Advertisement

Social Location of the Reformation

  • R. W. Scribner
  • C. Scott Dixon
Chapter
  • 23 Downloads
Part of the Studies in European History book series (SEURH)

Abstract

We are now well accustomed to asking about the social composition of such movements of change, and this chapter will provide a brief sociology of the reform movement. To say that it found adherents among all social groups is an unhelpful truism. What we need to know for an adequate sociology is whether its adherents were drawn disproportionately from one social group or another, and whether there were significant differences in how each group understood its message. We should also examine any differences between leaders and followers, and whether there was any differential appeal in terms of age, gender, occupation or profession and wealth. We should also ask questions about different degrees of participation: were some people only lightly touched by its message, as opposed to more fervent adherents? Were different categories of adherents characterised by different forms of behaviour? Can we draw any significant distinction between active or passive adherents? At this stage of the research, it is difficult to provide firm answers to all these questions (see 55), but we now have enough case-studies to risk a crude sketch.

Keywords

Reform Movement Town Council Christian Life Firm Answer City Secretary 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Select Bibliography

  1. [54]
    T. A. Brady, Ruling Class, Regime and Reformation at Strasbourg 1520–1555 (Leiden, 1978). Study of socio-economic influence on urban reform, underpinned by excellent analysis of social and political system in Strasbourg.Google Scholar
  2. [55]
    T. A. Brady, ‘Social History’, in [5]. Overview of tasks for social historical study of reform movements.Google Scholar
  3. [56]
    P. Broadhead, ‘Politics and Expediency in the Augsburg Reformation’, in [124]. This and following item show importance of political calculation in urban Reformation.Google Scholar
  4. [57]
    P. Broadhead, ‘Popular Pressure for Reform in Augsburg, 1524–1534’, in [127].Google Scholar
  5. [58]
    M. U. Chrisman, Strasbourg and the Reform (New Haven, 1967). First of the current wave of works on the urban Reformation.Google Scholar
  6. [59]
    M. U. Chrisman, ‘Women and the Reformation in Strasbourg 1490–1530’, Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte, LXIII (1972), 143–67. First careful examination of the role of women in Reformation not just concerned with ‘famous women’.Google Scholar
  7. [60]
    H. J. Grimm, Lazarus Spengler. A Lay Leader of the Reformation (Columbus, Ohio, 1978). Rewarding biography of a central figure of the Nuremberg Reformation.Google Scholar
  8. [61]
    H. J. Hillerbrand, ‘The Reformation and the German Peasants’ War’, in [125]. Argues that religion played only a minor role in peasant grievances.Google Scholar
  9. [62]
    J. Irwin, ‘Society and the Sexes’, in [5]. Useful survey of the rather sparse work on the role of women in the Reformation. Shows how much work is still to be done.Google Scholar
  10. [63]
    S. Karant-Nunn, Luther’s Pastors: the Reformation in the Ernestine Countryside, Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 69 (1979). Examines effectiveness of Lutheranism in rural areas through investigation of the ministers implementing reform.Google Scholar
  11. [64]
    B. Moeller, ‘The German Humanists and the Beginning of the Reformation’, in [65]. First published 1965, argues for importance of humanists for initial reception of the Reformation.Google Scholar
  12. [65]
    B. Moeller, Imperial Cities and the Reformation (Philadelphia, 1972). Classic essay from 1962 which set off current discussion of the social dimension of Reformation. Here with other important essays by same author, see [14], [64].Google Scholar
  13. [66]
    R. W. Scribner, ‘Civic Unity and the Reformation in Erfurt’, Past and Present, 66 (1975), 29–60. Examines importance of social conflict in fate of the Reformation in a major European town; critical of Moeller [65] for underestimating social conflict.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [67]
    R. W. Scribner, ‘Memorandum on the Appointment of a Preacher in Spever, 1538’, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, XLVIII (1975), 248–55. Why Reformation was postponed in Speyer for economic and political reasons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [68]
    R. W. Scribner, ‘Why was there no Reformation in Cologne?’, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, XLIX (1976), 217–41. Social and political pressures, internal and external, which prevented growth of a reform movement.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [69]
    R. W. Scribner, ‘Reformation, Carnival and the World Turned Upside-down’, Social History, III (1977), 303–29. Use of carnival and popular culture to spread Reformation.Google Scholar
  17. [70]
    J. C. Stalnaker, ‘Residenzstadt und Reformation: Religion, Politics and Social Policy in Hesse, 1509–46’, Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte, LXIV (1973), 113–46. One of the few studies of a residence-town outside south Germany (Marburg) examining socio-political dimensions of reform.Google Scholar
  18. [71]
    V. Press, ‘Adel, Reich und Reformation’ in [127]. Excellent overview of response of nobility to Reformation in sixteenth century; with English summary.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© R. W. Scribner 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. W. Scribner
  • C. Scott Dixon

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations