HIV Therapy—The State of ART

  • David LooneyEmail author
  • Ariel Ma
  • Scott Johns
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 389)


HIV Attachment. In this cross section, HIV is shown at the top and a target cell is shown at the bottom in blues. HIV envelope protein (A) has bound to the receptor CD4 (B) and then to coreceptor CCR5 (C), causing a change in conformation that inserts fusion peptides into the cellular membrane

Antiretroviral therapy changed the face of HIV/AIDS from that of soon and certain death to that of a chronic disease in the years following introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in 1995–1996 (initially termed HAART, but now most often abbreviated to ART since not all combinations of regimens are equally active). Since then, many new agents have been developed and introduced in response to problems of resistance, toxicity, and tolerability, and great advances have been achieved in accessibility of HIV drugs in resource-poor global regions. Potential challenges that providers of HIV therapy will face in the coming decade include continuing problems with resistance, especially where access to drugs is inconsistent, determining how best to combine new and existing agents, defining the role of preventive treatment (pre-exposure prophylaxis or PrEP), and evaluating the potential of strategies for cure in some populations.


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Virological Failure Human Immunodeficiency Virus Disease Human Immunodeficiency Virus Replication 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Highly active antiretroviral therapy


Antiretroviral therapy


Human immunodeficiency virus, human immunodeficiency virus type 1


Acquired immune deficiency syndrome


Pre-exposure prophylaxis
















Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate


Reverse transcriptase


Deoxyribonucleic acid


Ribonucleic acid








































Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor


Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor




Non-structural protein 5A of hepatitis C virus




Protease inhibitor


Integrase strand transfer inhibitor


Cerebrospinal fluid


Cytochrome P450 isoform protein 3A


Hepatitis B virus


Hepatitis C virus


Department of health and human services


Inhibitory concentration 50 %


Polymerase chain reaction


Sterol regulator element-binding protein 1


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma


Organic anion transporter




Central nervous system


Multidrug resistance transporter 1


Hematopoetic stem cell transplant


CC Chemokine receptor 5 gene


Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida


Virological and immunological studies in controllers after treatment interruption


Cluster of differentiation surface marker 3


Cluster of differentiation surface marker 4


Histodeacytelase inhibitor


Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat protein


CRISPR-associated protein 9


Women’s preventative treatment study


Vaginal and oral interventions to control the epidemic


Men who have sex with men


United States


Intravenous drug users


Centers for Disease Control


National Institutes of Health


Division of AIDS


National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease


National Institute of Mental Health


National Institute of Drug Abuse


National Institute of Child Health and Human Development


National Heart Lung and Blood Institute


National Institute of General Medical Sciences


National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


National Institute on Aging


Proton pump inhibitor


Alcohol dehydrogenase


Organic cation transporter 2


Multidrug and toxin extrusion protein 1


Uracil diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1 protein family

CYPnLn, nLn

Cytochrome protein isoforms of P-450, e.g., CYP1A2 or 1A2, CYP1A6, or 1A6.



The authors wish to thank the Veterans Administration and the VA San Diego Healthcare System for their continued support for excellence in clinical care of HIV-infected veterans. This work was also supported by the University of California, San Diego, Center for AIDS Research, NIH/DAIDS P30 AI036214, which is in turn supported by the following NIH Institutes and Centers: NIAID, NCI, NIMH, NIDA, NICHD, NHLBI, NIA, NIGMS, and NIDDK. Thanks for assistance, proofing, and comments from Douglas Richman, David Goodsell, Bruce Torbett, and Wei-Wei Chiu.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Infectious Disease 9-111FVA San Diego Healthcare SystemSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.University of California San DiegoLa JollaUSA
  3. 3.Pharmacy 119VA San Diego Healthcare SystemSan DiegoUSA

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