Advertisement

Advances in Surgical Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation

  • L. Patanè
  • A. Cavallaro
Conference paper

Keywords

Atrial Fibrillation Mitral Valve Pulmonary Vein Pulmonary Vein Isolation Chronic Atrial Fibrillation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Nattel S (2002) New ideas about atrial fibrillation 50 years on. Nature 415:219–226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kannel WB, Abbott RD, Savage DD et al (1982) Epidemiologic features of chronic atrial fibrillation: the Framingham study. N Engl J Med 306:1018–1022PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Benjamin EJ, Wolf PA, D’Agostino RB et al (1998) Impact of atrial fibrillation on the risk of death. The Framingham study. Circulation 98:946–952PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Falk RH (2001) Atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med 344:1067–1078PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ezekowitz MD, Netrebko PI (2003) Anticoagulation in management of atrial fibrillation. Curr Opin Cardiol 18:26–31PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Obaida JF, El Farra M, Bastien OH et al (1997) Outcome of atrial fibrillation after mitral valve repair. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 114:179–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fuster V, Ryden LE, Asinger RW et al (2001) ACC/AHA/ESC guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines and Policy Conferences (Committee to develop guidelines for the management of patients with atrial fibrillation) developed in collaboration with the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Eur Heart J 22:1852–1923PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Moe GK, Rheinboldt WC, Abildskov JA (1964) A computer model of atrial fibrillation. Am Heart J 67:200–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Moe GK (1962) On the multiple wavelet hypothesis of atrial fibrillation. Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther 140:183–188Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wijffels MC, Kirchhof CJ, Dorland R et al (1995) Atrial fibrillation begets atrial fibrillation. A study in awake chronically instrumented goats. Circulation 92:1954–1968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cox JL (2003) Atrial fibrillation I: a new classification system. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 126:1686–1692PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mandapati R, Skanes A, Chen J et al (2000) Stable microreentrant sources as a mechanism of atrial fibrillation in the isolated sheep heart. Circulation 101:194–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mansour M, Mandapati R, Berenfeld O et al (2001) Left-to-right gradient of atrial frequencies during acute atrial fibrillation in the isolated sheep heart. Circulation 103:2631–2636PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Haïssaguerre M, Jaïs P, Shah DC et al (1998) Spontaneous initiation of atrial fibrillation by ectopic beats originating in the pulmonary veins. N Engl J Med 339:659–666PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li D, Zhang L, Kneller J et al (2001) Potential ionic mechanism for repolarization differences between canine right and left atrium. Circ Res 88:1168–1175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harada A, Sasaki K, Fukushima T et al (1996) Atrial activation during chronic atrial fibrillation in patients with isolated mitral valve disease. Ann Thorac Surg 61:104–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Nitta T, Imura H, Bessho R et al (1999) Wavelength and conduction inhomogeneity in each atrium in patients with isolated mitral valve disease and atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 10:521–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lundstrom T, Ryden L (1988) Chronic atrial fibrillation. Long-term results of direct current conversion. Acta Med Scand 223:53–59PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Connolly SJ (2003) Preventing stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation: current treatments and new concepts. Am Heart J 145:418–423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cox JL, Schuessler RB, Boineau JP (2000) The development of the Maze procedure for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 12:2–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cox JL, Boineau JP, Schuessler RB et al (1995) Electrophysiologic basis, surgical development, and clinical results of the maze procedure for atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation. Adv Card Surg 6:1–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cox JL, Jaquiss RD, Schuessler RB, Boineau JP (1995) Modification of the maze procedure for atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation. II. Surgical technique of the maze III procedure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 110:485–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cox JL, Schuessler RB, D’Agostino HJ Jr et al (1991) The surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation. III. Development of a definitive surgical procedure. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 101:569–583PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cox JL, Ad N, Palazzo T et al (2000) Current status of the Maze procedure for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 12:15–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    McCarthy PM, Gillinov AM, Castle L et al (2000) The Cox-Maze procedure: the Cleveland Clinic experience. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 12:25–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    McCarthy PM, Castle LW, Maloney JD et al (1993) Initial experience with the maze procedure for atrial fibrillation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 105:1077–1087PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schaff HV, Dearani JA, Daly RC et al (2000) Cox-Maze procedure for atrial fibrillation: Mayo Clinic experience. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 12:30–37PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kosakai Y, Kawaguci AT, Isobe F et al (1995) Modified maze procedure for patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing simultaneous open heart surgery. Circulation 92(9 Suppl):II359–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kress DC, Krum D, Chekanov V et al (2002) Validation of a left atrial lesion pattern for intraoperative ablation of atrial fibrillation. Ann Thorac Surg 73:1160–1168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cox JL, Ad N (2000) New surgical and catheter-based modifications of the Maze procedure. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 12:68–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cox JL, Ad N (2000) The importance of cryoablation of the coronary sinus during the Maze procedure. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 12:20–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Benussi S, Pappone C, Nascimbene S et al (2000) A simple way to treat chronic atrial fibrillation during mitral valve surgery: the epicardial radiofrequency approach. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 17:524–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gillinov AM, Blackstone EH, McCarthy PM (2002) Atrial fibrillation: current surgical options and their assessment. Ann Thorac Surg 74:2210–2217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Williams MR, Stewart JR, Bolling SF et al (2001) Surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation using radiofrequency energy. Ann Thorac Surg 71:1939–1944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Haïssaguerre M, Jaïs P, Shah DC et al (1996) Right and left atrial radiofrequency catheter therapy of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 7:1132–1144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Roithinger FX, Steiner PR, Goseki Y et al (1999) Electrophysiologic effects of selective right versus left atrial linear lesions in a canine model of chronic atrial fibrillation. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 10:1564–1574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chen SA, Hsieh MH, Tai CT et al (1999) Initiation of atrial fibrillation by ectopic beats originating from the pulmonary veins: electrophysiological characteristics, pharmacological responses, and effects of radiofrequency ablation. Circulation 100:1879–1886PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gaita F, Riccardi R, Calo L et al (1998) Atrial mapping and radiofrequency catheter ablation in patients with idiopathic atrial fibrillation. Electrophysiological findings and ablation results. Circulation 97:2136–2145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Williams MR, Stewart JR, Bolling SF et al (2001) Surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation using radiofrequency energy. Ann Thorac Surg 71:1939–1944PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hindricks G, Mohr FW, Autschbach R, Kottkamp H (1999) Antiarrhythmic surgery for treatment of atrial fibrillation — new concepts. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 47:365–369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sie HT, Beukema WP, Misier AR et al (2001) Radiofrequency modified maze in patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing concomitant cardiac surgery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 122:249–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sie HT, Beukema WP, Ramdat Misier AR et al (2001) The radiofrequency modified maze procedure. A less invasive surgical approach to atrial fibrillation during open-heart surgery. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 19:443–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mohr FW, Fabricius AM, Falk V et al (2002) Curative treatment of atrial fibrillation with intraoperative radiofrequency ablation: short-term and midterm results. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 123:919–927PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gillinov AM, Pettersson G et al (2001) Esophageal injury during radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 122:1239–1240PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gillinov AM, McCarthy PM (2002) Atricure bipolar radiofrequency clamp for intraoperative ablation of atrial fibrillation. Ann Thorac Surg 74:2165–2168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Benussi S, Pappone C, Nascimbene S et al (2000) A simple way to treat chronic atrial fibrillation during mitral valve surgery: the epicardial radiofrequency approach. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 17:524–529PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Patwardhan AM, Dave HH, Tamhane AA et al (1997) Intraoperative radiofrequency microbipolar coagulation to replace incisions of maze III procedure for correcting atrial fibrillation in patients with rheumatic valvular disease. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 12:627–633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Melo J, Adragao PR, Neves j et al (1999) Electrosurgical treatment of atrial fibrillation with a new intraoperative radiofrequency ablation catheter. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 47(Suppl 3):370–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kottkamp H, Hindricks G, Hammel D et al (1999) Intraoperative radiofrequency ablation of chronic atrial fibrillation: a left atrial curative approach by elimination of anatomic ‘anchor’ reentrant circuits. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 10:772–780PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chen MC, Guo GB, Chang JP et al (1998) Radiofrequency and cryoablation of atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing valvular operation. Ann Thorac Surg 65:1666–1672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hammer W, Botha C, Ickrath O et al (2001) Background and early results of a modified left atrial radiofrequency procedure concomitant with cardiac surgery. Cardiovasc J S Afr 12:19–28Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pasic M, Bergs P, Muller P et al (2001) Intraoperative radiofrequency maze ablation for atrial fibrillation: the Berlin modification. Ann Thorac Surg 72:1484–1491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Chen MC, Chang JP, Guo GB et al (2001) Atrial size reduction as a predictor of the success of radiofrequency maze procedure for chronic atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing concomitant valvular surgery. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 12:867–874PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Handa N, Schaff HV, Morris JJ et al (1999) Outcome of valve repair and the Cox Maze procedure for mitral regurgitation and associated atrial fibrillation. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 118:628–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Raanani E, Albage A, David TE et al (2001) The efficacy of Cox/maze procedure combined with mitral valve surgery: a matched control study. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 19:438–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Kondo N, Takahashi K, Minakawa M, Daitoku K (2003) Left atrial maze procedure: a useful addition to other corrective operations. Ann Thorac Surg 75:1490–1494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sueda T, Nagata H, Shikata H et al (1996) Simple left atrial procedure for chronic atrial fibrillation associated with mitral valve disease. Ann Thorac Surg 62:1796–1800PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Sueda T, Nagata H, Orihashi K et al (1997) Efficacy of a simple left atrial procedure for chronic atrial fibrillation in mitral valve operations. Ann Thorac Surg 63:1070–1075PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Spitzer SG, Richter P, Knaut M et al (1999) Treatment of atrial fibrillation in open heart surgery — the potential role of microwave energy. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 47:374–378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Knaut M, Spitzer SG, Karolyi L et al (1999) Intraoperative microwave ablation for curative treatment of atrial fibrillation in open heart surgery — the MICRO-STAF and MICRO-PASS pilot trial. MICROwave Application in Surgical Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation. MICROwave Application for the Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation in Bypass Surgery. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 47:379–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Saliba W, Wilber D, Packer D et al (2002) Circumferential ultrasound ablation for pulmonary vein isolation: analysis of acute and chronic failures. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol 13:957–961PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Natale A, Pisano E, Shewchik J et al (2000) First human experience with pulmonary vein isolation using a through-the-balloon circumferential ultrasound ablation system for recurrent atrial fibrillation. Circulation 102:1879–1882PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fried NM, Lardo AC, Berger RD et al (2000) Linear lesions in myocardium created by Nd:YAG laser using diffusing optical fibers: in vitro and in vivo results. Lasers Surg Med 27:295–304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Keane D, Ruskin JN (1999) Linear atrial ablation with a diode laser and fiberoptic catheter. Circulation 100:59–60Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kubota H, Furuse A, Takeshita M et al (1998) Atrial ablation with an IRK-151 infrared coagulator. Ann Thorac Surg 66:95–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kubota H, Takamoto S, Takeshita M et al (2000) Atrial ablation using an IRK-151 infrared coagulator in canine model. J Cardiovasc Surg 41:835–847Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hornero F, Montero JA, Canovas S et al (2002) Biatrial radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation: epicardial and endocardial surgical approach. Interactive Cardiovasc Thorac Surg 1:72–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Gillinov AM, McCarthy PM, Blackstone EH et al (2003) Bipolar radiofrequency to ablate atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery. Heart Surg Forum 7:147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Nascimbene S, Benussi S, Calvi S et al (2004) Trattamento combinato della fibrillazione atriale in pazienti candidati ad intervento chirurgico a cuore aperto: risultati clinici e funzionali a distanza. Ital Heart J Suppl 5(3):199–204PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Troise G, Cirillo M, Brunelli F et al (2004) Mid-term results of cardiac autotransplantation as method to treat permanent atrial fibrillation and mitral disease. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 25:1025–1031PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Melo J (2002) How to establish normal biatrial contraction and sinus rhythm without drug therapy. Heart Surg Forum Rev 1:5–6Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Melo JQ, Neves J, Adragao P et al (1997) When and how to report results of surgery on atrial fibrillation. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 12:739–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Arcidi JM Jr, Doty DB, Millar RC et al (2000) The Maze procedure: the LDS Hospital experience. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 12:38–43PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kamata J, Kawazoe K, Izumoto H et al (1997) Predictors of sinus rhythm restoration after Cox maze procedure concomitant with other cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg 64:394–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Izumoto H, Kawazoe K, Kitahara H et al (1998) Operative results after Cox/maze procedure combined with a mitral valve operation. Ann Thorac Surg 66:800–804PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Benussi S, Nascimbene S, Agricola E et al (2002) Surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation using the epicardial radiofrequency approach: mid-term results and risk analysis. Ann Thorac Surg 74:1050–1057PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kress DC, Sra J, Krum D et al (2002) Radiofrequency ablation of atrial fibrillation during mitral valve surgery. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 14:210–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Knaut M, Tugtekin SM, Spitzer S et al (2002) Combined atrial fibrillation and mitral valve surgery using microwave technology. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 14:226–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gepstein L, Hayam G, Shpun S et al (1999) Atrial linear ablations in pigs. Chronic effects on atrial electrophysiology and pathology. Circulation 100:419–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ernst S, Ouyang F, Lober F et al (2003) Catheter-induced linear lesions in the left atrium in patients with atrial fibrillation: an electroanatomic study. J Am Coll Cardiol 42:1271–1282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Patel VV, Ren JF, Marchlinski FE (2002) A comparison of left atrial size by twodimensional transthoracic echocardiography and magnetic endocardial catheter mapping. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 25:95–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Landymore R, Kinley CE (1984) Staple closure of the left atrial appendage. Can J Surg 27:144–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Blackshear JL, Odell JA (1996) Appendage obliteration to reduce stroke in cardiac surgical patients with atrial fibrillation. Ann Thorac Surg 61:755–759PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Blackshear JL, Johnson WD, Odell JA et al (2003) Thoracoscopic extracardiac obliteration of the left atrial appendage for stroke risk reduction in atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 42:1249–1252PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Odell JA, Blackshear JL, Davies E et al (1996) Thoracoscopic obliteration of the left atrial appendage: potential for stroke reduction? Ann Thorac Surg 61:565–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Chevalier P, Obadia JF, Timour Q et al (1999) Thoracoscopic epicardial radiofrequency ablation for vagal atrial fibrillation in dogs. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol 22:880–886PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Manasse E, Infante M, Ghiselli S et al (2002) A video-assisted thoracoscopic technique to encircle the four pulmonary veins: a new surgical intervention for atrial fibrillation ablation. Heart Surg Forum 5:337–339PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Italia 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Patanè
    • 1
  • A. Cavallaro
    • 1
  1. 1.Centro Cuore MorgagniPedara (Catania)Italy

Personalised recommendations