Mitochondrial Encephalopathy and Transient 3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria in ECHS1 Deficiency: Long-Term Follow-Up
We report the major diagnostic challenge in a female patient with signs and symptoms suggestive of an early-onset mitochondrial encephalopathy. Motor and cognitive development was severely delayed and brain MRI showed signal abnormalities in the putamen and caudate nuclei. Metabolic abnormalities included 3-methylglutaconic aciduria and elevated lactate levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid, but were transient. Whole exome sequencing at the age of 25 years finally revealed compound heterozygous mutations c.[229G>C];[563C>T], p.[Glu77Gln];[Ala188Val] in the ECHS1 gene. Activity of short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase, a mitochondrial enzyme encoded by the ECHS1 gene, was markedly decreased in lymphocytes. Retrospective urine analysis confirms that elevated levels of S-(2-carboxypropyl)cysteamine, S-(2-carboxypropyl)cysteine, and N-acetyl-S-(2-carboxypropyl)cysteine can be a diagnostic clue in the disease spectrum of ECHS1 mutations.
Keywords3-Methylglutaconic aciduria Developmental disorders ECHS1 Mitochondrial disorders MRI Whole exome sequencing
We thank Dr. Alberto Burlina (University of Padua, Italy) for providing a urine sample from a previously reported ECHS1 case for comparison.