INTEGRATED CIRCUITS (ICs) are simply circuits whose components are formed simultaneously on a single piece of semiconducting material. Instead of wiring together the discrete components of a circuit — such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes and transistors — the IC designer arranges for them to be produced and electrically interconnected as a single ‘chip’. There are many advantages in so doing: the devices need no packaging, the interconnections and spacing between components can be very small (usually a few µm) and their small size means they can be mass produced in very large quantities very cheaply. In addition, the simultaneous formation of transistors in ICs means they are naturally closely matched, leading to improved circuit performance for all types of application
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.