Predicting the Abuse Liability of Entactogen-Class, New and Emerging Psychoactive Substances via Preclinical Models of Drug Self-administration

Chapter

Abstract

Animal models of drug self-administration are currently the gold standard for making predictions regarding the relative likelihood that a recreational drug substance will lead to continued use and addiction. Such models have been found to have high predictive accuracy and discriminative validity for a number of drug classes including ethanol, nicotine, opioids, and psychostimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine. Members of the entactogen class of psychostimulants (drugs that produce an “open mind state” including feelings of interpersonal closeness, intimacy and empathy) have been less frequently studied in self-administration models. The prototypical entactogen 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; “Ecstasy”) supports self-administration but not with the same consistency nor with the same efficacy as structurally related drugs amphetamine or methamphetamine. Consistent with these observations, MDMA use is more episodic in the majority of those who use it frequently. Nevertheless, substantial numbers of MDMA users will meet the criteria for substance dependence at some point in their use history. This review examines the currently available evidence from rodent self-administration studies of MDMA and two of the new and emerging psychoactive substances (NPS) that produce entactogen type neuropharmacological responses – mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone; 4MMC; “meow meow”) and methylone (3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone). Overall, the current evidence predicts that these NPS entactogens have enhanced abuse liability compared with MDMA.

Keywords

Addiction Drug abuse Empathogen Entactogen MDMA Mephedrone Methylone Self-administration 

References

  1. 1.
    Wikipedia (2015) Empathogen-entactogen 2015 [cited]. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Empathogen-entactogen
  2. 2.
    Nichols DE (1986) Differences between the mechanism of action of MDMA, MBDB, and the classic hallucinogens. Identification of a new therapeutic class: entactogens. J Psychoactive Drugs 18:305–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    EcstasyData.org (2006) EcstasyData.org: ecstasy lab testing and analysis results – ecstasy pill reports 2006 [cited]. www.ecstasydata.org
  4. 4.
    Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Scheulenberg JE, Miech RA (2015) Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2014. Volume I, Secondary school students. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, p. 599Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Johnston LD, O’Malley PM, Bachman JG, Schulenberg JE, Miech RA (2015) Monitoring the future national survey results on drug use, 1975-2014. Volume II, College students and adults ages 19-55. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, p. 439Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Doblin R (2006) MAPS-sponsored cancer anxiety research. MAPS Bull 16:11Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mithoefer M (2006) MDMA-assisted psychotherapy in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): seventh update on study progress. MAPS Bull 16:7–8Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mojeiko V (2006) Israel MDMA/PTSD research project. MAPS Bull 16:10Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Oehen P (2006) MDMA-assisted psychotherapy pilot study in Switzerland. MAPS Bull 16:9Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Amoroso T (2015) The psychopharmacology of +/-3,4 methylenedioxymethamphetamine and its role in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. J Psychoactive Drugs:1–8Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Parrott AC (2014) The potential dangers of using MDMA for psychotherapy. J Psychoactive Drugs 46:37–43PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    White CM (2014) 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine’s (MDMA’s) Impact on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Ann Pharmacother 48:908–915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Greer G, Tolbert R (1986) Subjective reports of the effects of MDMA in a clinical setting. J Psychoactive Drugs 18:319–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Parrott AC (2005) Chronic tolerance to recreational MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) or ecstasy. J Psychopharmacol 19:71–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    von Sydow K, Lieb R, Pfister H, Hofler M, Wittchen HU (2002) Use, abuse and dependence of ecstasy and related drugs in adolescents and young adults-a transient phenomenon? Results from a longitudinal community study. Drug Alcohol Depend 66:147–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cottler LB, Womack SB, Compton WM, Ben-Abdallah A (2001) Ecstasy abuse and dependence among adolescents and young adults: applicability and reliability of DSM-IV