Advertisement

Hate Crimes Directed at Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgendered Victims

  • Jack McDevitt
  • Jennifer Williamson

Abstract

Globally, violent crimes committed against groups of people based on their “difference” have been occurring since biblical times. Perhaps the most egregious example to date has been the Holocaust, where six million Jews were killed by the Nazis and their collaborators. Other groups were also targeted by the Nazis, including 10,000 to 15,000 homosexual men who were arrested between 1933 and 1945 and deported to concentration camps (Hamm 1994; Comstock 1991). It is alarming to note that the voices of xenophobia and racism are once again reverberating throughout German society. “The resentment associated with hate crimes can be clearly seen in a sweeping new wave of violence the largest spree of racial violence in Germany since the early days of Nazism” (Levin and McDevitt 1993a:149).

Keywords

Sexual Orientation Hate Crime Amnesty International Bias Crime Hate Crime Statute 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amnesty International USA. (1994). Breaking the Silence: Human Rights Violations Based on Sexual Orientation. New York: Amnesty International Publications.Google Scholar
  2. Comstock, Gary David. (1991). Violence against Lesbians and Gay Men. New York, Oxford: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Dedham, Bill. (1999. July 6). Midwest Gunman Had Engaged in Racist Acts at Two Universities. New York Times, Section A, p. 1, Col. 4.Google Scholar
  4. Federal Bureau of Investigations. (1998). Crime in the United States. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  5. Federal Bureau of Investigations. (1999). Uniform Crime Reports: Hate Crime Reporting Statistics. Washington, DC: Federal Bureau of Investigation.Google Scholar
  6. Franklin, Karen. (1998). Psychological Motivations of Hate Crime Perpetrators: Implications for Educational Interventions. Unpublished Paper. Annual Conference of American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  7. Garcia, Luis, Jack McDevitt, Joann Gu, & Jennifer Balboni. (1999). The Psychological and Behavioral Effects of Bias and Non-Bias-Motivated Assault. Washington, D.C.: Final Report submitted to The National Institute of Justice.Google Scholar
  8. Hamm, Mark S. (Ed.) (1994). Hate Crime: International Perspectives on Causes and Control. Cleveland: Anderson Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  9. Hamner, Karl M. (1992). Gay-Bashing: A Social Identity Analysis of Violence against Lesbians and Gay Men. In Gregory M. Herek & Kevin T. Berrill (Eds.), Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence against Lesbians and Gay Men (pp. 179–190). Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  10. Herek, Gregory M. (1992). Psychological Heterosexism and Anti-Gay Violence: The Social Psychology of Bigotry and Bashing. In Gregory M. Herek & Kevin T. Berrill (Eds.), Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence against Lesbians and Gay Men (pp. 149–169). Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  11. Herek, Gregory M., & Kevin T. Berrill (Eds.) (1992). Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence against Lesbians and Gay Men. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
  12. Herek, Gregory M., Jeanine Cogan, J. Roy Gillis, & Erick Glunt. (1998). Correlates of Internalized Homophobia in a Community Sample of Lesbians and Gay Men. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Medical Association, 2(1), 17–25.Google Scholar
  13. Horowitz, Mardi, Nancy Wilner, & William Alvarez. (1979). Impact of Events Scale: A Measure of Subjective Stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 41(3), 209–218.Google Scholar
  14. Jacobs, James, & Kimberley Potter. (1998). Hate Crimes: Criminal Law and Identity Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Levin, Jack, & Jack McDevitt. (1993a). Hate Crimes: The Rising Tide of Bigotry and Bloodshed. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  16. Levin, Jack, & Jack McDevitt. (1993b). Hate Crimes: The Study of Offender Motivation. Report Submitted to the Center for Criminal Justice Policy Research. Boston: Northeastern University Boston Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  17. McDevitt, Jack. (1989). Characteristics of Bias-Motivated Incidents in Boston, 1983–1989. Report Submitted to the Boston Police Department. Boston: Northeastern University Boston Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  18. National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (NCAVP). (2000). Anti-Lesbian, Gay, Transgender and Bisexual Violence in 1999. Preliminary Edition 2000. New York. [URL: http://www.tri.org/99NCAVP.pdf]Google Scholar
  19. Onken, Steven J. (1998). Conceptualizing Violence against Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, Intersexual and Transgendered People. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 8(3), 5–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Reno, Janet. (1998). United States Attorney, Correspondence. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Justice. [URL: http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bja/html/reno.htm]Google Scholar
  21. Sloan, Lacey M., & Nora S. Gustaysson (Eds.) (1998). Violence and Social Injustice against Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual People. New York: The Haworth Press.Google Scholar
  22. Southern Poverty Law Center. (2000). The Intelligence Report: The Decade in Review. Montgomery, AL: Southern Poverty Law Center Montegomery Alabama.Google Scholar
  23. United States Department of Education. (1998). Safe and Drug Free Schools, Preventing Youth Hate Crime: A Manual for Schools and Communities. Washington, D.C.: Department of Education, U.S. Government.Google Scholar
  24. Wang, Lu-In. (1999). The Complexities of ‘Hate’. Ohio State Law Journal, 60(3), 799–900.Google Scholar
  25. Wessler, Stephen. (2000). Addressing Hate Crimes: Six Initiatives that Are Enhancing the Efforts of Criminal Justice Practitioners. Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jack McDevitt
  • Jennifer Williamson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations