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Emission Estimation and Chemical Fate Modelling of Antifoulants

Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC5,volume 5O)


Triggered by the debates around entry of force of the antifouling convention of the International Maritime Organization and the upcoming ban of TBT, much progress has been made during the last ten years in the field of the environmental risk assessment of new and existing antifouling agents. In this chapter an overview is given of existing exposure assessment models and two important areas of uncertainties, such as the hydrodynamic exchange and emission estimation in estuarine and coastal harbors. Apart from tidal mixing, current and flow-induced horizontal mixing as well as density difference-driven exchange processes and sedimentation have a major impact on the environmental fate of antifouling compounds in coastal harbors. Existing generic screening models are not capable of accounting for the complex hydrodynamics and interaction with chemical fate processes. Considerable uncertainties are involved in the estimation of emissions, based on the biocide leaching rate extrapolated from laboratory studies and affected by temperature, salinity and pH, and shipping activity related parameters, i.e. number and dimensions of ships, speed, underwater surface area, and the time spent in- port. Two recent exposure assessment models for antifoulants in estuarine and marine environments, REMA and Mam-Pec are discussed. The environmental emission scenarios linked to these models were evaluated by a joint OECD-EU working group and formed the basis of the current emission scenario document (ESD-PT21) adopted for application in the frameworks of the Biocide Directive in Europe. The available models for antifoulants have been validated only for a limited number of compounds and no full quantitative sensitivity analysis studies have been performed. As it is expected that in the near future a large number of products needs to be evaluated, further refinement and validation of these models in realistic field studies is recommended.

  • Environmental fate
  • Models
  • Hydrodynamics
  • Leaching
  • Emissions

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2D, 3D:

2 or 3 dimensional


dissolved organic carbon


exposure analysis modelling system, generic model developed by the Environmental Protection Agency, USA


Health and Safety Executive, London


generic water quality model of WL|Delft Hydraulics, Delft


regulatory environmental modelling of antifoulants, exposure model developed by Water Research Centre, Swindon, UK


marine antifoulant model to predict environmental concentrations, exposure assessment model developed by Delft Hydraulics and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam for CEPE


emission scenario document for product-type 21 (antifoulants)


tributyltin compound


American Standards for Testing of Materials


European Paintmakers Association, Brussels


International Maritime Organization, UN, London


European Union system for the evaluation of substances


equilibrium criterion models, well-known generic screening models developed by the Canadian Environmental Modelling Centre, Peterborough, Canada


quantitative water air sediment interaction models, developed by Canadian Environmental Modelling Centre, Peterborough, Canada


contaminant fate model, developed by National Water Research Institute, Burlington, Canada


integrated two or three-dimensional compound modelling system for inland and marine waters developed by WL|Delft Hydraulics, Delft


3D modelling system for estuaries, coastal waters and oceans, developed by DHI Water & Environment, Hørsholm, Denmark


estuarine simulation model, originally developed by Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth, UK


Environmental Chemical Bureau of Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, Ispra, Italy


model to simulate siltation in harbor basins, developed by WL|Delft Hydraulics, Delft

K ow :

n-octanol water partitioning coefficient

K d :

sediment water distribution constant (L kg−1)

K oc :

organic carbon adsorption coefficient (L kg−1)

H :

Henry's constant for air water partitioning (Pa m3 mol−1)


predicted environmental concentration


European Chemical Industry Council, Brussels


2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-4-methylsulfonyl (pyridine)


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Correspondence to B. van Hattum .

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van Hattum, B., Baart, A., Boon, J. Emission Estimation and Chemical Fate Modelling of Antifoulants. In: Konstantinou, I.K. (eds) Antifouling Paint Biocides. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, vol 5O. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg .

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