criteria. Hum Psychopharmacol 16:599–606PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schuster P, Lieb R, Lamertz C, Wittchen HU (1998) Is the use of ecstasy and hallucinogens increasing? Results from a community study. Eur Addict Res 4:75–82PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Thomasius R, Petersen KU, Zapletalova P, Wartberg L, Zeichner D, Schmoldt A (2005) Mental disorders in current and former heavy ecstasy (MDMA) users. Addiction 100:1310–1319PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hurault de Ligny B, El Haggan W, Comoz F, Lobbedez T, Pujo M, Griveau AM, Bottet P, Bensadoun H, Ryckelynck JP (2005) Early loss of two renal grafts obtained from the same donor: role of ecstasy? Transplantation 80:153–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jansen KL (1999) Ecstasy (MDMA) dependence. Drug Alcohol Depend 53:121–124PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kouimtsidis C, Schifano F, Sharp T, Ford L, Robinson J, Magee C (2006) Neurological and psychopathological sequelae associated with a lifetime intake of 40,000 ecstasy tablets. Psychosomatics 47:86–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fox HC, Parrott AC, Turner JJ (2001) Ecstasy use: cognitive deficits related to dosage rather than self-reported problematic use of the drug. J Psychopharmacol 15:273–281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hanson KL, Luciana M (2004) Neurocognitive function in users of MDMA: the importance of clinically significant patterns of use. Psychol Med 34:229–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    MacInnes N, Handley SL, Harding GF (2001) Former chronic methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or ecstasy) users report mild depressive symptoms. J Psychopharmacol 15:181–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Morgan MJ (1999) Memory deficits associated with recreational use of “ecstasy” (MDMA). Psychopharmacology (Berl) 141:30–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Quednow BB, Kuhn KU, Hoppe C, Westheide J, Maier W, Daum I, Wagner M (2007) Elevated impulsivity and impaired decision-making cognition in heavy users of MDMA (“Ecstasy”). Psychopharmacology (Berl) 189:517–530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ward J, Hall K, Haslam C (2006) Patterns of memory dysfunction in current and 2-year abstinent MDMA users. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 28:306–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    White B, Day C, Degenhardt L, Kinner S, Fry C, Bruno R, Johnston J (2006) Prevalence of injecting drug use and associated risk behavior among regular ecstasy users in Australia. Drug Alcohol Depend 83:210–217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Johanson CE, Frey KA, Lundahl LH, Keenan P, Lockhart N, Roll J, Galloway GP, Koeppe RA, Kilbourn MR, Robbins T, Schuster CR (2006) Cognitive function and nigrostriatal markers in abstinent methamphetamine abusers. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 185:327–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Johnson BA, Roache JD, Ait-Daoud N, Wells LT, Wallace CL, Dawes MA, Liu L, Wang XQ (2007) Effects of topiramate on methamphetamine-induced changes in attentional and perceptual-motor skills of cognition in recently abstinent methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 31:123–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rippeth JD, Heaton RK, Carey CL, Marcotte TD, Moore DJ, Gonzalez R, Wolfson T, Grant I (2004) Methamphetamine dependence increases risk of neuropsychological impairment in HIV infected persons. J Int Neuropsychol Soc 10:1–14PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gouzoulis-Mayfrank E, Daumann J (2006) The confounding problem of polydrug use in recreational ecstasy/MDMA users: a brief overview. J Psychopharmacol 20:188–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wish ED, Fitzelle DB, O’Grady KE, Hsu MH, Arria AM (2006) Evidence for significant polydrug use among ecstasy-using college students. J Am Coll Health 55:99–104PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wu LT, Ringwalt CL, Weiss RD, Blazer DG (2009) Hallucinogen-related disorders in a national sample of adolescents: the influence of ecstasy/MDMA use. Drug Alcohol Depend 104:156–166PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cottler LB, Leung KS, Abdallah AB (2009) Test-re-test reliability of DSM-IV adopted criteria for 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) abuse and dependence: a cross-national study. Addiction 104:1679–1690PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Degenhardt L, Bruno R, Topp L (2009) Is ecstasy a drug of dependence? Drug Alcohol Depend 107:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Winstock A, Mitcheson L, Ramsey J, Davies S, Puchnarewicz M, Marsden J (2011) Mephedrone: use, subjective effects and health risks. Addiction 106:1991–1996PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Winstock AR, Mitcheson LR, Deluca P, Davey Z, Corazza O, Schifano F (2011) Mephedrone, new kid for the chop? Addiction 106:154–161PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Winstock A, Mitcheson L, Marsden J (2010) Mephedrone: still available and twice the price. Lancet 376:1537–1537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Brunt TM, Niesink RJ, van den Brink W (2012) Impact of a transient instability of the ecstasy market on health concerns and drug use patterns in The Netherlands. Int J Drug Policy 23:134–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Brunt TM, Poortman A, Niesink RJ, van den Brink W (2011) Instability of the ecstasy market and a new kid on the block: mephedrone. J Psychopharmacol 25(11):1543–1547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    DEA (2011) Schedules of controlled substances: temporary placement of three synthetic cathinones in Schedule I. Final order. Fed Regist 76:65371–65375Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Moore K, Dargan PI, Wood DM, Measham F (2013) Do novel psychoactive substances displace established club drugs, supplement them or act as drugs of initiation? The relationship between mephedrone, ecstasy and cocaine. Eur Addict Res 19:276–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Leung KS, Ben Abdallah A, Copeland J, Cottler LB (2010) Modifiable risk factors of ecstasy use: risk perception, current dependence, perceived control, and depression. Addict Behav 35:201–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ding Y, He N, Shoptaw S, Gao M, Detels R (2014) Severity of club drug dependence and perceived need for treatment among a sample of adult club drug users in Shanghai, China. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 49:395–404PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Uosukainen H, Tacke U, Winstock AR (2015) Self-reported prevalence of dependence of MDMA compared to cocaine, mephedrone and ketamine among a sample of recreational poly-drug users. Int J Drug Policy 26:78–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    DEA (2014) National Forensic Laboratory Information System: midyear report 2013. U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, Springfield, VAGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    DEA (2015) National Forensic Laboratory Information System: midyear report 2014. U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, Springfield, VAGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lusthof KJ, Oosting R, Maes A, Verschraagen M, Dijkhuizen A, Sprong AG (2011) A case of extreme agitation and death after the use of mephedrone in The Netherlands. Forensic Sci Int 206:e93–e95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Patel MM, Wright DW, Ratcliff JJ, Miller MA (2004) Shedding new light on the “safe” club drug: methylenedioxymethamphetamine (ecstasy)-related fatalities. Acad Emerg Med 11:208–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Pearson JM, Hargraves TL, Hair LS, Massucci CJ, Frazee CC, Garg U, Pietak BR (2012) Three fatal intoxications due to methylone. J Anal Toxicol 36:444–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Schifano F (2004) A bitter pill. Overview of ecstasy (MDMA, MDA) related fatalities. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 173:242–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Torrance H, Cooper G (2010) The detection of mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) in 4 fatalities in Scotland. Forensic Sci Int 202:e62–e63PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Baumann MH, Ayestas MA Jr, Partilla JS, Sink JR, Shulgin AT, Daley PF, Brandt SD, Rothman RB, Ruoho AE, Cozzi NV (2012) The designer methcathinone analogs, mephedrone and methylone, are substrates for monoamine transporters in brain tissue. Neuropsychopharmacology 37:1192–1203Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Baumann MH, Partilla JS, Lehner KR, Thorndike EB, Hoffman AF, Holy M, Rothman RB, Goldberg SR, Lupica CR, Sitte HH, Brandt SD, Tella SR, Cozzi NV, Schindler CW (2013) Powerful cocaine-like actions of 3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), a principal constituent of psychoactive ‘bath salts’ products. Neuropsychopharmacology 38:552–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lopez-Arnau R, Martinez-Clemente J, Pubill D, Escubedo E, Camarasa J (2012) Comparative neuropharmacology of three psychostimulant cathinone derivatives: butylone, mephedrone and methylone. Br J Pharmacol 167:407–420PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Simmler L, Buser T, Donzelli M, Schramm Y, Dieu LH, Huwyler J, Chaboz S, Hoener M, Liechti M (2013) Pharmacological characterization of designer cathinones in vitro. Br J Pharmacol 168:458–470PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Simmler LD, Rickli A, Hoener MC, Liechti ME (2014) Monoamine transporter and receptor interaction profiles of a new series of designer cathinones. Neuropharmacology 79:152–160PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kehr J, Ichinose F, Yoshitake S, Goiny M, Sievertsson T, Nyberg F, Yoshitake T (2011) Mephedrone, compared with MDMA (ecstasy) and amphetamine, rapidly increases both dopamine and 5-HT levels in nucleus accumbens of awake rats. Br J Pharmacol 164:1949–1958PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wright MJ Jr, Angrish D, Aarde SM, Barlow DJ, Buczynski MW, Creehan KM, Vandewater SA, Parsons LH, Houseknecht KL, Dickerson TJ, Taffe MA (2012) Effect of ambient temperature on the thermoregulatory and locomotor stimulant effects of 4-methylmethcathinone in Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats. PLoS One 7:e44652Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Schindler CW, Thorndike EB, Goldberg SR, Lehner KR, Cozzi NV, Brandt SD, Baumann MH (2016) Reinforcing and neurochemical effects of the “bath salts” constituents 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylcathinone (methylone) in male rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 233:1981–1990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Negus SS, Mello NK, Blough BE, Baumann MH, Rothman RB (2007) Monoamine releasers with varying selectivity for dopamine/norepinephrine vs. serotonin release as candidate “agonist” medications for cocaine dependence: studies in assays of cocaine discrimination and cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 320:627–636PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Roberts DC, Phelan R, Hodges LM, Hodges MM, Bennett B, Childers S, Davies H (1999) Self-administration of cocaine analogs by rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 144:389–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wee S, Anderson KG, Baumann MH, Rothman RB, Blough BE, Woolverton WL (2005) Relationship between the serotonergic activity and reinforcing effects of a series of amphetamine analogs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 313:848–854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Howell LL, Carroll FI, Votaw JR, Goodman MM, Kimmel HL (2007) Effects of combined dopamine and serotonin transporter inhibitors on cocaine self-administration in rhesus monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 320(2):757–765PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wee S, Woolverton WL (2006) Self-administration of mixtures of fenfluramine and amphetamine by rhesus monkeys. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 84:337–343PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Fletcher PJ, Robinson SR, Slippoy DL (2001) Pre-exposure to (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) facilitates acquisition of intravenous cocaine self-administration in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology 25:195–203PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Morley KC, Cornish JL, Li KM, McGregor IS (2004) Preexposure to MDMA (“Ecstasy”) delays acquisition but facilitates MDMA-induced reinstatement of amphetamine self-administration behavior in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 79:331–342PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Bradbury S, Bird J, Colussi-Mas J, Mueller M, Ricaurte G, Schenk S (2014) Acquisition of MDMA self-administration: pharmacokinetic factors and MDMA-induced serotonin release. Addict Biol 19:874–884PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Oakly AC, Brox BW, Schenk S, Ellenbroek BA (2014) A genetic deletion of the serotonin transporter greatly enhances the reinforcing properties of MDMA in rats. Mol Psychiatry 19:534–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    O’Connor EC, Chapman K, Butler P, Mead AN (2011) The predictive validity of the rat self-administration model for abuse liability. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35:912–938PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Wise RA, Koob GF (2014) The development and maintenance of drug addiction. Neuropsychopharmacology 39:254–262PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Robinson TE (2004) Neuroscience. Addicted rats. Science 305:951–953PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Gardner EL (2000) What we have learned about addiction from animal models of drug self-administration. Am J Addict 9:285–313PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Panlilio LV, Goldberg SR (2007) Self-administration of drugs in animals and humans as a model and an investigative tool. Addiction 102:1863–1870PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Schenk S, Gittings D, Johnstone M, Daniela E (2003) Development, maintenance and temporal pattern of self-administration maintained by ecstasy (MDMA) in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 169:21–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Schenk S, Hely L, Lake B, Daniela E, Gittings D, Mash DC (2007) MDMA self-administration in rats: acquisition, progressive ratio responding and serotonin transporter binding. Eur J Neurosci 26:3229–3236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ahmed SH (2010) Validation crisis in animal models of drug addiction: beyond non-disordered drug use toward drug addiction. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 35:172–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hodos W (1961) Progressive ratio as a measure of reward strength. Science (New York, NY) 134:943–944CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hodos W, Kalman G (1963) Effects of increment size and reinforcer volume on progressive ratio performance. J Exp Anal Behav 6:387–392PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Richardson NR, Roberts DC (1996) Progressive ratio schedules in drug self-administration studies in rats: a method to evaluate reinforcing efficacy. J Neurosci Methods 66:1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Oleson EB, Richardson JM, Roberts DC (2011) A novel IV cocaine self-administration procedure in rats: differential effects of dopamine, serotonin, and GABA drug pre-treatments on cocaine consumption and maximal price paid. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 214:567–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bradshaw CM, Killeen PR (2012) A theory of behaviour on progressive ratio schedules, with applications in behavioural pharmacology. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 222:549–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Killeen PR, Sanabria F, Dolgov I (2009) The dynamics of conditioning and extinction. J Exp Psychol Anim Behav Process 35:447–472PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ahmed SH, Koob GF (1999) Long-lasting increase in the set point for cocaine self-administration after escalation in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 146:303–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Anker JJ, Baron TR, Zlebnik NE, Carroll ME (2012) Escalation of methamphetamine self-administration in adolescent and adult rats. Drug Alcohol Depend 124:149–153PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Edwards S, Koob GF (2013) Escalation of drug self-administration as a hallmark of persistent addiction liability. Behav Pharmacol 24:356–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Deroche-Gamonet V, Belin D, Piazza PV (2004) Evidence for addiction-like behavior in the rat. Science 305:1014–1017PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kearns DN, Weiss SJ, Panlilio LV (2002) Conditioned suppression of behavior maintained by cocaine self-administration. Drug Alcohol Depend 65:253–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Vanderschuren LJ, Everitt BJ (2004) Drug seeking becomes compulsive after prolonged cocaine self-administration. Science 305:1017–1019PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Gancarz-Kausch AM, Adank DN, Dietz DM (2014) Prolonged withdrawal following cocaine self-administration increases resistance to punishment in a cocaine binge. Sci Rep 4:6876PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Holtz NA, Carroll ME (2015) Cocaine self-administration punished by intravenous histamine in adolescent and adult rats. Behav Pharmacol 26:393–397PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Woolverton WL, Freeman KB, Myerson J, Green L (2012) Suppression of cocaine self-administration in monkeys: effects of delayed punishment. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 220:509–517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Comer SD, Lac ST, Curtis LK, Carroll ME (1993) Effects of buprenorphine and naltrexone on reinstatement of cocaine-reinforced responding in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 267:1470–1477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lenoir M, Ahmed SH (2007) Heroin-induced reinstatement is specific to compulsive heroin use and dissociable from heroin reward and sensitization. Neuropsychopharmacology 32:616–624PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lynch WJ, Carroll ME (2000) Reinstatement of cocaine self-administration in rats: sex differences. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 148:196–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Martin-Fardon R, Maurice T, Aujla H, Bowen WD, Weiss F (2007) Differential effects of sigma1 receptor blockade on self-administration and conditioned reinstatement motivated by cocaine vs natural reward. Neuropsychopharmacology 32:1967–1973PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ahmed SH, Lenoir M, Guillem K (2013) Neurobiology of addiction versus drug use driven by lack of choice. Curr Opin Neurobiol 23:581–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Cosgrove KP, Hunter RG, Carroll ME (2002) Wheel-running attenuates intravenous cocaine self-administration in rats: sex differences. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 73:663–671PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Miller ML, Vaillancourt BD, Wright MJ Jr, Aarde SM, Vandewater SA, Creehan KM, Taffe MA (2012) Reciprocal inhibitory effects of intravenous d-methamphetamine self-administration and wheel activity in rats. Drug Alcohol Depend 121:90–96Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Aarde SM, Angrish D, Barlow DJ, Wright MJ Jr, Vandewater SA, Creehan KM, Houseknecht KL, Dickerson TJ, Taffe MA (2013) Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) supports intravenous self-administration in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats. Addict Biol 18:786–799Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Dalley JW, Lääne K, Theobald DEH, Peña Y, Bruce CC, Huszar AC, Wojcieszek M, Everitt BJ, Robbins TW (2007) Enduring deficits in sustained visual attention during withdrawal of intravenous methylenedioxymethamphetamine self-administration in rats: results from a comparative study with d-amphetamine and methamphetamine. Neuropsychopharmacology 32:1195–1206PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Miller ML, Aarde SM, Moreno AY, Creehan KM, Janda KD, Taffe MA (2015) Effects of active anti-methamphetamine vaccination on intravenous self-administration in rats. Drug Alcohol Depend 153:29–36PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ranaldi R, Poeggel K (2002) Baclofen decreases methamphetamine self-administration in rats. Neuroreport 13:1107–1110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Yokel RA, Pickens R (1973) Self-administration of optical isomers of amphetamine and methylamphetamine by rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 187:27–33PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Balster RL, Schuster CR (1973) A comparison of d-amphetamine, l-amphetamine, and methamphetamine self-administration in rhesus monkeys. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1:67–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Beardsley PM, Balster RL, Harris LS (1986) Self-administration of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) by rhesus monkeys. Drug Alcohol Depend 18:149–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kangas BD, Bergman J (2015) Effects of self-administered methamphetamine on discrimination learning and reversal in nonhuman primates. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 233:373–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Newman JL, Carroll ME (2006) Reinforcing effects of smoked methamphetamine in rhesus monkeys. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 188:193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Yasar S, Gaal J, Panlilio LV, Justinova Z, Molnar SV, Redhi GH, Schindler CW (2006) A comparison of drug-seeking behavior maintained by D-amphetamine, L-deprenyl (selegiline), and D-deprenyl under a second-order schedule in squirrel monkeys. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 183:413–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Balster RL, Kilbey MM, Ellinwood EH Jr (1976) Methamphetamine self-administration in the cat. Psychopharmacologia 46:229–233Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Griffiths RR, Winger G, Brady JV, Snell JD (1976) Comparison of behavior maintained by infusions of eight phenylethylamines in baboons. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 50:251–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Fantegrossi WE, Ullrich T, Rice KC, Woods JH, Winger G (2002) 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) and its stereoisomers as reinforcers in rhesus monkeys: serotonergic involvement. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 161:356–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Fantegrossi WE, Woolverton WL, Kilbourn M, Sherman P, Yuan J, Hatzidimitriou G, Ricaurte GA, Woods JH, Winger G (2004) Behavioral and neurochemical consequences of long-term intravenous self-administration of MDMA and its enantiomers by rhesus monkeys. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:1270–1281PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Lamb RJ, Griffiths RR (1987) Self-injection of d,1-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in the baboon. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 91:268–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lile JA, Ross JT, Nader MA (2005) A comparison of the reinforcing efficacy of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy”) with cocaine in rhesus monkeys. Drug Alcohol Depend 78:135–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Markert LE, Roberts DC (1991) 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) self-administration and neurotoxicity. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 39:569–574PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Ball KT, Jarsocrak H, Hyacinthe J, Lambert J, Lockowitz J, Schrock J (2015) Yohimbine reinstates extinguished 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) seeking in rats with prior exposure to chronic yohimbine. Behav Brain Res 294:1–6PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Ball KT, Walsh KM, Rebec GV (2007) Reinstatement of MDMA (ecstasy) seeking by exposure to discrete drug-conditioned cues. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 87:420–425PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Creehan KM, Vandewater SA, Taffe MA (2015) Intravenous self-administration of mephedrone, methylone and MDMA in female rats. Neuropharmacology 92:90–97PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    De La Garza R 2nd, Fabrizio KR, Gupta A (2007) Relevance of rodent models of intravenous MDMA self-administration to human MDMA consumption patterns. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 189:425–434Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ratzenboeck E, Saria A, Kriechbaum N, Zernig G (2001) Reinforcing effects of MDMA (“ecstasy”) in drug-naive and cocaine-trained rats. Pharmacology 62:138–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Vandewater SA, Creehan KM, Taffe MA (2015) Intravenous self-administration of entactogen-class stimulants in male rats. Neuropharmacology 99:538–545PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Daniela E, Brennan K, Gittings D, Hely L, Schenk S (2004) Effect of SCH 23390 on (+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine hyperactivity and self-administration in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 77:745–750PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Daniela E, Gittings D, Schenk S (2006) Conditioning following repeated exposure to MDMA in rats: role in the maintenance of MDMA self-administration. Behav Neurosci 120:1144–1150PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Schenk S, Foote J, Aronsen D, Bukholt N, Highgate Q, Van de Wetering R, Webster J (2016) Serotonin antagonists fail to alter MDMA self-administration in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 148:38–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Reveron ME, Maier EY, Duvauchelle CL (2006) Experience-dependent changes in temperature and behavioral activity induced by MDMA. Physiol Behav 89:358–363PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Schenk S, Colussi-Mas J, Do J, Bird J (2012) Profile of MDMA self-administration from a large cohort of rats: MDMA develops a profile of dependence with extended testing. J Drug Alcohol Res 1:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Cornish JL, Shahnawaz Z, Thompson MR, Wong S, Morley KC, Hunt GE, McGregor IS (2003) Heat increases 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine self-administration and social effects in rats. Eur J Pharmacol 482:339–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Feduccia AA, Kongovi N, Duvauchelle CL (2010) Heat increases MDMA-enhanced NAcc 5-HT and body temperature, but not MDMA self-administration. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 20:884–894PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Roberts DC, Brebner K, Vincler M, Lynch WJ (2002) Patterns of cocaine self-administration in rats produced by various access conditions under a discrete trials procedure. Drug Alcohol Depend 67:291–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Aarde SM, Miller ML, Creehan KM, Vandewater SA, Taffe MA (2015) One day access to a running wheel reduces self-administration of d-methamphetamine, MDMA and methylone. Drug Alcohol Depend 151:151–158PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Roth ME, Carroll ME (2004) Sex differences in the escalation of intravenous cocaine intake following long- or short-access to cocaine self-administration. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 78:199–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Smith MA, Walker KL, Cole KT, Lang KC (2011) The effects of aerobic exercise on cocaine self-administration in male and female rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 218:357–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Reichel CM, Chan CH, Ghee SM, See RE (2012) Sex differences in escalation of methamphetamine self-administration: cognitive and motivational consequences in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 223:371–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Roth ME, Carroll ME (2004) Sex differences in the acquisition of IV methamphetamine self-administration and subsequent maintenance under a progressive ratio schedule in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 172:443–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Hadlock GC, Webb KM, McFadden LM, Chu PW, Ellis JD, Allen SC, Andrenyak DM, Vieira-Brock PL, German CL, Conrad KM, Hoonakker AJ, Gibb JW, Wilkins DG, Hanson GR, Fleckenstein AE (2011) 4-Methylmethcathinone (mephedrone): neuropharmacological effects of a designer stimulant of abuse. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 339:530–536PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Kitamura O, Wee S, Specio SE, Koob GF, Pulvirenti L (2006) Escalation of methamphetamine self-administration in rats: a dose-effect function. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 186:48–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Cornish JL, Clemens KJ, Thompson MR, Callaghan PD, Dawson B, McGregor IS (2008) High ambient temperature increases intravenous methamphetamine self-administration on fixed and progressive ratio schedules in rats. J Psychopharmacol 22:100–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Huang PK, Aarde SM, Angrish D, Houseknecht KL, Dickerson TJ, Taffe MA (2012) Contrasting effects of d-methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone, and 4-methylmethcathinone on wheel activity in rats. Drug Alcohol Depend 126:168–175PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Motbey CP, Clemens KJ, Apetz N, Winstock AR, Ramsey J, Li KM, Wyatt N, Callaghan PD, Bowen MT, Cornish JL, McGregor IS (2013) High levels of intravenous mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) self-administration in rats: neural consequences and comparison with methamphetamine. J Psychopharmacol 27:823–836PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Watterson LR, Hood L, Sewalia K, Tomek SE, Yahn S, Johnson CT, Wegner S, Blough BE, Marusich JA, Olive MF (2012) The Reinforcing and Rewarding effects of methylone, a synthetic cathinone commonly found in “bath salts”. J Addict Res Ther S9(002):1–8Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Nguyen JD, Grant Y, Creehan KM, Vandewater SA, Taffe MA (2016) Escalation of intravenous self-administration of methylone and mephedrone under extended access conditions. Addict Biol. doi:10.1111/adb.12398Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Clayton JA, Collins FS (2014) Policy: NIH to balance sex in cell and animal studies. Nature 509:282–283PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    DeVito EE, Babuscio TA, Nich C, Ball SA, Carroll KM (2014) Gender differences in clinical outcomes for cocaine dependence: randomized clinical trials of behavioral therapy and disulfiram. Drug Alcohol Depend 145:156–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Westermeyer J, Boedicker AE (2000) Course, severity, and treatment of substance abuse among women versus men. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 26:523–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Kim JY, Fendrich M (2002) Gender differences in juvenile arrestees’ drug use, self-reported dependence, and perceived need for treatment. Psychiatr Serv 53:70–75PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Rawson RA, Gonzales R, Obert JL, McCann MJ, Brethen P (2005) Methamphetamine use among treatment-seeking adolescents in Southern California: participant characteristics and treatment response. J Subst Abuse Treat 29:67–74PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Bruno R, Matthews AJ, Topp L, Degenhardt L, Gomez R, Dunn M (2009) Can the severity of dependence scale be usefully applied to ‘ecstasy’? Neuropsychobiology 60:137–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Smith MA, Pennock MM, Walker KL, Lang KC (2012) Access to a running wheel decreases cocaine-primed and cue-induced reinstatement in male and female rats. Drug Alcohol Depend 121:54–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Huskinson SL, Naylor JE, Rowlett JK, Freeman KB (2014) Predicting abuse potential of stimulants and other dopaminergic drugs: overview and recommendations. Neuropharmacology 87C:66–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Papaseit E, Perez-Mana C, Mateus JA, Pujadas M, Fonseca F, Torrens M, Olesti E, de la Torre R, Farre M (2016) Human pharmacology of mephedrone in comparison with MDMA. Neuropsychopharmacology 41(11):2704–2713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Lopez-Arnau R, Martinez-Clemente J, Carbo M, Pubill D, Escubedo E, Camarasa J (2013) An integrated pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of a new drug of abuse, methylone, a synthetic cathinone sold as “bath salts”. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 45:64–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Martinez-Clemente J, Lopez-Arnau R, Carbo M, Pubill D, Camarasa J, Escubedo E (2013) Mephedrone pharmacokinetics after intravenous and oral administration in rats: relation to pharmacodynamics. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 229:295–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Iversen L, Gibbons S, Treble R, Setola V, Huang XP, Roth BL (2013) Neurochemical profiles of some novel psychoactive substances. Eur J Pharmacol 700:147–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Katz JL, T-P S, Hiranita T, Hayashi T, Tanda G, Kopajtic T, Tsai S-Y (2011) A role for sigma receptors in stimulant self administration and addiction. Pharmaceuticals (Basel) 4:880–914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Bonano JS, Glennon RA, De Felice LJ, Banks ML, Negus SS (2014) Abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects of methcathinone and the synthetic “bath salts” cathinone analogs methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), methylone and mephedrone on intracranial self-stimulation in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 231(1):199–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Gatch MB, Taylor CM, Forster MJ (2013) Locomotor stimulant and discriminative stimulus effects of ‘bath salt’ cathinones. Behav Pharmacol 24(5–6):437–447PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Committee on the Neurobiology of Addictive Disorders Mailcode SP30-2400The Scripps Research InstituteLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations