Advertisement

Natural and Technological Disasters

  • Daya Somasundaram
  • Fran H. Norris
  • Nozomu Asukai
  • R. Srinivasa Murthy
Part of the International and Cultural Psychology Series book series (ICUP)

Abstract

Disasters are very common. Worldwide, earthquakes, floods, cyclones, landslides, technological accidents, and urban fires occur daily. They tend to occur suddenly, without much warning, and cause massive destruction, sometimes killing or injuring large numbers of people within a short time. In 1999 alone, natural disasters killed over 60,000 people in Turkey, 10,000 people in India, and 25,000 people in Venezuela (United Nations General Assembly Economic and Social Council [UNGAESC], 2000). Disasters disproportionately strike the poor, socially deprived, and marginalized, and their consequences may be more serious and long-lasting in these groups. Similarly, disasters affect developing nations more adversely than developed nations. However, these groups and nations may have the fewest resources or facilities to cope with the aftermath of disasters.

Keywords

Mental Health Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Traumatic Stress Crisis Intervention Disaster Preparedness 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Armstrong, K., O’Callahan, W., & Marmar, C. (1991). Debriefing Red Cross disaster personnel: The Multiple Stressor Debriefing Model. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 4, 581–594.Google Scholar
  2. Baum, A. (1987). Toxins, technology, and natural disasters. In G. Vanden Bos & B. Bryant (Eds.), Cataclysms, crises, and catastrophes: Psychology in action (pp. 9–51). Washington, DC: APA.Google Scholar
  3. Baum, A., Fleming, R., & Davidson, L. (1983). Natural disasters and technological catastrophe. Environment and Behavior, 15, 333–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bolin, R. (1985). Disaster characteristics and psychosocial impacts. In B. Sowder (Ed.), Disasters and Mental Health: Selected Contemporary Perspectives (pp. 3–28). Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health.Google Scholar
  5. Bromet, E. (1995). Methodological issues in designing research on community-wide disasters with special reference to Chernobyl. In S. Hobfoll & M. De Vries (Eds.), Extreme stress and communities: Impact and intervention (pp. 307–324). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  6. Burkle, F. Bolton, P., & Watson, P. (2001). Disaster-related mental health interventions: Review of the published literature. White River Junction, VT: National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.Google Scholar
  7. Caplan, G. (1964). Principles of preventive psychiatry. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  8. Cohen, R. (1985). Crisis counseling principles and services. In M. Lystad (Ed.), Innovations in mental health services to disaster victims (pp. 151–160). Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health.Google Scholar
  9. Danieli, Y., Rodley, N., & Weisaeth, L. (Eds.) (1996). International responses to traumatic stress: Humanitarian, human rights, justice, peace and development contributions, collaborative actions, and future initiatives. Amityville, New York: Baywood Publishing.Google Scholar
  10. De Girolamo, G., & McFarlane, A. (1996). The epidemiology of PTSD: A comprehensive review of the international literature. In A. Marsella, M. Friedman, E. Gerrity, & R. Scurfield (Eds.), Ethnocultural aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder: Issues, research, and clinical applications (pp. 33–86). Washington, D.C.: APA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. De Jong, J. (1995). Prevention of the consequences of man-made or natural disaster at the international, the community, the family, and the individual level. In S. Hobfoll & M. De Vries (Eds.), Extreme stress and communities: Impact and intervention (pp. 207–227). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  12. De Jong, J., & Clark, L. (1992). WHO/UNHCR Mental health training manual. WHO: Geneva.Google Scholar
  13. De La Fuente, R. (1990). The mental health consequences of the 1985 earthquakes in Mexico. International journal of Mental Health, 19, 21–29.Google Scholar
  14. De Vries, M. (1995). Culture, community and catastrophe: Issues in understanding communities under difficult conditions. In S. Hobfoll & M. De Vries (Eds.), Extreme stress and communities: Impact and intervention (pp. 375–393). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  15. Edelstein, M.R. (1988). Contaminated communities: The social and psychological impacts of residential toxic exposure. Boulder, CO: Westview.Google Scholar
  16. Ellsworth, P. (1994). Sense, culture, and sensibility. In S. Kitayama & H. Markus (Eds.), Emotion and culture: Empirical studies of mutual influence (pp. 23–50). Washington, D.C.: American Psychologcial Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ersland, S., Weisaeth, L., & Sund, A. (1989). The stress upon rescuers involved in an oil rig disaster. “Alexander L. Kielland” 1980. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, 80, 38–49.Google Scholar
  18. Faberow, N. (1978). Training manual for human service workers in major disasters. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office (DHEW Publication No. ADM 77-538).Google Scholar
  19. Faupel, C., Kelley, S., & Petee, T. (1992). The impact of disaster education on household preparedness for Hurricane Hugo. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 10, 5–24.Google Scholar
  20. Figley, C., Giel, R., Borgo, S., Briggs, S., & Haritos-Faturos, M. (1995). Prevention and treatment of community stress. In S. Hobfoll & M. De Vries (Eds.), Extreme stress and communities: Impact and intervention (pp. 489–497). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.Google Scholar
  21. Freedy, J., Resnick, H., & Kilpatrick, D. (1992). Conceptual framework for evaluating disaster impact: Implications for clinical intervention. In L. Austin (Ed.), Responding to disaster: A guide for mental health professionals (pp. 3–23). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  22. Freedy, J., Shaw, D., Jarrell, M., & Masters, C. (1992). Towards an understanding of the psychological impact of natural disasters: An application of the Conservation Resources stress model. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 5, 441–454.Google Scholar
  23. Gibbs, L. (1982). Community response to an emergency situation: Psychological destruction and the Love Canal. American Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 116–125.Google Scholar
  24. Gist, R., & Lubin, B. (1999). Response to disaster: Psychosocial, community and ecological approaches. New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  25. Gist, R., & Stolz, S.B. (1982). Mental health promotion and the media: Community response to the Kansas City hotel disaster. American Psychologist, 37, 1136–1139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gleser, G., Green, B., & Winget, C. (1981). Prolonged psychosocial effects of disaster: A study of Buffalo Creek. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  27. Green, B. (1982). Assessing levels of psychological impairment following disaster: Consideration of actual and methodological dimensions. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 170, 544–552.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Green, B., Korol, M., Grace, M., Vary, M., Leonard, A., Gleser, G., & Smitson-Cohen, S. (1991). Children and disaster: Age, gender, and parental effects on PTSD symptoms. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 945–951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Green, B., & Solomon, S.D. (1995). The mental health impact of natural and technological disasters. In J. Freedy & S. Hobfoll (Eds.), Traumatic stress: From theory to practice (pp. 163–180). NY: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  30. Guamaccia, P., Canino, G., Rubio-Stipec, M., & Bravo, M. (1993). The prevalence of ataques de nervios in the Puerto Rico disaster study. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 181, 157–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Harvey, M. (1996). An ecological view of psychological trauma and trauma recovery. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 9, 3–23.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Hough, R., Canino, G., Abueg, F., & Gusman, F. (1996). PTSD and related stress disorders among Hispanics. In A. Marsella, M. Friedman, E. Gerrity, & R. Scurfield (Eds.), Ethnocultural aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder: Issues, research, and clinical applications (pp. 301–340). Washington, D.C.: APA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Inamoto, E., & Konishi, T. (2000, November). The psychological response of residents in the aftermath of the radiation accident at Tokai-Mura, Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, San Antonio, Texas.Google Scholar
  34. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (1999). World disaster report. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff.Google Scholar
  35. International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (2002). World disasters report 2002. Bloomfield, CT: Kumarian Press, Inc.Google Scholar
  36. Jenkins, J. (1996). Culture, emotion, and PTSD. In A. Marsella, M. Friedman, E. Gerrity, & R. Scurfield (Eds.), Ethnocultural aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder: Issues, research, and clinical applications (pp. 165–182). Washington, D.C.: APA.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kaniasty, K., & Norris, F. (1995). In search of altruistic community: Patterns of social support mobilization following Hurricane Hugo. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23, 447–477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kaniasty, K.,& Norris, F. (1997). Social support dynamics in adjustment to disasters. In S. Duck (Ed.), Handbook of personal relationships (2nd edition) (pp. 595–619). London, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  39. Kaniasty, K., & Noms, F. (1999). Individuals and communities sharing trauma: Unpacking the experience of disaster, in R. Gist & B. Lubin (Eds.), Psychosocial, ecological, and community approaches to understanding disaster (pp. 25–62). London: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  40. Kirmayer, L. (1996). Confusion of the senses: Implications of ethnocultural variations in somato form and dissociative disorders for PTSD. In A. Marsella, M. Friedman, E. Gerrity, & R. Scurfield (Eds.), Ethnocultural aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder: Issues, research, and clinical applications (pp. 165–182). Washington, D.C.: APA.Google Scholar
  41. Kroll-Smith, J.S., & Couch, S. (1993). Technological hazards: Social responses as traumatic Stressors. In J.P. Wilson & B. Raphael (Eds.), International handbook of traumatic stress syndromes (pp. 79–91). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  42. La Greca, A., Silverman, W., Vemberg, E., & Prinstein, M. (1996). Symptoms of posttraumatic stress in children after Hurricane Andrew: A prospective study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 712–723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mitchell, J. (1983). When disaster strikes … The critical incident stress debriefing process. journal of Emergency Medical Services, 8, 36–39.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Mulilis, J., & Duval, S. (1995). Negative threat appeals and earthquake preparedness: A person-relative-to-event (PrE) model of coping with threat. journal of Applied Social Psychology, 25, 1319–1339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mulilis, J., & Lippa, R. (1990). Behavioral change in earthquake preparedness due to negative threat appeals: A test of protection motivation theory. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 619–638.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Murphy, S. (1985). Health and recovery status of victims one and three years following a natural disaster. In C. Figley (Ed.), Trauma and its wake, Vol II. (pp. 155). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  47. Myers, D. (1989). Mental health and disasters: Preventive approaches to intervention. In R. Gist & B. Lubin (Eds.), Psychosocial aspects of disaster (pp. 190–228). New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  48. Norris, F., Kaniasty, K., Inman, G., Conrad, L., & Murphy, A. (2002). Placing age differences in cultural context: A comparison of the effects of age on PTSD after disasters in the U.S., Mexico, and Poland. Journal of Clinical Geropsychology, 8, 153–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Norris, F. & Murrell, S. (1988). Prior experience as a moderator of disaster impact on anxiety symptoms in older adults. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 665–683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Norris, F., Perilla, J., Ibanez, G., & Murphy, A. (2001). Sex differences in symptoms of PTSD: Does culture play a role? Journal of Traumatic Stress, 14, 2001.Google Scholar
  51. Norris, F., Smith, T., & Kaniasty, K. (1999). Revisiting the experience-behavior hypothesis: The effects of Hurricane Hugo on hazard preparedness and other self-protective acts. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 21, 37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. North, C., Nixon, S., Shariat, S., Mallonee, S., McMillan, J., Spitznagel, E., & Smith, E. (1999). Psychiatric disorders among survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing. Journal of the American Medical Association, 282, 755–762.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Palinkas, L., Russell, J., Downs, M., & Peterson, J. (1992). Ethnic differences in stress, coping, and depressive symptoms after the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 180, 287–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Perilla, J., Norris, F., & Lavizzo, E. (2002). Identifying and explaining ethnic differences in PTSD six months after Hurricane Andrew. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 21, 28–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Phifer, J., & Norris, F. (1989). Psychological symptoms in older adults following natural disaster: Nature, timing, duration, and course. Journal of Gerontology, 44, 207–217.Google Scholar
  56. Quarantelli, E. (1985). Social support systems: Some behavioral patterns in the context of mass evacuation activities. In B. Sowder (Ed.), Disasters and mental health: Selected contemporary perspectives (pp. 122–136). Rockville, MD: National Institute of Mental Health.Google Scholar
  57. Quarantelli, E. (1994). Future disaster trends and policy implications for developing countries. Newark, DE: Disaster Research Center.Google Scholar
  58. Riad, J., Norris, F., & Ruback, B. (1999). Predicting evacuation following two major disasters: The roles of risk perceptions, social influence, and resources. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 918–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rochford, B. & Blocker, T. (1991). Coping with “natural” hazards as Stressors. Environment and Behavior, 23, 171–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Seroka, C.M., Knapp, C., Knight, S., Siemon, C.R., & Starbuck, S. (1986). A comprehensive program for postdisaster counseling. Social Casework: The journal of Contemporary Social Work, 67, 37–45.Google Scholar
  61. Shannon, M., Lonigan, C., Finch, A., & Taylor, C. (1994). Children exposed to disaster: I. Epidemiology of post-traumatic symptoms and symptom profiles. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33, 80–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Shore, J., Tatum, E., & Vollmer, W. (1986). Evaluation of mental effects of disaster, Mount St. Helens Eruption. American journal of Public Health, 76, 76–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Smith, E., Robins, L., Przybeck, T., Goldring, E., & Solomon, S. (1986). Psychosocial consequences of a disaster. In J. Shore (Ed.), Disaster stress studies: New methods and findings (pp. 49–76). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  64. Solomon, S.D., Bravo, M., Rubio-Stipec, M., & Canino, G. (1993). Effect of family role on response to disaster. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 6, 255–269.Google Scholar
  65. Steinglass, P., & Gerrity, E. (1990). Natural disasters and post-traumatic stress disorder: Short-term versus long-term recovery in two disaster affected communities. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 1746–1765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (1994). Disaster response and recovery: A handbook for mental health professionals. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  67. Thompson, M., Norris, F., & Hanacek, B. (1993). Age differences in the psychological consequences of Hurricane Hugo. Psychology and Aging, 8, 606–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. United Nations General Assembly Economic and Social Council (2000). Strengthening of the coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance of the United Nations. New York: Authors.Google Scholar
  69. Ursano, R., & McCarroll, J. (1994). Exposure to traumatic death: The nature of the Stressor. In R. Ursano, B. McCaughey, & C. Fullerton (Eds.), Individual and community responses to trauma and disaster: The structure of human chaos (pp. 46–71). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Van Den Eynde, J., & Veno, A. (1999). Coping with disastrous events: An empowerment model of community healing. In R. Gist & B. Lubin (Eds.), Response to disaster: Psychological, community, and ecological approaches (pp. 167–192). Philadelphia, PA: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  71. Weisaeth, L. (1994). Psychological and psychiatric aspects of technological disasters. In R. Ursano, B. McCaughey, & C. Fullerton (Eds.), Individual and community responses to trauma and disaster: The structure of human chaos (pp. 72–102). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  72. Wierzbicka, A. (1994). Emotion, language, and cultural scripts. In S. Kitayama & H. Markus (Eds.), Emotion and culture: Empirical studies of mutual influence (pp. 133–196). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daya Somasundaram
  • Fran H. Norris
  • Nozomu Asukai
  • R. Srinivasa Murthy

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations