Sammaritano LR. 2003; Lupus pregnancy. Autoimmunity 36(1):33–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Basso O, Olsen J. 2001; Sex ratio and twinning in women with hyperemesis or pre-eclampsia. Epidemiology 12(6):747–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Coomarasamy A, Honest H, Papaioannou S, Gee H, Khan KS. 2003; Aspirin for prevention of preeclampsia in women with historical risk factors: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol 101(6):1319–1332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Dawson LM, Parfrey PS, Hefferton D, Dicks EL, Cooper MJ, Young D . et al. 2002; Familial risk of preeclampsia in Newfoundland: a population-based study. J Am Soc Nephrol 13(7):1901–1906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Skjaerven R, Vatten LJ, Wilcox AJ, Ronning T, Irgens LM, Lie RT. 2005; Recurrence of pre-eclampsia across generations: exploring fetal and maternal genetic components in a population based cohort. BMJ 331(7521):877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Harlap S, Paltiel O, Deutsch L, Knaanie A, Masalha S, Tiram E . et al. 2002; Paternal age and preeclampsia. Epidemiology 13(6):660–667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Zhang C, Williams MA, King IB, Dashow EE, Sorensen TK, Frederick IO . et al. 2002; Vitamin C and the risk of preeclampsia – results from dietary questionnaire and plasma assay. Epidemiology 13(4):409–416.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Heine RP, Ness RB, Roberts JM. 2003; Seroprevalence of antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae in women with preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol 101(2):221–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Hernandez-Diaz S, Werler MM, Louik C, Mitchell AA. 2002; Risk of gestational hypertension in relation to folic acid supplementation during pregnancy. Am J Epidemiol 156(9):806–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Qiu C, Williams MA, Leisenring WM, Sorensen TK, Frederick IO, Dempsey JC . et al. 2003; Family history of hypertension and type 2 diabetes in relation to preeclampsia risk. Hypertension 41(3):408–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Qiu C, Williams MA, Leisenring WM, Sorensen TK, Frederick IO, Dempsey JC . et al. 2003; Family history of hypertension and type 2 diabetes in relation to preeclampsia risk. Hypertension 41(3):408–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Boggess KA, Lieff S, Murtha AP, Moss K, Beck J, Offenbacher S. 2003; Maternal periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk for preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol 101(2):227–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Basso O, Christensen K, Olsen J. 2001; Higher risk of pre-eclampsia after change of partner. An effect of longer interpregnancy intervals? Epidemiology 12(6):624–629.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Said J, Dekker G. 2003; Pre-eclampsia and thrombophilia. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 17(3):441–458.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Morrison ER, Miedzybrodzka ZH, Campbell DM, Haites NE, Wilson BJ, Watson MS . et al. 2002; Prothrombotic genotypes are not associated with pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension: results from a large population-based study and systematic review. Thromb Haemost 87(5):779–785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Walker ID. 2002; Prothrombotic genotypes and pre-eclampsia. Thromb Haemost 87(5):777–778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    D’Elia AV, Driul L, Giacomello R, Colaone R, Fabbro D, Di Leonardo C . et al. 2002; Frequency of factor V, prothrombin and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene variants in preeclampsia. Gynecol Obstet Invest 53(2):84–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Saftlas AF, Levine RJ, Klebanoff MA, Martz KL, Ewell MG, Morris CD . et al. 2003; Abortion, changed paternity, and risk of preeclampsia in nulliparous women. Am J Epidemiol 157(12):1108–1114.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Verwoerd GR, Hall DR, Grove D, Maritz JS, Odendaal HJ. 2002; Primipaternity and duration of exposure to sperm antigens as risk factors for pre-eclampsia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 78(2):121–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Einarsson JI, Sangi-Haghpeykar H, Gardner MO. 2003; Sperm exposure and development of preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 188(5):1241–1243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Eras JL, Saftlas AF, Triche E, Hsu CD, Risch HA, Bracken MB. 2000; Abortion and its effect on risk of preeclampsia and transient hypertension. Epidemiology 11(1):36–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Ioka A, Tsukuma H, Nakamuro K. 2003; Lifestyles and pre-eclampsia with special attention to cigarette smoking. J Epidemiol 13(2):90–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Kobashi G, Ohta K, Hata A, Shido K, Yamada H, Fujimoto S . et al. 2002; An association between maternal smoking and preeclampsia in Japanese women. Semin Thromb Hemost 28(6):507–510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Cnattingius S, Lambe M. 2002; Trends in smoking and overweight during pregnancy: prevalence, risks of pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Semin Perinatol 26(4):286–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    England LJ, Levine RJ, Qian C, Morris CD, Sibai BM, Catalano PM . et al. 2002; Smoking before pregnancy and risk of gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol 186(5):1035–1040.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Sibai BM, Ewell M, Levine RJ, Klebanoff MA, Esterlitz J, Catalano PM et al. 1997; Risk factors associated with preeclampsia in healthy nulliparous women. The Calcium for Preeclampsia Prevention (CPEP) Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol 177(5):1003–1010.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Sibai BM, Caritis S, Hauth J. 2003; What we have learned about preeclampsia. Semin Perinatol 27(3):239–246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Villar J, Merialdi M, Gulmezoglu AM, Abalos E, Carroli G, Kulier R et al. 2003; Nutritional interventions during pregnancy for the prevention or treatment of maternal morbidity and preterm delivery: an overview of randomized controlled trials. J Nutr 133(5 Suppl 2):1606S–1625S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Multicenter survey of diabetic pregnancy in France. Gestation and Diabetes in France Study Group. Diabetes Care 1991; 14(11):994–1000.Google Scholar
  253. 253.
    Amini SB, Catalano PM, Dierker LJ, Mann LI. 1996; Births to teenagers: trends and obstetric outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 87(5, Part 1):668–674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Bell JS, Campbell DM, Graham WJ, Penney GC, Ryan M, Hall MH. 2001; Can obstetric complications explain the high levels of obstetric interventions and maternity service use among older women? A retrospective analysis of routinely collected data. BJOG 108(9):910–918.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Read AW, Prendiville WJ, Dawes VP, Stanley FJ. 1994; Cesarean section and operative vaginal delivery in low-risk primiparous women, Western Australia. Am J Public Health 84(1):37–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Franko DL, Blais MA, Becker AE, Delinsky SS, Greenwood DN, Flores AT . et al. 2001; Pregnancy complications and neonatal outcomes in women with eating disorders. Am J Psychiatry 158(9):1461–1466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Golan A, Langer R, Neuman M, Wexler S, Segev E, David MP. 1992; Obstetric outcome in women with congenital uterine malformations. J Reprod Med 37(3):233–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Johnson JW, Longmate JA, Frentzen B. 1992; Excessive maternal weight and pregnancy outcome. Am J Obstet Gynecol 167(2):353–370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    McCord C, Premkumar R, Arole S, Arole R. 2001; Efficient and effective emergency obstetric care in a rural Indian community where most deliveries are at home. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 75(3):297–307.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Shy K, Kimpo C, Emanuel I, Leisenring W, Williams MA. 2000; Maternal birth weight and cesarean delivery in four race-ethnic groups. Am J Obstet Gynecol 182(6):1363–1370.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Iyasu S, Saftlas AK, Rowley DL, Koonin LM, Lawson HW, Atrash HK. 1993; The epidemiology of placenta previa in the United States, 1979 through 1987. Am J Obstet Gynecol 168(5):1424–1429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Sheiner E, Shoham-Vardi I, Hershkovitz R, Katz M, Mazor M. 2001; Infertility treatment is an independent risk factor for cesarean section among nulliparous women aged 40 and above. Am J Obstet Gynecol 185(4):888–892.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Gregory KD, Korst LM, Krychman M, Cane P, Platt LD. 2001; Variation in vaginal breech delivery rates by hospital type. Obstet Gynecol 97(3):385–390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Garcia FA, Miller HB, Huggins GR, Gordon TA. 2001; Effect of academic affiliation and obstetric volume on clinical outcome and cost of childbirth. Obstet Gynecol 97(4):567–576.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Gould JB, Qin C, Marks AR, Chavez G. 2003; Neonatal mortality in weekend vs weekday births. JAMA 289(22):2958–2962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Curtin SC, Park MM. 1999; Trends in the attendant, place, and timing of births, and in the use of obstetric interventions: United States, 1989–97. Natl Vital Stat Rep 47(27):1–12.Google Scholar
  267. 267.
    Janssen PA, Lee SK, Ryan EM, Etches DJ, Farquharson DF, Peacock D . et al. 2002; Outcomes of planned home births versus planned hospital births after regulation of midwifery in British Columbia. CMAJ 166(3):315–323.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Sandmire HF, DeMott RK. 1996; The Green Bay cesarean section study. IV. The physician factor as a determinant of cesarean birth rates for the large fetus. Am J Obstet Gynecol 174(5):1557–1564.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Seyb ST, Berka RJ, Socol ML, Dooley SL. 1999; Risk of cesarean delivery with elective induction of labor at term in nulliparous women. Obstet Gynecol 94(4):600–607.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Maslow AS, Sweeny AL. 2000; Elective induction of labor as a risk factor for cesarean delivery among low-risk women at term. Obstet Gynecol 95(6, Part 1):917–922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Pajulo M, Savonlahti E, Sourander A, Helenius H, Piha J. 2001; Antenatal depression, substance dependency and social support. J Affect Disord 65(1):9–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Josefsson A, Berg G, Nordin C, Sydsjo G. 2001; Prevalence of depressive symptoms in late pregnancy and postpartum. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 80(3):251–255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Johanson R, Chapman G, Murray D, Johnson I, Cox J. 2000; The North Staffordshire Maternity Hospital prospective study of pregnancy-associated depression. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 21(2):93–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Fisch RZ, Tadmor OP, Dankner R, Diamant YZ. 1997; Postnatal depression: a prospective study of its prevalence, incidence and psychosocial determinants in an Israeli sample. J Obstet Gynaecol Res 23(6):547–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Lee D, Yip A, Chiu H, Leung T, Chung T. 2001; A psychiatric epidemiological study of postpartum Chinese women. Am J Psychiatry 158(2):220–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Stamp GE, Crowther CA. 1994; Postnatal depression: a South Australian prospective survey. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 34(2):164–167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Georgiopoulos AM, Bryan TL, Yawn BP, Houston MS, Rummans TA, Therneau TM. 1999; Population-based screening for postpartum depression. Obstet Gynecol 93(5, Part 1):653–657.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Chandran M, Tharyan P, Muliyil J, Abraham S. 2002; Post-partum depression in a cohort of women from a rural area of Tamil Nadu, India. Incidence and risk factors. Br J Psychiatry 181:499–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Righetti-Veltema M, Conne-Perreard E, Bousquet A, Manzano J. 2002; Postpartum depression and mother-infant relationship at 3 months old. J Affect Disord 70(3):291–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Chaaya M, Campbell OM, El Kak F, Shaar D, Harb H, Kaddour A. 2002; Postpartum depression: prevalence and determinants in Lebanon. Arch Women Ment Health 5(2):65–72.Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Chaudron LH, Klein MH, Remington P, Palta M, Allen C, Essex MJ. 2001; Predictors, prodromes and incidence of postpartum depression. J Psychosom Obstet Gynaecol 22(2):103–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Nielsen FD, Videbech P, Hedegaard M, Dalby SJ, Secher NJ. 2000; Postpartum depression: identification of women at risk. BJOG 107(10):1210–1217.Google Scholar
  283. 283.
    Bryan TL, Georgiopoulos AM, Harms RW, Huxsahl JE, Larson DR, Yawn BP. 1999; Incidence of postpartum depression in Olmsted County, Minnesota. A population-based, retrospective study. J Reprod Med 44(4):351–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Morris-Rush JK, Freda MC, Bernstein PS. 2003; Screening for postpartum depression in an inner-city population. Am J Obstet Gynecol 188(5):1217–1219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Patel V, Rodrigues M, DeSouza N. 2002; Gender, poverty, and postnatal depression: a study of mothers in Goa, India. Am J Psychiatry 159(1):43–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Warner R, Appleby L, Whitton A, Faragher B. 1996; Demographic and obstetric risk factors for postnatal psychiatric morbidity. Br J Psychiatry 168(5):607–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Kuijpens JL, Vader HL, Drexhage HA, Wiersinga WM, van Son MJ, Pop VJ. 2001; Thyroid peroxidase antibodies during gestation are a marker for subsequent depression postpartum. Eur J Endocrinol 145(5):579–584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Carter AS, Baker CW, Brownell KD. 2000; Body mass index, eating attitudes, and symptoms of depression and anxiety in pregnancy and the postpartum period. Psychosom Med 62(2):264–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Hibbeln JR. 2002; Seafood consumption, the DHA content of mothers’ milk and prevalence rates of postpartum depression: a cross-national, ecological analysis. J Affect Disord 69(1–3):15–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.AtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations